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374. Banga and Bangera Bari

The Bangera ‘bari ‘( ‘gotra’) is one of the common lineage systems prevalent in Tulunadu  and found in most of the Tulu communities. We sh...

Saturday, July 24, 2010

248. Delantabettu


Many people based on an indistinct inference of available human genome haplotype studies believe that Dravidians were the aborigines in southern India. This inference also presumes that Dravidian languages existed and evolved in this terrain since the inception of human evolution. However, the existence of records for input of possible ‘foreign’ language elements in the antiquity may have to be considered in the current linguistic and genetic studies.
Delanta-bettu is a rural region near Surathkal and Surinje in Mangalore Taluk. You may be aware that ‘delanta’ (d in de pronounced mild as in English ‘the’) is a not common word in Tulu parlance! The Tulu suffix ‘bettu’ (like Kannada ‘betta’ or Gujarathi ‘bett’) means an elevated or hilly terrain.
There are other similar place names in other areas of Tulunadu like Delantabettu in Bantval Taluk, Delanta-majalu , near Manila, Bantval Taluk and Delantottu.
But what does the word ‘delanta’ means?
De, the body
The available indications suggest that the ancient root word ‘de’ originally meant ‘human body’ or ‘divine person’. It signifies that human body or persona was treated with utmost respect in the ancient days and the demised persons were worshipped in the form of Spirits. Later words ‘deha’ (=body) and ‘deva’ (=god) evolved with time from the original word ‘de’. It is interesting to note that the word ‘deva’ has other two meanings such as (1) body and (2) male genitalia (cf. Tulu Nighantu, p.1650), implying the origin and evolution of this particular word.This also signifies the transition of original Spirit cult to the worship of anthropo-morphic Gods with passage of time.
Thus the old Tulu word ‘dela’ suggests corpse or dead body.The word dela is found in the word ‘dela-gooDu’, which is a traditional decorated structure built at the site of a buried or cremated corpse. It can be understood that these structures (dela gooDu) were built as a symbol of reverence to the departed soul.These can be compared to the ancient cult of construction of elaborated pyramids to house the departed noble persons in Egypt and other countries. Similarly, Tulu words ‘deyyo’ (=Spirit) and later ‘daiva’ (=Spirit, God) evolved from the original ‘de’. In other languages like Kannada, where the cult of Spirit worship took a back seat with passage of time, this was modified to ‘devva’ (=Ghost or apparition).
With passage of time ‘dela’ also meant temple. Evolving Buddhist cults introduced early temples in India in the form of ‘Stoopa’ where mortal remains of Buddha were preserved and sanctified.Thus Buddhists Stoopa were continuation and improvement of the ancient delagoodu concept.Later Hindu temples evolved following the archetechtural styles invented and introduced by the Buddhists.Thus ‘dela’ became ‘degula’, ‘devala’ or ‘devaālaya’ (=temple).
After the word ‘dela’ was adapted to temples (ca. 4-6 Century CE), it appears that the word ‘delanta’ in Old Tulu was used to indicate aspects relating to divinity or worship and and area or zones reserved for priests.Thus ‘agrahara’ areas related to the temple were known as Delanta -majalu, Delanta-bettu, Delant-ottu etc.The 'Delanta bettu'  in Tulu  is almost equivalent of  'Devara dibba/gudda' in Kannada.
Delanta in Ethiopia
However, the analysis of the word ‘delanta’ as above is not so simple or conclusive. The roots of the core word ‘de’ suggested above, could have been a word originally invented by an early generation of human beings in Africa. Ethiopian region in Africa, where oldest dated human forms were discovered has been considered as the cradle of human species.
Secondly, the word ‘delanta’ as we find in ‘Delantabettu’, like the root word ‘de’, could have been imported to Karavali from Africa along with immigrants during one of the early cycle of human migration from Africa to India. And during the introduction of temple cult period, the pre-existing ancient imported word ‘delanta’ could have been redefined to reflect ‘devanta’ or divine sentiments as per the requirrements of ambient time period.
Delanta is a plateau region or place (name) in Ethiopia Africa known for occurrence of a mineral ‘opal’. There are many people around the globe with a name or surname of ‘Delanta’ or ‘Delante’.

