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374. Banga and Bangera Bari

The Bangera ‘bari ‘( ‘gotra’) is one of the common lineage systems prevalent in Tulunadu  and found in most of the Tulu communities. We sh...

Friday, February 3, 2017

378. Koraga words in Tulu

The study of Koraga language and culture is significant from the point of understanding the overall evolution of the Tulu language with which it is closely associated. The Koraga at present contains a large number of Tulu equivalent words, which has tempted some of the Dravidian linguists to infer that Koraga is a branch of Tulu. Interestingly, it also has words that remind possible historical connections with other Dravidan languages like Kannada, Malayalam and Telugu.
Following H.A. Stuart in the year 1891(cited in Bhat 1971), some of the linguists, have considered the Koraga as a dialect of Tulu.  However, others like Brodie (1886) have considered the Koraga language as an independent Dravidian language, and not a dialect of Tulu.  

Antiquity of Koraga   tribes
The tribes are known Koraga in Tulu and Kannada. However they call themselves as Korru. For example, Pangala Babu Koraga (2016) in his introductory book let on Koragas used the term ‘Kor’ or ‘Korru’.
1. The antiquity of the Kor/Koraga tribes is evident from the nature of bari system prevailing among them. The primitive nature of bari lineage system currently prevailing among the Koraga (Post. 368).
Basically, the Koraga have basically two baris namely: (a) Tappu (or Soppu) and (b) Kuntu (or Kapada).  The “tappu” in Tulu or “soppu” in Kannada means leaves; (This group of tribes used bunch of large leaves tied around their waist to cover their private parts, in the form of attire). The “kunTu” in Tulu and “kapaDa” in Prakrit language means cloths. Thus the two basic bari groups correspond to ancient tribes (a) those Koraga tribes wearing leaves only (around their loins) and (b) those Koraga tribes wearing cloths.

Thus the primitive type of ‘bari’ classification of Koraga tribes suggests a remote point in the ancient history where the primitive tribes (a) wore leaves to cover their modesty and (b) those evolved to wear cloths. Probably, no other tribes in coastal Karnataka/India have preserved this sort of primitive lineage classifications, which suggests that the Koraga are one of the earliest among the surviving human tribes in the West Coast before and during the time of invention and evolution of wearing cloths.

2. The Koraga tribes apparently were the witness to the evolution of castes and communities in Tulunadu. It is reported that the Koraga folklores describe Billava-Bunt-Mogaveera communities   as   children of elder and younger sisters- which means that from the similar source groups these communities have evolved over the time. Even the nature of the shared common bari groups among Tulu communities suggest that the communities have come into existence during a later period.

3. At present, the Koraga tribes are distributed mainly in the southern States of Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. However, probably related tribes known as Kora and   Korwa are found mainly within West Bengal and Orissa.

There are numerous villages in India that have been named after the Kor tribes during the past history. A general survey of statistical data on distribution of villages named after Kor tribes would give us an understanding of the wide distribution of these tribes during the antiquity.

Kor villages in India
There are not less than 1023 villages in India named after Kor tribes and those begin with the prefix of Kor.  Uttar Pradesh 156; Andhra Pradesh 109; Jharkhand 109; Maharshtra 99; Bihar 96; Chattisgarh 83; Karnataka 80; Orissa 76;  Madhya Pradesh 39;  Tamilnadu 32. West Bengal 23; Assam 21; Rajasthan 20; Arunachal Pradesh 16; Uttara Khand 14; Jammu & Kashmir 13; Meghalaya 13; Punjab 8;  Gujarat 8; Other states each less than 2.

Some of the examples of Kor place names include: Kora, Koru, Korai, Korna, Korakoppa, Korti, Koratagere, Korahalli, Korvi, Korvihal, Kortoor, Koryal, Korkunte, Koramangala, Koralur, Korda, Korakuriya, Korbi, Korla,  Korche, Korabar, Korasi, Korekera, Korma, Korea, Korgo,  Korpal, Koragam, Korapa, Korem, Korraguda, Korukonda, Korabandi, Koraibari, Koranga, Korapalli, Koripunja, Korapur, Korkodu etc.
Additionally, there are about 1983 villages in India that begin with the prefix of Kur.

