Thursday, July 23, 2009
Ancient tribes and cultures believed in strange animal totems. They respected the creatures which they adopted as totems for their tribes. Existence of Totem cultures in Tulunadu has evidences from sub-community groups like Salians that apparently had a totem of spider in the antiquity as discussed in earlier posts. One more totemistic tribe that carries the name of common crow can be deciphered in the Karavali based on the existence of ancient ethno-nyms.
The name of common crow (“Kakke”=crow, in Tulu) repeats in several place names suggesting the relevance and significance imparted by certain tribes to this humble bird. It seems the followers of this bird totem were called as ‘Kakke’s. The Kakke (=crow) is a respected bird in traditional Indian culture. Many people believed crows as symbol of their dead ancestors. During the annual ceremonies conducted to commemorate forefathers, festive food was kept away in the open yard so that dead ancestors may consume the food in the physical form of crows. Possibly this belief and custom derived from an ancient tribe that strongly believed that they originated from crows and or their dead ones became crows after death. It appears that the Kakke tribe has become extinct during the recent history.
We shall analyse some of the village/hamlet names that bear the signature name of Kakke tribes:
Kakva=(Kakk+va). A place inhabited during early history by Kakke tribes. Kakva is presently a hamlet near Atikaribettu northeast of Mulki town.
Kakkepadavu (=Kakke+padavu). A plateau dominantly inhabited by Kakke tribes. Kakke-padavu now a village in Bantval taluk.
Kakkara bettu (=Kakke+ara+bettu). An upland inhabited by Kakke tribes, now a locality in Mijar village.
Kakkebettu: A plateau inhabited by Kakke tribes during the past. Kakkebettu is a hamlet near Kulashekara Kalpane in the outskirt of Mangalore city.
We can find the signature villages and hamlets of totem crow tribes outside Karavali also.
For example the Kaginele village, Chikamagalur district, connected with legendary sage- poet Kanakadasa possibly represents an ancient village of Kāgi tribes. (Kāge=crow; nele=place, in Kannada).
The 'kakke' tribal name has been preserved in some of the Tulu surnames like Kakke-bannaya , Kakke-Odittaya' (Tulu Lexicon,p.596)and Kakkilaya etc..
A caw-cawing crowing black bird is a common scene in mornings or where food particles are scattered especially in coastal areas. It is considered as a bird of omen. It is a meek but sometimes audacious, scavenging bird. The crows generally live in groups. Talkative boasting persons are likened to crow.
Crow in Ramayana
This poor and simple bird is honoured in the Epic 'Ramayana'.In Baalakaanda Chapter, during swayamvara (an event of selecting a groom from the invited and assembled princes)of Seetadevi, the king of Sri Lanka, Ravana obtruded himself uninvited with the intention of marrying Seeta. Ravana was a mighty king, who defeated all kings of three worlds. The contest of swayamvara was to lift the heaviest bow, bestowed by Shiva, and shoot the arrow.
All the assembled kings were frightened. The celestial beings, who came to witness the event, ran helter skelter and disappeared. God Yama (the Celestial Judge and Destroyer) seeing a crow, entered its body taking tiny form. When Ravana went away, disgraced by his failure, Yama came out and blessed the crow that crows would be honoured by mankind in future by offering them food at the last rites of a departed soul and during periodical remembering of ancestors. This custom is relevant all over India. In Tulunadu, this custom is known as 'kakkegu nuppu dippini or kakkegu pinda dippuni'.
There is another story in Ayodhya-kaanda how a crow is able to see both sides, having one eye. Jayanta, son of Indra, incurred the displeasure of sage Atri, who cursed him to be a crow. Redemption for this curse was when Jayanta wallowed in the dust particles from the august feet of Seeta during the banishment of Rama to forest. So Jayanta kept a trail of Rama's movement. While in Chitrakoota hermitage Rama and Seeta went for a long walk in woods. On getting tired, they took a playful bath in lotus pond waters. Seizing the opportunity of Seeta coming out of water alone, the accursed crow swooped down to touch the feet of Seeta. Frightened and hurt Seeta cried for help. Uttering divine words,Rama threw a sharp arrow of grass blade. Jayanta's request for protecting him from the chasing arrow was refused by all Gods. Indra advised his son to go back to Rama and ask his pardon. Since it was powerful arrow and could not be reversed, Rama took one eye from the arrow and blessed the crow to see both sides with the dilation of the eye lens of the remaining eye. On redemption of his magic spell, Jayanta offered his obeisance and returned to his abode in the Sky
There is a funny story in a Kannada Primer:
A respected person, Raya of a village vomited three times. ("Rayaru mooru saare karidaru"). The news spread like a wild fire from mouth to mouth and finally got corrupted as "The respected person vomited three crows (Rayaru mooru kage karidaru)".
