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363. Deciphering Tulu-nadu place names

The readers would observe that many of the Tulu Place names may not convey, on the face of it, any specific meaning or apparent meanings...

Monday, August 29, 2016

362. Morphemes in Tulu place names

We have seen many a minimum meaningful linguistic units (morphemes) in Tulu place names. As has been explained elsewhere earlier, a place name is a compound word in majority of cases.  It contains specific and generic stems or elements, used either as a suffix or prefix.  Readers might have read such stems analysed in our previous Posts. We give below some of them for ready reference:
Ad, Ade, Adka, Adya, Agal, Al/ala, Ar/are, Ang/angal(a),/Angali/angana/angar, Anje/Anji/inje/unje, Bar/bari, Ban+ja/Ban+je, ba/va/ve, Er, Ja/je/Jar, Ga/gaum/gi, Goli, Had/hadi/pad/padi, Har, Ka/ki, Kanja, Kunja, Kodi/ Kodu/ Godi, Kar, Kuda, Kura, Kula/ Kola/ Kolambe, Kheta/ Kheda, Kal, Kona/Kone, Manja, Mal/Mala, Mad, Mi, Na/Ne, Nanja, Od/odi/oli, Ur/oor, Pally/halli/valli, Pad+pu, Pada+vu, Pu/pur, Sar/se, Ya and so on.

We have noted such place name cognates all over India and so also, abroad.  Apparently, this feature  is not a coincidence. (q.v. Post-209/12.10.2009: Dravidian place name cognates). 
Besides the strange names pointed out in our Post-123 (2nd July 2008), we have come across mysterious place names with morphemes such as ne, ji, nu, yi and ila.  These are found in place names such as: Nooyi, Nuji, Nej/Nejar, Laila and Koila.  Pending a deep study, we may tentatively explore these names briefly.
Nooyi: 
Nu/Noo denotes a place around, above or near water body.  ‘Yi” stands for a ‘place/area’ as is ‘ya’. Nooyi is a hamlet/locality of Gurpura Panchayat in Dakshina Kannada District.  One may recall the name of world famous career woman Indra K. Nooyi, born in Madras (now Chennai).  She is married to Krishnamurthy Nooyi of Karnataka.  We think that the surname ‘Nooyi’ is the birth place of Krishnamurthy.  Both are naturalized citizens of the USA now.

Nuji/Nooji:
Meaning of Nu/Noo is same as given above. “Ji/ja/je’ stands for ‘place/area’. It is a hamlet under Korgi Panchayat in Kundapur Taluka of Udupi District.  There is also a village ‘Nujibalthila in Puttur Taluk.

 Nejar/Nej(a):
Morpheme ‘Ne’means high or above and ‘jar’, a hanging or sloping place on hill side. Nejar is a hamlet, coming under Tonse East Panchayat of Kalianpur of Udupi Dist.  We have come across similar village names in some other places of Karnataka and other States:

Karnataka: Nej (Belgaum), Nejjur (Uttara Kannada) and Nejanthi (Tumkur).
Maharashtra: Nej (Kolhapur)
Gujarat: Neja (Anand)
Rajasthan: Nejpur (Dungarpur)
Uttar Pradesh: Nejabhari (Lucknow), Nejabhar (Bahraich)
West Bengal: Nejani (Birbhum)

'Neji' in Tulu means 'paddy seedlings'.  'Neji kanda' (=field earmarked for raising nursery plants of paddy) is essentially at a corner of field, where water is available for irrigation.  These nursery plants are used for transplantation in tilled farm land at appropriate time.

Laila: 
We can split the word as La+ila.  ‘La’ is universally known as ‘water’ (q.v. our Post on ‘Al/Ala’). ‘Ila’ = House or Settlement. Laila is a village in Belthangadi (See our Post-220 on Vasudeva Laila).

Koila:  Koi+la=Agricultural settlement around water bodies.  It may also mean a settlement of ‘Koi’ people.  However, it may be noted that   Kovil  in Tamil means a temple.

Conclusion
The influence of language and culture of earlier ancient tribes, who made their home in the land, now known as ‘Tulu Nadu’, some time in the past – pre-diluvial or post-diluvial era- is running under-current.  Though their civilization is lost and assimilated, the vestige of their existence is preserved in place names, which are hard to crack now. In this direction we here make an attempt to decipher and understand these odd place names.