Koraga/ Korru: Regional equivalents                          
The tribes are called Koraga at present in southern states of Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and Kerala, whereas in West Bengal and Orissa region, we find analogous tribes elsewhere in India known as Kora or Korwa, which possibly could be the regional equivalents of the Koragas. The Koragas call themselves as Korru or Korre (from example, Babu Koraga describes the Koraga language as “Korrena bhāshe” in his book cited at reference below.) Thus it appears that the tribes and their language in question were known as Kor or Korru earlier and the suffix –ga was added subsequently, especially in parts of southern India.

The “Korr” has   also been preserved in place names such as “Kordel”, ( kor+da+el ) which  represented  the habitation of the Korr(u) people.
The meaning of the   term “Korru” has been explained variously sometimes emotionally but it appears that the actual original meaning would simply be “the people” or “the human beings”. Note that a man or husband is known as “Korrayi” and a woman or wife is known as “Korati” or “Korti”, where the suffixes –ayi And –ati being gender indicators and the common prefix “korr “  as a logical deduction  would have a meaning equivalent to a person or a human being.

Koraga Linguistics
According to Shankar Bhat (1971) the Koraga is a distinct member of Dravidian family and is only remotely connected to Tulu. Shankar Bhat (1971) has recognized three distinct dialects of Koraga language, such as   Onti, Tappu and Mudu versions based on the data obtained from informants in  Udupi, Hebri and Kundapur, Respectively. However, the dialectical variations in the Koraga, appear to have developed over the time span under the influence of regionally dominant languages like Tulu (Udupi, Hebri) and Kannada (Kundapur). Because of the dominating influence of regional languages like Kannada and Tulu we shall not be able to decipher the original state of the Koraga language that might have existed in the antiquity.

Koraga lingual versions
As far as the study of dialectical variations within the Koraga are concerned, it would be easy to understand the dialectical variation in Koraga if we recognize the variations by locations/places like Udupi, Hebri and Kundapur rather than the arbitrary Onti, Tappu or Mudu etc respectively. In Tappu Koraga of Hebri region, the p in  Koraga words become h (Kannadization) as in  the case of words like:  portu- ≥hortu; pudar-≥hudar;puge-≥huge; pu:ji-≥hu:ji ..etc

Shankara Bhat (1971) considers close affinity of Koraga language with Northern Dravidian languages like Kudux, Malto and Brahui, based on following linguistic features:
(i) The past tense k---g---kk   in Koraga is   feature analogous to North Dravidian languages.
(ii) Non-past/present suffix   is n in Udupi (Onti) - Kundapur (Mudu) versions and n---nn—n in   Hebri (Tappu). In North Dravidian Kudux has n in third person present plural and in verbal nouns.
(iii) In Udupi (Onti), has a suffix o similar to North Dravidian Kudux future suffix o.
(iv) The gender-number distinction found in third person finite verb forms in Koraga are similar to that of Kudux.
(v) The plural suffix in irrational nouns Hebri (Tappu) Koraga similar to those of Kudux.
(vi) Other characteristic features of Koraga are (a) perfect suffix a-a (b) locative suffix t (c) relative past participle (d) root tar with restricted sense of to give to I or II person and (e) simplicity of its past stem derivation.

Koraga Words
Shankar Bhat (1971) and Babu Koraga (2016) have provided lists of Koraga words. Here below we shall classify the available Koraga words broadly into (apparent) (i) exclusive Koraga words and (ii) Shared Words in Koraga and Tulu languages.

(i) Koraga Vocabulary
(=with English meaning)