-Additional inputs Hosabettu Vishwanath.
Saturday, July 18, 2009
Analysis of Toponyms of the Tulunadu or the Karavali essentially tend to throw special light on the origin and evolution of certain common Dravidian words. Let us discuss the evolution of a common Kannada word ‘mane’ which simply represents house in present day parlance, with the help of analysis of certain relevant Tulu toponyms.
We have discussed the Tulu spatial suffix –aNu (Muddanu, Belmanu) and its variants like –aNe (Perne, Marne) and -ana (Kanyana) in an earlier post.
The word aNe has also survived in usages like 'aNekatta' (=dam) etc.
Like the word ‘manja’ (ma+anja= elevated land) was derived from the root word ‘anja’(=land), the word maNe(ma+aNe=elevated platform or podium) has been derived from the suffix –aNe during early Tulu and other Dravida usage.
Since during later days the word ‘maNe’ was applied to wooden planks used as low lying seats,it appears that originally the word was employed to designate earthen podium or platform constructed probably under the shade of a tree.In primitive evolving farming cultures,this was possibly a resting place under the shade and this served as the earliest concept of dwelling house in primitive villages. Further evolution replaced the shade of tree with constructed roof and this was again called ‘mane’ as in Kannada.Thus the word ‘maNe’ forms the older Tulu version of the Kannada equivalent word ‘mane’. The word ‘mane’ has survived in Kannada even till to date while the Tulu word ‘maNe’(usage as dwelling house) has become nearly extinct except in toponyms and words like 'maNegara'(=revenue inspector)!
The suggestion that the word ‘maNe’ originally represented a podium or later a dwelling structure constructed out of earthen material (soil) is supported by its relation to the word ‘maNNu’ (=soil). Also note that the Tulu verb ‘maNpu ‘ or ‘māNpu’ (=to construct) was derived from the root ‘maN’ (of ‘maNe’). The earliest dwelling houses were constructed from the earthen (wet soil )material. The Tulu verb ‘maNpu ‘was in later days modified to ‘malpu’(=to do).
Another interesting revelation from the study of toponyms is that during the early farming days the ‘maNe’ dwelling structures were not common and only the rich or the leader of the village afforded it! It was somewhat like the early version of ‘Guttu’ houses of later landlords! This aspect can be realized when we analyse toponyms like Urmane, Manel, Karimanel,Manur, Mānur etc.
(Ur or oor+maNe). Urmane represented a dwelling house (probably the only one)in the ancient village. Presently , Urmane is the name of a hamlet near Konaje in Mangalore taluk.
(maNe+al) = A dwelling house on the bank of a river. Manel is a hamlet on the bank of Nethravati River in Mangalore Taluk.
Karimanel (< Karumanel)
(Karu+ mane+al ).= A house on the elevated bank of a river.Karimanel is a village in Belthangadi taluk.
(maNe+ur). A village named after a house! There are several villages designated Manur and Maanur in the Karavali.
Māni (pronounced ‘maaNi’) a village on the Mangalore-Bangalore road(NH48) could be a variant or distorted version of the word maNe.
Though 'maNe' is now used in its narrowed meaning as 'a legged wooden structure of low height, capable of seating one person or keeping picture of Gods at Puja time', its use in its strictest sense (in Tulunadu) is still current in word like 'maNegarlu or MaNegara (a Land Revenue Officer).
Thursday, July 16, 2009
Tulu oral ballads (paD-dana) have perpetuated ancient stories, replete with fine sense of imagination. One of the popular ballad pertaining to the legendary King Bali known as ‘Tuluvala Baliyendra’ recounts several improbable imaginary situations that prevent King Bali from returning to his homeland. One of the Tulu phrases encountered in the ballad is: ‘dembeligu pāpu pādnaga’ or when bridge is built across a mud-crack!
'Dembeligu pāpu pādnaga’(= when cross over bridge is built on mud-crack) is one of the predictions in Tulu PaDdana (= oral poem; orature) ‘Tuluvāla Ballyendra’ (=Ballad of Emperor Bali of Tulunadu). The rare word ‘dembelu’ fascinated me and engaged my attention. Here is an old word, among others, spoken by our forefathers but now not in day-to-day use.