Hosabettu Vishwanath (Pune)

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

361.ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತೊಡು


ತುಳುಟು ಒಂಜಿ ಪಾತೆರ ಉಂಡು: “ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತೊಂದು ಪೊಪೆ.” ಇಂದೆನು ಶಬ್ದ-ಶಬ್ದ  ಅರ್ಥ ಮಾಳ್ಪನಗ: “(ಆಯಿ ಕಂಡ) ದತ್ತೊಂದುಪ್ಪನಗನೆ ಬೀಜಲಾ ಬಿತ್ತಿಯೆ” ಇಂದುದು ಆಪುನು. ಉಂದು ರೈತೆರ್ನ ಬಳಕೆದ ಪಾತೆರ.  ಇಂದೊಂಜಿ ಒಗಟು ಪಾತೆರ. ನೆತ್ತ ಉತ್ತರ: ಬರೆಪಿನಿ.  ಇಂಚಿತ್ತಿನ ಏತೊ ಗಾದೆನುಲಾ, ಒಗಟು ಪಾತೆರಲಾ ತುಳು ನಿಘಂಟುಡು, ಶಬ್ದ ಪ್ರಯೋಗದ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆ ಕೊರುನಗ ಆಯಾಯ ಶಬ್ದದ ಅಡಿಟ್ ಸೇರ್ಸಾದೆರು.
ಬರೆಪಿನಿ ಪನ್ಪಿನ ಉತ್ತರೊಗು ರೈತೆರ್ನ ದಪ್ಪುನ ಕೆಲಸದ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆ ದಾಯೆಗು ಕೊರ್ತೆರು?  ಇಂದೆತ ಪಿರವುದ  ಮಲ್ಲ ಕಾರಣ ದಾನೆ? ನೆಲನು ಮೆದು ಮಾಳ್ಪೆರಾದು ದಪ್ಪುವೆರು, ಪನ್ನಗ ನಾಯೆರ್ಡು ಗೀರು ಪಾಡುವೆರು. ಅದಗ ನೀರು ಬೊಕ್ಕ ಗಾಳಿ ನೆಲತ ಉಳಾಯಿ ಪೋವರೆ ಸುಲಭ ಆಪುನು.  ದತ್ತಿ ಬೊಕ್ಕ ದಿಂಜ ದಿನ ಬುಡುಂಡ ನೆಲ ಗಟ್ಟಿ ಆಪುನು, ಪಜೀರು ಬುಳುವೆನು. ನಡ್ತಿನನೇಜಿ ಸರಿಯಾದು ಬೇರ್ ಪತ್ತಂದು.  ರಡ್ಡ್ ಸರ್ತಿ ದಪ್ಪುನ ಕೆಲಸಲಾ  ಕಷ್ಟದ ಕೆಲಸ.
ನಮ್ಮ ಬೊಂಡು (ಮೆದುಳು) ಕಂಡ ಆಂಡ, ಅವೆನು ದಪ್ಪುನು, ಹದ  ಮಾಳ್ಪುಣು ನಮ ಕಲ್ತಿನ ಬರವು-ಸರವು, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ವಿಚಾರ ಶಕ್ತಿ.  ನಮ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲಾ ಜೀವನೊಡು  ಒಂಜಿ ಉದ್ದೇಶ ದೀವೊಂದುಲ್ಲಾ.  ಈ ಲೋಕೊಡು, ನಮ ನೆನೆತಿನ ಪೂರ್ಣ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿ ವಿಕಸನನೇ ನಮ್ಮ ಬದುಕು.  ದಾಯೆಗು ಬದುಕುವ ಪನ್ಪಿನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗುಲಾ ಉತ್ತರ.
ಈ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆನು  ನಮ ಓದುನೆಕ್ಕುಲಾ ಜೋಡಿಸರಾಪುನು.  ಓದಿನಂಚನೆ ಬರೆದು ದೇತ್ತೋನ್ಡ ನಮಕು ಮದತ್ ಪೋಪುಜಿ.  ಓದುದು ಗೊತ್ತಾಯಿನ ಇಸಯೊಡು ಬೇತ ಬರಾವುಲಾ ಬರೆವೊಲಿ.  ಆಯಕಾತ್ರ, ಶಾಲೆಗು ಪೊಪಿನ ಜೋಕುಲೆಗುಲಾ ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಬರೆಪಿನ  ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ  ಮಾಳ್ಪವೊಡು.  ಅಪಗ ಕಲ್ತಿನ ಪೂರಾ ಮದತು ಪೋವಂದು. 