a:tri =to throw
Aadu—Aavu= agreed
Aakude—AanDa= but
AayinTa—AyaD=by him
Aba—ade= that side
Aba—anchi=that side
Abanta—anchiDdu=from that side.
Acchakude—anchanda=in that case
Acchi—(anchane =like that)
Achara- - (anchi= there)
Adavu-              ( - flesh/mutton)
Addu--------(avu=it)
Addu=avu=that one
Adeg=adeg=to there
Adeg—adeg= to there.
Adenta—ayiddu, aleDdu= by it/by her
Agad—Avodu = Has to be
Agaku—Atundu = Has been
Agar =to stand
Akalaga- -adaga = then
Akkal—(adaga= then ; (Kan: aagal)
AmanTa—enkaleDdu=from us
Amarega—enkaleg =to us
AnDa—anda= Is it?
Anga—enk= to me.
Ankodi-- ……………-waist band
AnTa—altDdu= from there
AnTa—enaDdu= by me
Asinta—anchina= that type
A:tri -----(=to throw)
Auru—(u)nuppu= rice(cooked)
Ayig—Ayag= to him
BaaDa—balaa=come
BaDanji—bodchi=does not want
Banji—barpuji=(shall ) not come.
BaraDu—barODu=let come
Bu:di =to carry on shoulder
Burpi—bulp(uni)= to cry
Butar =to fall
Buttar—boor(uni)= to fall down
ChaaDu---toovoDu= have to see
Chaile—saitina=devil
Chainji—saitiji= has not died
ChaipiDi—keru=to kill
Chaiyad—saiyaD=let die
Chammayi—maasa=flesh;mutton
Chankyaak--tooyineTTaanD=(saved) by seeing
Chapar--ekkale=cockroach
Charalge—kombatel= scorpion
Chatikure—kuDupu=to brush off
Chavala—taala= cymbals
Chika—koru=give
Chojji— kirumbu= to scratch (skin)
Chone—sune= latex
Chor—ini=today
Chov—tevu=colocasia/taro
Chumal--tummonu=to carry (load)
Chumpi—chellu=to dispose (liquid)
Chu—too(pini)=to see
Daandi=daalijji=nothing
Dee---iddi/ijji=no
Dendal—devastana=temple
Doover—ujjer=long wooden pestle (rice beating post);” Onake”
Eccha—eccha= more, excess
Ecchi—encha= how?
Ecchi—encha=how?
Ekala--Epa= when?
Ekkunad—geruni = to winnow
ErenTa—EreDa= from/by whom?
Eru—koDe= yesterday
GanDe—aanjovu=man
GanDlu—aanjovulu=men (Kan: ganDu)
Gille=leaf cup
GoranTi—maNe=small seating/stool
Icche, pokkade=inchane pokkaDe= haage summane, like this simply
Icchi—inchene=like this
Ichara—inchi = this side
ijji=yee=you
ikke=imbe=he(this man)
ikkel=mokul=thses people.
Ikkel—imber=this person/these people.
Ikyag—imbeg= to this man.
ikyanTa—imbeDdu=from him
Inta=enchina=what?
Inteka=enchinekk= why?
isinta—inchina= this kind.
jaavu—jaa(pini)= to unload
jevu—umil=mosquito
jnegaDi--                  ,  golle=sphlegm
Jnegaru--?   Suli= whirlpool