Late N.A. Sheenappa Heggade Polali collected and rendered this oral poem into print in 1929 which was further reprinted in 1999 by Sri Devi Prakashana, Parkala.
The word dembelu means mud-crack; split, or crack on the surface of earth formed of desiccation of mud (Tulu Lexicon p.1643). ‘Dembelu pudāvuni’ means ‘cracking of the surface of mud field when it dries up (ibid). The synonym of this word is ‘debbe budupini’(ibid p.1561).
‘Dembeligu pāpu padnaga’, is a point of time in future when a bridge needs to be constructed over a crack on the ground. This is an impossible imaginary condition that may occur only if the future mankind are so dwarf that it needs a bridge to cross a mud-crack on ground.
Story and Context
Bali Chakravarti, son of Virochana, was a great King of Daitya lineage from Sage Kashyapa and Diti, twin sister of Aditi (Meaning ’not second’, i.e. first). Aditi begot Indra and other Devas from Kashyapa. In those days, Bharatavarsha was demarked as Uttarapatha and Dakshinapatha regions, Vindhya Ranges being the dividing (middle) point. Dakshinapatha was also known as ‘Dravidapatha’, as it was a peninsula encircled by three seas (Arabian, Indian and Bengal seas).
The division of regions is vindicated by Adi Shankacharya’s answer to Mandana Mishra, who asked him during a religious debate, ‘Who is he?’ Shankara replied, ‘I am a Brahmin from south region called Dravida’.
As is the vogue with kings of yore, enlarging the kingdom is the foremost duty of kings. Hence Devas and Daityas (Dānavas) were sworn enemies. Scholars now say that they were of one and the same race with common culture and languages, and depended on each other. The concept of Aryan and Dravidian Races is a myth nurtured by European colonialists of bygone centuries to divide and rule.
Bali was a pious, generous and patronising King. Being grandson of Prahlada, an avowed devotee of Vishnu, Bali was also a devout worshipper of Lord Vishnu. He ruled his subjects well. Aspiring to ascend the throne of Indra, he performed Ashwamedha Yagas hundred times. The Ashwamedha Yaga preceded a sequence of victories over all kings of the land beforehand.
Fearing losing of his kingdom, Indra (King of Devas) and his mother Aditi requested Lord Vishnu to save Devas. Vishnu promised to reincarnate himself as Vamana through Kashyapa and Aditi.Vamana means ‘dwarf form’. Vamana goes to Bali’s yajnashala as ‘Vatu’,a child celibate, to bless him whereupon Bali offers to give whatever things Vatu wants in land and other kinds. Vamana asks for three steps of land only for conduct of his acetic life, which was readily agreed upon by Bali. This enrages Shukracharya, Preceptor of Daityas, who advises Bali to dishonour his promise as Vishnu himself has come in disguise as Vamana to dethrone him by deciept at the behest of Indra. The Guru tells about various circumstances when one need not keep up ones promise. To keep up the honour of his words and seeing the Almighty himself is the beseecher, Bali Chakravarti goes ahead to grant the request. Vamana then takes the Cosmic Form (Vishwarupa) and grows to such an extent that he fills the entire Universe, being extolled as 'Trivikrama' by all Gods. In first step, he measures up the Earth and in the second Sky (Heavens), leaving no space. For the third step, Bali offers his head and Trivikrama pushes him to Nether world, Patala. Having been pushed to the nether world, Bali requests Lord Vishnu that he may kindly be allowed to visit his subjects once in a year and be remembered as a Devotee of Vishnu. The boon being granted, the hallowed memory of Bali is celebrated on the 1st day of bright fortnight following the Amavasya. This recognition is called as ‘Bali Puja or Bali Padya’ during Deepavali festival every year.
This story is a part of Shrimad Bhagavatam, Vishnu Purana, Padma Purana, Skanda Purana and Brahmanda Purana. King Bali belongs to all Indians. North Indians believe that the ritual of Ashwamedha Yaga took place at Kurukshetra. Kerala and Tamil people say that Bali’s kingdom existed in their land. Tuluvāla Ballyendra gives us the impression that he belongs to Tulunadu.