ಇಂಚೊಡು, ನಮ ಒಂಜ ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್ಡು ಘೋಷ ವಾಕ್ಯೊನ್ ಕೇಣೊದುಲ್ಲಾ. “ಇನ್ಫಾರ್ಮ್ (ತೆರಿ), ಪರ್ಫೊರ್ಮ್ (ಮಾಳ್ಪು), ಅನ್ದ್ (ಬೊಕ್ಕ) ಟ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ಫೊರ್ಮ್ (ಪರಿವರ್ತನೆ ಮಾಳ್ಪು).  ನಮಕು ನಮನೆ ತೆರಿಪಾವೊಣುಡು. ಆಯಿಕ್ ಓದುಡು, ಬೇತೆ ಜನಕುಳೆಡ ಬೆರೆವೊಡು, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ತೆರಿಯೊಡು. ತೆರಿನಂಚನೆ ಅವೆನು ಕಾರ್ಯರೂಪೊಗು ತರೋಡು, ತೋಜಪಾವೊಡು,ಬೊಕ್ಕ ನಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಂತ ಜೀವನೊಡು ಅತ್ತಾವಂದೆ ಸಮಾಜೋಡುಲ ಬದಲಾವಣೆನು ಕನೋಡು.
ಬೂಕುಲೆನ್ ಓದುನೆಟ್ಟು ನಾನಲ ಒಂಜಿ ಎಡ್ಡ ಉಂಡು. ಓದನಗ ತಿಕ್ಕುನ ಒವ್ವೊ ಒಂಜಿ ಸಬುದ ಯಾ ಒಂಜಿ ವಿಷಯ ನಮ್ಮ ಮನಸ್ಗು ತಟ್ಟುನು.  ಆ ಪದ ವಾ ವಿಷಯ ನಮ್ಮ ಚಿಂತನೆಗ್ ಚಾಲನೆ ಕೊರ್ಪುನು.  ಆ ಭಾವ ಸ್ಪಂದನೊಡು ಉಂಡಾಯಿನ ಭಾವನೆನು ಅಪಗಪಗನೆ ಬರೆದು ದೀಂಡ, ಕಾಲ ಕೂಡ್ಡು ಬನ್ನಗ ನಮಲಾ ಒಂಜಿ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಪ್ರಕಾರದ ಬುಲೆ ಮಲ್ಪೆರ ಸಾಧ್ಯ ಆವು.
ಇತ್ತೆತ್ತ, ಮೂಲ್ಕಿ ಬಪ್ಪನಾಡು ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನದ ಎದುರು ಬಯಲಿಡು ರಡ್ಡ್ ದಿನತ ತುಳು ಸಮ್ಮೇಳನ ಮುಗಿದಿನು (ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ 13 ಬೊಕ್ಕ 14).  ತುಳುಟು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಬುಲೆ ದಿಂಜ ಆತಿಜಿ ಪನ್ಪಿ ಕಾರಣ ಕೇಂದ್ರ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಆಕೆಡೆಮಿದಕುಳ್ ತೋಜಾವೆರು. ಅಂಚಾದು ತುಳು ಶಾಸ್ಟ್ರೀಯಭಾಷಾ ವರ್ಗ 8ನೆಡು (ಕ್ಲಾಸಿಕಲ್ ಲ್ಯಾನ್ಗ್ವೇಜಸ್ ಷೆಡ್ಯೂಲ್ 8) ಸೇರ್ಪಡೆ ಆತಿಜಿ.  ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ ಪದಿನೇಳೆಡ್ ಬೊಕ್ಕ  ತುಳು ಪ್ರತಿನಿಧಿ ಮಂಡಳಿನು ನನ್ನೊಂಜಿ ಸರ್ತಿ ದೆಹಲಿಗು ಕಡಪುರ್ನ ಪಾತೆರ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಥಳ ಧರ್ಮಾಧಿಕಾರಿ ಡಾಕ್ಟರ್ ವೀರೇಂದ್ರ ಹೆಗ್ಗೆಡೇರು ಆರೆನ ಭಾಷಣೆಡ್ ಪಣ್ತೇರ್. ತುಳು ಬರವುಡು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯಿಕ  ಬುಳೆಚ್ಚಿಲು ಬುಳೆವೊಡಿಂದು ನಮ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲಾ ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತುಗುನ!
ತುಳುವೆರೆಗಾತ್ರ:
ಬರೆತಿನಾರ್: ಹೊಸಬೆಟ್ಟು ವಿಶ್ವನಾಥ್, ಪುಣೆ.