jo:ku =to wash
kaDDu--kaDpu=to cut; severe
kala—kana= to bring
kalekal—getoNu= to fetch; collect
kalepo—getondu po= fetch and go
kappu-- kOmpu    =to bury
ke:l=rice pot
killi =small
koDtayi--gurikara=leader
konDaldayi—ucchu/mari   =serpent, cobra
konke—nalke= dance
kooje—Aan mage/mage =boy
kooji---Ponnu magal/magal=girl
koppa—illu=house
kOraga--koriya=have given
korayi=husband
korru—korager=Koraga (tribe)
korti=wife
kOru—ker= to kill
kOru--koru=give
KoTakOri --              = grass hopper
Kotte=urine
kotte--paDke=urine
koyi--eluttagoodu=ribcage
kujerlu—jokulu=children
ma:ti=to do
me:ke=stomach
mede =afterwards, bokka/matte
mide—bokka= next
na:ke=I have told
naDa-- ?  =like (“anta”)
nakulu—nama=we
namrega—enkaleg= for us
ne:ki =fear
nekal-- ? = fear
Nikulu—nikulu=you people
Nimareg= nikaleg=to you people
ninga—nikku= to you.
Nooner--panper=(they) tell
Nooni—panpe=(he) tells
Noo—paN= tell
Nu=to say/
Oba=oba*= which way? (for cattle)
oba—oba= which way? (As addresses to domesticated cattle)
Oddu=ovvu=Which one?
Oker—itter=(they) existed.
Oku—itta=existed
ollagu=it barked. (Kan: ooliDu)
ollu=to bark
Oodaa—(uppaa= Shall it be?)
Oodu---(uppu= may exist.)
Ooji--ijjer=did not exist; were absent.
Ooker—uller= (they) existed
Ooku—ullolu=it /she existed
Oonaga—uppunaga=when (they) existed
OonDaa?—uppaa?= will it be?
OonDu—uppunDu= (it/she) shall exist
Orabar—giDapu= to drive/send away
pa:ki=he has gone
pakala=going oneself
paranTe-koranTu=cashew kernel
paravag—paratinD=crawled
pared—pali=elder sister
pariku—paratinD=flowed
patte=alms
pile—pile= sootaka
puDDu—patt(uni)=to hold
pullapo—paondu po=hold and go
ranD—unDu=(it/she) exists
ranner--uller=(they) exist.
ranni--ulle= (he) exists
sakala=seeing oneself
silp =whirl
sollu=to say (Malayalam)
ta—koru=give
tale--koDi=endpiece (Kan:tale)
tanji—korpuji=would not give
tar =to give(I, II person)
tarjer--kortujer=has not given
tirgala—tirgavu(nu)=to rotate
tojir—tojavu(ni)=to show
tOnji—tojuji= does not show
tOru--.. charma   =skin
Upa--inchi= this side
upanTa--inchiDdu= from this side
uppud--uppu=may be
urmal—barchuni= combing (hair)
urmu--barchu=to comb
Uta—getoN=take
Utek—undek=for this; for her.
utenTa—by this /by her
uttu=molu=she(this woman)
valli =to bark
Yeni=Yepa= when?