In ‘Tuluvāla Ballyendra, Bali asks when he will be allowed to stay in his kingdom permanently. Then –
“Hoho! Sirinarayana dever pander O! Bhumiputre Ballyendraa, manasu bene malthonada. Yee anda kargallu kayanaga, borgallu poo ponaga, uppu kapuraanaga, jaal paade aanaga, urudu maddoli aanaga, godderme ghone aanaga, eru dadde aanaga, tumbedaditu koota aanaga, nekkidaditu aata aanaga, dembeligu pāpu pādnaga, aletu bolney murkunaga, gurugunjida kale maajanaga, manjalakki meyideppunaga, Kotrunja kodi jaanaga, ninna rajyogu yee battudu ninna rajya maadonu arataana aaliyondu sukha santhosoduppulaa Ballyendra, indudu kattappane maltu kadapudiyeringa nalkaita Narayana deveregaa”
“Hoho! Lord Shrinarayana tells, “O! Son of this Earth Ballyendra, do not grieve. You will come back to your Kingdom in this Earth,
… when black stone becomes a fruit, barren rock blooms, salt becomes camphor, court-yard turns rocky, black-gram becomes ‘mridanga’ (=musical drum), barren she-buffalo transforms to un-castrated he-buffalo, he-buffalo becomes a sow (female swine) or a barren woman (as it is the other meaning of dadde), meeting takes place under Thumbe herb(=a medicinal herb), open-air drama takes place under Nekki shrub, a bridge is made to cross the cracks on mud, lump of butter sinks in butter-milk, the black spot on scarlet ‘gurugunji’ seed fades away, yellow bird** induces abortion,or when the crest of Kotrunja Bird is lowered like a temple flag-post.
….and then you may visit your kingdom and rule and live with abundant peace and happiness." Thus, the four-armed Lord Narayana bade and bid farewell to Bali Chakravarti.
* Kotrakodi = a tip of a tender shoot-TL 948.
In Tulunadu Bali (also known as Mahabali) is invited to visit Earth annually during ‘Aatida amaased sona barpina sanskradidu (July-August), bonteldu mooji dinata parbodu’ (i.e. Deepavali festival falling between October-November). After placing the offerings and reciting the Bali PaD-dana, local Divine Spirits are worshipped. I had witnessed once this recital, prior to starting Bobbarya Parba in July-August at Hosabettu in my school days. Rhapsodical and mellifluous recital by late Thimma Gurikara was a treat to my ears. Offerings, called ‘Daane’, made to Bobbarya, are made on the spot by concerned devotees.
Prediction of Doom?
The conditions prescribed are improbable happenings. It implies some innate sense of doom, similar to the Predictions of Nostradamus of France (nicknamed as Prophet of Doom). Lord Vishnu offered Bali the ‘Indra Padavi’ (Authority of Indra Loka) in Sāvarna Manuvantara. So the boon possibly forebodes destruction of the world.
Saturday, July 11, 2009
Thursday, July 9, 2009
Evolution and development of languages apparently progressed from simple smaller words to larger words. Some of the earlier simple and small words became part of the later complex words either as prefixes, suffixes or median components.
In Kannada the familiar spatial suffixes or village- indicators are –uru, -halli,- pete, -palya, etc. These familiar word-suffixes are still prevailing in current usage.
However, Tulu language has preserved several uncommon spatial suffixes that point to certain earlier stage of evolution of the language. Some of the suffix words appear rather uncommon because they are no longer exist in current usage except in toponyms (place-names).
The study of such extinct Tulu suffixes has special linguistic significance since these could have existed in other sister Dravidian languages also during an earlier historical stage of evolution of the language. We can also endeavor to trace tidbits of evolutionary trend in the sequence of word formations during the course of history.
One such generally extinct spatial suffix is –va (or '-wa').
1.Spatial suffix -va
We can see several ancient toponyms ending with –va in the Karavali area. Some typical examples are:
Shirva, Kakva , Urva, GOA,(also Uruval or Urva+al ),
Let us analyse some of these place names:
Shirva = (Shir+va). A place of divine rock. Shira represents rock which was considered as a symbol of divinity by the early cultures. The word Shira and Siri apparently originated in Mediterranean/African region and was brought here by early immigrant tribes. (See earlier post on Shira.)
Kakva =(Kakk+va).. A place inhabited during early history by Kakke tribes, presently extinct. Kakva is presently a hamlet near Atikaribettu northeast of Mulki town. There is one more Kakve near Koila vilage Puttur Taluk.
Urva = (uru+va). The word Uru or Ooru represents (1) earth, (2) Village or (3) Town. Uru or Ooru is a word borrowed from ancient Sumerian civilization by immigrant Dravidians during early history. Thus, Urva is a habitation place,locality or village. Presently Urva is an urban extension within Mangalore city.