16.08.2016

Saturday, August 13, 2016

360. Origin of words: Bari and Kepulo

Ancient words in any language are like fossils and can be useful in understanding the mysteries of antiquity. Ancient words in Tulu language similarly provide us useful hints that enlighten factors relating to the origin and evolution.
Linguists have traced dual features of south central and southern Dravidian trends of evolution in Tulu language ( ref:) though there has not been clear explanation of this duality. Earlier posts in this blog have identified and explored explicit evidences of an Austro-Asiatic base of Munda group of language under the Dravidian linguistic heritage in the evolution of Tulu language.
Ancient words like paggu (=first month in Tulu calendar), tude (=river), tāri (=toddy palm), urdu(=black gram)……. etc apart from numerous place names in Tulunadu that still carry  a prefix of Munda- or manki or related words –are all suggestive of an explicit undercurrent of an older layer of Adi-Dravida or pre-Dravida traditions in this land, before the onset of  Dravidian phase of socio-cultural and linguistic evolution.
Relicts of ancient Austro-Asiatic Munda culture and language still exist in Eastern and North eastern India. Bengalis and Odiyas sport such ancient words as Desi in their languages.
Let us discuss two of such ancient desi words, surviving in Bengali language, struck me because of their significance in the evolution of Tulu language and culture here below:
Bari
Bari is a very common word in Tulu language representing genetic lineage of person. It was used traditionally to identify a person and distinguish him or her from persons of other lineages especially in matrimonial proposals.  Persons from the same bari were considered traditionally to be blood relatives among whom marriage was a taboo. Bari is alternately known as bali, gotra, bedagu or illam in other socio-cultural groups. The origin of bari or gotra system predates the introduction of caste based communities as we discussed in an older post.
The analogy between the words bari (Tulu) and bali (Kannada) earlier led us to suggest that bari was an alternate form of the word bali (balli) which usually meant a plant creeper. The Tulu word bari at present means a side or margin. The meaning was adopted by some since it approximately conveys the connotation of a lineage.
However, the understanding that bari is a desi word of Austro-Asiatic origin existing in Bengali suggests fresh dimension of origin and meaning to the Tulu word bari.  The word bari of Austro-Asiatic origin means home in Bengali.
 Thus it is possible that the heritage word bari in existing in Tulu language means the name of the home or the original house of person. In ancient cultures a person was identified by the name of his home. In this way it appears synonymous with the term illam (=home) used by Malayalis or gotra (name of cowshed) used by cowherds in northern India during the ancient history   for lineage.
Pulo
In the same vein we can see that the word pulo means a flower in Bengali. We can compare pulo with phool in Hindi.
Kepulo
A red colored wild flower (usually occurring as a bunch of flowers or inflorescence) commonly seen in rural settings is known as kepulo or kepula.  We can understand the origin of the name of this wild red flower as it is ke+pulo,  where ke represents red and pulo means  flower.
We also may understand that with passage of time, the original pulo has been reduced to poo (= flower) and the original ke has become kempu (=red).


Significance

Tulu language has absorbed words from Austro-Asiatic and other pre-existing   languages during the prolonged course of evolution.  Many of these words are pre-Dravidian in nature, and the presence of such ancient words in contemporary Tulu suggests partial or selective socio-cultural assimilation of ancient tribes with Dravidians during the history. This explains the basic reason for the exposition of dual South-central and Southern Dravidian   linguistic trends in the evolution of Tulu language.

R

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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