(ii) Koraga – Tulu :Shared Vocabulary
Koraga (Udupi)-----(Equivalent Tulu  with=English meaning)

aanD—(AanD=Done)
Aani—(Aani = that day)
Aayi---(aaye =he(that man)
AayinTa—(AyaD/AayanTa =by him)
Aba—anchi = that side
Abanta—(anchiDdu=from that side.)
Adangayi—(uppad=pickle) [Tu. & Ka.]
Adavu----(aDavu ?= flesh/mutton)
Addu---(avu=it; adu (Kan).
Addu----(avu=that one)
Adeg----(adeg=to there)
Adeka—(ayik =for it /for her)
Adenta—(ayiddu, aleDdu= by it/by her)
Agar ---(agar=to stand; hedge)
Ajal---(ajal =sacrificial food)
Akal—(akul=they)
Ame—(ame= naming ceremony)
Ammavu—(enkalena=ours; Yemmavu; Nammavu (Kan)*
AmmaDe----( ammer=father)
Anda—(anda= Is it?)
Ankodi—(……?………-waist band)
AnTa—(enaDdu= by me)
Arantal- -(beedu =House)
Auru—(u)nuppu= rice(cooked).; Autana (Kan)
Ayig—(Ayag = to him)
baaDa—(balaa=come)
baDanji—(bodchi=does not want)
baida—(baida/mardu=medicine)
banji—(barpuji=(shall ) not come).
baraDu—(barODu=let come)
bijji—biji(kre)=firewood/leaves
binner—binner=guests
birdu—birdu*/madime=marriage celebration.  * “birdavoli”
birkiri—birk(uni)=to spill/spread randomly
boDu—buDu=to leave; discard
boor—booru=creeper; wild twigs
booru—booru(ni)= to fall ;to sleep
bu:di=to carry on shoulder
bu:ri= to fall/bu:rgi=he fell.
butar--- (booru =to fall)
buttar—boor(uni)= to fall down
chaaDu-toovoDu= have to see
chaile—saitina=devil
Chainji—saitiji= has not died
ChaipiDi—keru=to kill
chaiyad—saiyaD=let die
chammayi—maasa=flesh;mutton
Chankyaak--tooyineTTaanD=(saved) by seeing
chapar---ekkale=cockroach
chappu—tappu=leaves
charalge—kombatel= scorpion
chatikure—kuDupu=to brush off
chavala—taala= cymbals
chay----( sai = to die )
chaypi= to kill
chellu-paN=tell
chigale—tigale=chest
chika—koru=give
chinape—kinnyappe= aunt; mothers sister
chojji— kirumbu= to scratch (skin)
chone—sune= latex
choru—toru=seep(rain)
Chov—(tevu=colocasia/taro)
chumal—(tummonu=to carry (load)
Chumpi—chellu=to dispose (liquid)
Chu—too(pini)=to see
Daandi----(daalijji=nothing)
dakk---(dakk= to throw)
dakkaddi--- (dakkije=has not thrown)
deber—dever=God
dee-iddi/ijji=no
dendal—devastana=temple
doo—goo(ppuni)=to spill
doover—ujjer=long wooden pestle(rice beating post);” Onake”
dorpu            -----(dorpu=to pour,solids)
du:  (gu=overflow)
Ecchi—encha= how?
Ecchi—encha=how?
Ekala—(Epa= when?)
Ekku—(ekku=reach -by hand)
enkal—enkul=we
Erdu—(eru=male buffaloe/bull)
ErenTa—EreDa= from/by whom?
gaDavu—kaDaga= bangle
gaddavu—gaddavu=eating plate
ganDe—aanjovu=man
ganDlu—aanjovulu=men
ganTel--kanTel=neck
gerpu            ---- (derpu=to lift)
gErpu—derpu=to lift up
gODipu—goDipu=to join
goranTi—maNe=small seating/stool
Icche, pokkade=inchane pokkaDe= haage summane, like this simply
Icchi—inchene=like this
Ichara—(inchi = this side)
IDeg—(iDeg =to here)
ijji=yee=you
ikkel=mokul=thses people.
Inta=enchina=what?
Inteka=enchinekk= why?
jaavu—jaa(pini)= to unload
jevu—umil=mosquito
Jinji ----(jinja/ dinja =to be full )
jnegaDi--                  , golle=sphlegm
Jnegaru--?   Suli= whirlpool
Jnegaru—negar(uni)= to creep
Jnela—nela=ground,earth
Jnimpu—kinku=to nip or pinch.
jo:ku ----( dekk,dekkuni=to wash)
joo—dee(pini)= to keep
ju:  =to keep
kaavu—kaapu= to wait
kaDapu--kaDapu*= boat/ ferry*
kaDDayi--dolu=drum; kaDayi=vessel (Kan)
kaDDu--kaDpu=to cut; severe
kaiyer--kaipu=curry
kajavu—kajavu=garbage
kala—kana= to bring
kalepo—getondu po= fetch and go
kappu-- kOmpu    =to bury
karamedakulu—Mundala =Mundala tribe