GOA. (goh+va).Goh=cow, va=habitation.Goa: A region inhabited by cattle and cattle herders, historically.The place name Goa was translated as 'Pashupe' in Madvavijaya.
Sarve (<.Sarava; sara+va+e). Sara=lake or waterbody. Therefore ‘Sarve’ is a locality by the side of a lake.( Sarve is a modified form of original Sarva or Sarava). Sarave is a village in Puttur Taluk.The original lake apparently has been dried up now.
Sharavu (<.Sarava; sara+va+u). Represents a locality on the bank of a lake.Presently, Sharavu is locality in the heart of Mangalore city famous for a Ishvara and Ganapati temple. Originally the temple might have been on the bank of a lake.Now there is no lake in the neighbourhood of Sharavu temple, except for the temple pond(Kalyani). There is another Sharavoor hamlet near Alankar village in Puttur Taluk on the bank of River Kumardhara
Adve =(< aDva), ( pronounced ‘aDve’)=aDavi=forest or woods. Presently Adve is the name of a hamlet near Padubidri on Karkal road. It appears that the Adve area was a thick forest during early history.The word ‘aDavi’ is the Kannada equivalent of the same.
Ad+va =possibly a wooded area. The ‘aD’ root word represents (1) wood or tree; as In ‘aDar’(=wooden twigs)and (2) to cook. Note here that the two meanings of the word ‘aD’ namely (a)wood and (b)cook are mutually related in the sense that in the primitive societies wood was ignited for cooking food. In other words the verb ‘aD’ (=to cook, as in ‘aDpini’, ‘aDuge’, ‘aTil’(aD+il),’aDDe’ etc) was derived from the root word ‘aD’(=wood , plant or tree) which was the earliest invented fuel for cooking.
Irava (pronounced yirava or eerava; irava=Ira+va). A habitation of Ira or Irava ( or Iruva) tribes. The word signifying Ira tribes (yira or yire=leaf) exists as an place name
Ira= A colony of Ira tribes.
Other compound village names are:
Iruvail=Irava+(b)ail). A valley field occupied by Irava/ Iruva tribes.
Iravattur= Irava+attur. A village on the other side or bank inhabited by Iruva tribes.
( Note the vocalic parallelism between the tribal designations of ‘Irava’ and ‘YaDava’(>(a) Yādava,(b) YeDava(c) Ilava or Elava).
Kalwa (Kal+Va) (a Station in Central Railway, Mumbai). This place with rocky bedded natural canal forms the( of eastern branch of Ulhas River, which empties out to Thane Creek, Mumbai,the other main branch being debouching into Arabian Sea at Bhayandar, aka Vasai Creek. Kaluve or Kalve in Dravidian languages means tributary.This canal-like river tributary is now mostly hidden from view due to reclamation and construction of river over-bridges and railway bridges after Thane Station.
There are place-names with va as prefix. For example:
Vakola (Va+Kola), a marshy area in Bandra-Kurla-Santa Cruz zone, Mumbai.
Vasai creek:near Thane, Mumbai. Vasai was once a Buddhist place.It had a Stupa, dating back to pre-Christian era.
2. Compound suffix -val
The suffix –va has been combined with fluvial indicator –al to form a compound suffix –val to represent habitations on the bank of rivers.Note the following examples like Bantval and Uruval.
Bantvāl=(Bant+va+al). Al represents a river or a stream. Thus, compound suffix -val represents a locality on the bank of a river . A Bunt colony on the bank of river. Bantval town now cosmopolitan is located on the bank of River Netravati.
Uruvāl=(Uru+va+al). Uruval is a village(uru) place by the side of a river. Presently Uruval is a hamlet of Kuppettu village (Belthangadi taluk) located on the Guruvayankere-Uppinangadi road. There is a small stream flowing by the side of the hamlet of Uruval (There is another Tulu word ‘uruvol’ that is used for a sliding bamboo gate that Is erected to protect village properties.)
3. Compound suffix –vayi
‘Ayi ‘ is another Tulu/Dravidian spatial indicator. Aya=dimension. The suffix –va has been compounded with –ayi or –ai in some village names. For example: Peruvayi, Beluvayi.
Peruvayi. (Peru + vai).Peru= large .Thus, Peruvayi represents a large village or tribal settlement . Peruvayi presently is a village In the southern part of Bantval taluk.