katte—katti= sickle, sword
kilepu—kilepu= to cry (fowls, birds)
koDtayi--gurikara=leader
koiper—kulupe =ant
koitar—kuttar(uni)=to boil
konDaldayi—ucchu/mari   =serpent, cobra
koni—nalipu=to dance
konke—nalke= dance
kooje—Aan mage/mage =boy
kooji---Ponnu magal/magal=girl
koppa—illu=house
kOraga--koriya=have given
koral—kolalu=flute
korru—korager=Koraga (tribe)
kOru—ker= to kill
kOru—(koru=give)
korke—(koriye=I gave)
koTakOri --              = grass hopper
kotte--paDke=urine
koyi--eluttagoodu=ribcage
kujerlu—jokulu=children
kure—kurve=basket(made from wild creepers)
Laaku—lakku= get up
Laayik—layik= good,nice (urdu/Arabic)
lammayi ---( Olamayi=inside)
ma:ti---(malt=to do)
maDar—maDe-ire=left over meals
madepukku—madapuni=forgot
marani—morani=day before yesterday
mare---(mare=rain; latex)
mare—mare/barsa=rain
mey----( mey-pini =to graze;)
mide—bokka= next
mo:rpi –(murepu =to churn )
naDa-- ?  =like (“anta”)
nakulu—nama=we
namrega—enkaleg= for us
naTT= to stand:  (naTTi=implanting saplings)
naTTine=I stand (≥ naTane/ na:Taka= standing show)
neeche—neecha?= darkness*
nekal-- ? = fear
Nikulu—nikulu=you people
Nimareg= nikaleg=to you people
Nimareg—nikaleg=for you
ninga—(nikku= to you.)
Nooner--panper=(they) tell
Nooni—panpe=(he) tells
Noo—paN= tell
nu=to say/na:ke=I have told
nunu(=swallow)/nunke(=I swallowed)--- (nungu =swallow.(Tu./Ka)
Oba—(oba= which way? (As addresses to domesticated cattle)
Oddu----ovvu=Which one?
Odeg----Odeg=to where/
Oker—(itter=(they) existed.)
Oku—(itta=existed)
Ol---(Olu= where?)
Olayi—(Olayi/ulayi=inside)
oli—(lepu/oleppu= to invite)
olippel--- (Leppel.=welcome)
ollu----(=to bark/ollagu=it barked. (Kan: ooliDu)
Ongir—(Ongir=to listen/show extra interest)
Oodaa—(uppaa= Shall it be?)
Oodu----(uppu= may exist.)
Ooji—(ijjer=did not exist; were absent.)
Ooker—(uller= (they) existed)
Ooku—(ullolu=it /she existed)
Oonaga—uppunaga=when (they) existed
OonDaa?—uppaa?= will it be?
OonDu—uppunDu= (it/she) shall exist
Oo—uppu=to be; to exist
OriyanTa---(oriyaDa= by one man)
OrtinTa—(ortiDa= by one woman)
Oul—Oulu=there
paaDu—povaD=let go.
paaTu—paaT= song.
paranTe-koranTu=cashew kernel
paravag—paratinD=crawled
pared—pali=elder sister
pariku—paratinD=flowed
paru—par(pini)=to drink
paTner-paTnadakulu=fisherfolk
peddug—(peddolu=(she) gave birth to)
pedmayi----.(pidayi mey=outside)
pi: ----( maypu=to pour)
pideyi—pidayi=outside
pijje—pejj(uni)=to pick up
pile—pile= sootaka
po: ---(po=to go)
podar---(pudar=name)
poDayi—(puDayi=basket (made of creepers)
Poolu----(moolu=here)
puDa:l*----(puDayi = to carry on arms*; basket).
puDDu—patt(uni)=to hold
pullapo—paondu po=hold and go
ranD—unDu=(it/she) exists
ranner--uller=(they) exist.
ranni--ulle= (he) exists
su: ---(soopini/toopini= to see ).
ta—koru=give
tale--koDi=endpiece
tar =to give(I, II person)
tarjer--kortujer=has not given
taTal—taToNu=to grab and carry on waist(the child)
tekkiri—tekkavu(nu)=to turn off (fire, light)
teli—telipu(ni)= to laugh
terunji--teriyuji= cannot understand.
tippi----(teypu= to sweep.)
tirgala—tirgavu(nu)=to rotate
tojir—tojavu(ni)=to show
toji—toju(ni)=to appear
tOnji—tojuji= does not show
tOrpu—(torpu=to kick)
torpu=to kick; torpu(Tu).
ubir—(ubbinir=spit; saliva)
uppud—(uppu=may be)
ur= to spit (ubbivuni)
urmal—barchuni= combing (hair)
urmu—(barchu=to comb)
Utek—(undek=for this; for her.)
utenTa—(by this /by her)
yaan----(yaan= I)
Yeni----(Yepa= when?)
Yer----(Yer=Who?)
Yereg---(Yereg=To whom?)