Beluvayi is a village located between Mudabidre and Karkala.
4.Compound suffix –vase
The spatial suffix has been joined with another spatial suffix –se(or –shey) to form –vase or- vaashe compound suffix. For example, Kervashe, Amavase bail, Banavasi, Vashi, Kumbashi etc.
Kervāse: (Ker+va+se). A locality by the side of a lake. (kere). Kervase is a village in Karkal Taluk, Udupi district.
Amvāse bail: (Am+va+se+ bail). Amm possibly refers to an ethnic group dedicated to Amma (mother Godess) worship. Amvase bail is a remote village in Kundapura Taluk, Udupi district.
Banavasi: (bana+va+se). A settlement by the side of forest. A temple town near Sirsi, Uttara Kannada district, famous for relics of Kadamba dynasty.
Vashi: (va+shi). A habitation. A village name from Maharastra. (Vasa= habitation,accomodation).
Kumbashi: ( Kumb+va+se).A village in Kundapura taluk, Udupi district.
5. Evolution of the suffix –var
Though the existence of the antique spatial suffix –va has been explained above in the context of Tulu language and toponyms, it is not exclusive to Tulu but was a common feature of Dravidian languages. This we can realize when we trace the evolution of the suffix –va further along the timeline of thr history and development of the language.
Let us analyse some evolved spatial suffix like –vara or –avara. Note that the suffix –va has had an variant namely –ava, wherein the initial a was mild or almost mute in the beginning.
The -ar (or -ara) is another spatial suffix mostly representing open fields with even surface (somewhat like modern football grounds). The spatial suffix –ar (For example: Bolar, Todar,Adyar,Mijar etc) has been discussed in our earlier posts.
‘Avara’ means an open space in several Indian languages.
There are spate of villages ending with suffix –avar not only in Tulunadu/ Karavali but all over Indian subcontinent showing the spread and/or influence of the Dravidian language group.
Attavara. (atta+va+ara). Atta= other side (of river). Hence Attavara represents an open field/ ground on the other side of the river.Presently, Attavara is an extension in the heart of Mangalore city. The river alluded to in the toponym has been dried up leaving a valley as a relict evidence.
Brahmavara. (Brahma+va+ra). An open field dedicated to the God Brahma. Brahmavara is a prominent town north of Udupi along the NH17. The worship of Lord Brahma connoted in the toponym has been abandoned during the passage of history.The cult of Brahma worship (ca. 1500 BC – 400 CE) once dominant all over India including Karavali has remained in vestial state as ‘Bermer’ in Garodis of Tulunadu.
There are places with suffix –avara in other regions of Karnataka and Indian subcontinent.
Bānāvara (Hassan district, Karnataka)
Kārvāra(Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka)
Some more spatial suffixes.
Suffix -Varse (va+ar+se) or averse or simply -arsey:
Avarse:(a+va+ar+se): a village in Udupi district and another village (Avarsa) near Karavar,Uttara Kannada.
Teggarse: (tegga+ar+sey). An open field of village with teak trees. (tega=teak).
Vasre: (va+se+arey): A village in Kundapur Taluk, Udupi district
6.Divine spatial suffix : Isha+avar
With the introduction of temple culture in ancient Indian cities (ca.4th Century CE onwards) the temple towns were named after the divinities installed.
Ishvara= yIsha (=God)+ avar(field)= Field of God!
There are abundant place names all over India that end with the suffix –ishvara:
Odi bande+ishvara= Odabhandeshvara .(Udupi dt, Karnataka)
Kota+ishvara=Koteshvara.(Udupi dt, Karnataka)
Pandi+ishvara = Pandeshvara.(Dakshina Kannada & Udupi dt, Karnataka)
Soma+ishvara=Someshvara.(Dakshina Kannada & Udupi dt, Karnataka)
Muruda+ishvara=Murudeshvara (Uttara Kannada, Karnataka)
Dhara+ishvara=Dhareshvara(Uttara Kannada, Karnataka)
Naga+ishvara=Nageshvara (Telugu proper name)
Sanke+shwara= Sankeshwara (1.Belagaum, Karnataka; 2. Gujarat)
Venkata+ishvara=Venkateshvara (Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh)[-not a place name]
Following the popular ancient custom of naming temple-towns in with suffix –ishvara, the word ‘Ishvara’ , consequently became an alternate word for representing the ‘God’!
- With inputs from Hosabettu Vishwanath.
Books for Reference
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- TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
- Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999
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