Other neighbors: Tribes & people
The words used by the Koraga   that refer to other tribes and community of people coexisting in the region have some interesting points for noting.

kanchaldayi –(kiristan)= Christian people.
Karamedakulu—(Mundala) =Mundala tribe
Kare  = Christian man
karEdi= Christian woman
nāker—(“naager”)=billawa people
nākudi—(“naagedi)= billawa woman
nooltakulu —(nooludakulu)= (those with sacred thread) ie Upper caste; Brahmins etc
Okkale /  okkati =okkelakulu man/female.
paTner/paTnadakulu =fisherfolk. (paTna=fisher colony)
tapaler —(sapaler?)=  Sapalya people.

For example, the Mundala people are referred to as Karame-dakulu ie those of Karma: Apparently the concept of Karma and Dharma were introduced by Munda/Mundala tribes. There are also connected stories of Karma and Dhrama in Bastar region which are well known belts of Munda people.
Another interesting point is Billava members are referred to as Nāger ie Nāga people. This probably provides information with respect to immigration of Naga tribes into Tulunadu and their eventual assimilation with the Billavas.

Parts of (Human /Animal) Body
Specifc words for defining various parts of the human/animal body were also existing in Tulu language, which are being forgotten because of disuse or the influence of other languages like Kannada or Englishor Hindi.
Check some of the following Koraga words for specific parts of the body.

abaD= hoof
chanku= heart
kaipe =liver
kannu kotle= kidney
kolampu-  (korampu/morampu.  (Tu. )    = knee bone)
koyi=   ribs
paTTu—udal =termite (varale)
pootoTTe--= lungs
tor—(Charma  = skin)
valayi =    pancreas


INFERENCES FROM THE KORAGA WORDS


Koraga to Tulu or Vice Versa
Deciding whether Koraga language borrowed words from Tulu or the vice versa is a bit tricky as it has confused the inferences and decisions of some of our linguists and analysts. When two or more languages exist in a region we can expect healthy two way exchange of words. Due to temporal changes in domination of the communities, eventually the Tulu has been a dominant language in the the past history of Karavali/Tulunadu.

Period words
It may not be proper to classify a specific word as either exclusive Koraga or exclusive Tulu word. The words have been repeatedly borrowed and utilized as   communicable entities and it would be difficult to trace their origin in a situation where some of the languages that evidently existed in the past have become extinct during the course of the history. That’s why it would be more appropriate if we classify languages as products of a specific period rather than exclusive property of a specific language.  

Koraga period words in Tulu
If we look beyond the obscure curtain of assimilation and homogenization of cultures in the Karvali coast, the bari pattern existing in Koraga community, suggests that the Koraga culture may be aboriginal and primitive in nature being earlier in time span than the essential Tulu language and culture. It is interesting to note that Tulu language has preserved some antique period words of compound nature probably derived from Koraga language. One such classic example is the commonplace compound Tulu word: mariyāla.

Mariyāla
Budhananda Shivalli (1980, 2004) has also discussed the interesting Tulu word mariyāla in the context of discussion of Tulu philology and grammar. But let me introduce another interesting facet of this word.
The commonplace Tulu word “mariyāla “(mare+yāla; =rainy season) is of Koraga language origin. The word mare for rain still exists in Koraga language. It either could be a Koraga exclusive word or a period word borrowed or adapted from any of the contemporaneous language of the period. The base word “mare” (=rain)   still exists in Koraga, whereas the Tulu has forgotten that word and the meaning because of disuse. Instead the Tulu language has adopted and perpetuated the word “barsa” (=rain) of Prakrit origin as a commonplace word for rain,  even though “mariyāla” still finds place in daily Tulu. Note that the old word “mare” still exists in Tulu as a substitute for the latex liquid oozing from plants, but not for rain!

Histrorical context
At this point, we can consider certain aspects of historical context with regard to words like, mariyāla as an example.  
The Prakrit language was the regal /administrative language in Karnataka region (including the coastal tract) approximately between the period ca. 400 BC to ca 400 CE (as we can gather from the known King Ashokas rock records and various period literary reseraches). Thus the Tulu language appear to have adopted the “barsa” of Prakrit origin   in place of preexisting “mare” during this Prakrit domination period in the West Coast.  Note that our neighbouring Kannada adapted “maLe”(=rain) as a regional version of the same antique word “mare”.
In any case, the age of Koraga period words in Tulu language shall be taken back beyond (ie older than) say ca. 400 BC.
It may be further noted that while Tulu language adopted the Prakrit version of barsa as its own, the Koraga retained its “mare” and has not preferred   the Prakrit word!
However, it also should be recorded that the Koraga has not remained totally closed to temporal changes. It has also absorbed exotic Arab/Urdu words like “lāyak” (= nice or appropriate) like the ambient Tulu language.


References
Budhananda K. Shivalli (1980, 2004) .Tulu Patero: A   philology and grammar of Tulu Language. Mangalore,  (first printing: 2004),   .317. p. ( in Tulu language).  
Shankar Bhat, DN. (1971). The Koraga Language. Linguistic  Survey of India.  Deccan College, Poona, 130 p

Pangala Babu Koraga (2016). Korrena base polabu: Koragara bhashe parichaya. Mangaluru,    52.p

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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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