Origin of some of the Tulu words and place names appear mysterious as we delve more deep.However, these mysteries reflect and conform to the overall scheme of human evolution and migration across the continents as accepted currently by the scientists.
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Saturday, July 10, 2010

247. Mangalore place names

A mini dictionary of place names in and around Mangalore city is provided below alphabetically: Most of these PLACE NAMES have been covered  or explained in earlier R POSTS. Alternate possible explanations for the place names are given as (1), (2) etc.
Readers are requested to Check up the list and offer viewpoints wherever they disagree.

Adyapadi= An initial settelement of an unspecified ancient tribes.
Adyar= A field with tree groves. ADi= tree.
Alape, Alupe =A village on the bank of river. Alupe is the original home of Alupa Kings.
Alike= (1) An area on the bank of river (2) An administrative area. (3). A word modified from original ‘Aluve’?
Aluve= An estuary where river joins the Sea.
Attavara= Open area on the other bank of the river.
Baikampadi= A settelment of (1) ‘baikam’ (=beggars) wandering Buddhist monks. Or (2) ‘Baiy’, Baite or ’ Bey sub sect of Munda tribes.
Bajal= A dry area on the river bank.
Bajape=A habitation with dry land (poor water sources) characteristics.
Bijai = An ancient area reserved for Seed (beeja) storage?
Bokkapatna = A port named after Vijaynagar King Bokka.
Bolār= An open field of Bola, white immigrant tribes.
Bolur= A village of Bola, white immigrant tribes
BonDāntila= An habitation of Bond subsect of Munda tribes
Bondel = Originally Bandale, modified by Missionaries.’Bond’ or ‘Bandh’ was a sub sect of Munda tribes.
Derebail =(1) River valley of Dere sect, Dere a sub sect of Munda tribes (2) Devare bail= River valley of Dieties.
Dongarakeri= A colony of Donga subtribes.
Guliga bittil: A colony named after Guliga Spirit. ( This was the old name for the 'old bus stand' area located between Punja Arcade and Bavutagudde (Old light house).)
Gurupur= A village of Gurus (Lingayath preists). 17th CCE.
Hampankatte= A shade under a tree named after a legendary ‘Appanna’ who used to offer water to thiersty travelers.
Hosabettu= A new settlement on a ridge.
Iddya = A village of ‘Ideya’(Yadava) cowherd tribes.
Innoli = (1) A village on the bank of a rough river Netravati. (2) A village of Inna tribes?
Jeppina moger= A river bank where the Netravati river ‘lowered its level’ (ie shifted) during the history.
Kadri= Kadire= (1) A paddy corn distributed during annual agricultural festival. (2) An area legendary for distribution of rice corns.
Kankanadi= A village of Kanka tribes.
Kapikad= A reserved forest (Once upon a time!).
Kannur= (1) A villge of Kanna tribes, (2) An eye shaped island within the Netravati river.
Karangalpadi= A settlement of Karanga (Koranga> Koraga) tribes.
Kavur= A village with reserved, protected groves.(Once upon a time!).
Kinya = (1) An divine African word brought by immigrants, Kin+iya. (2) Small?
Kodikal = A standing pillar like rock on the edge of the village. (Now no longer not exist!)
Kodialbail= The original ‘Kudla’ word has been modified into ‘Kodiyal’.
Kolya= A settelement of Kol tribes.
Konāje= (1) A field (aje) on a corner (‘kona’).(2) A field of buffaloes.
Konchādi= A habitation of Koncha tribes.
Kottara= (1) An open field of Kota or Kotia tribes, or (2) A storage area.
Kudala = (1)An ancient agricultural village on a river bank. (The River has now dried up!). (2) A confluence of two rivers.
Kudroli= Kuduru+Oli. An village on river island. (The old estuary has now been dried up).
Kudumbi-bittil:A colony of Kudumbi tribes.( An area near Phalnir).
Kudupu = An ancient agricultural village.
Kulai= A village with a lake(kula).
Kulshekara= An area named after Alupa King Kulashekara.
Kulur = A village beside a lake (Kula).
Maikala= Mayikala. A town named after an ancient Buddhist temple devoted to Māyi or Mayadevi.
Māladi= A habitation (aDi) of Māle tribes
Mālemar = An agricultural field (mār) of Māle tribes.
Mangala=Later modification (6-9 CCE) of the word, Mangār.
Mangar= (1) An open field of Mang subtribes, or (2) ma+ang+ar= An elevated open field.
Manki= A n village of a) Mang subtribes Mang+ki , or (2) on an elevated area.
Mannagudde = A hill of reddish soils.
Manjanādi= (1) A settlement of Manja tribes (2) A settlement on a elevated land?
Marakada= A river ford beside village of Marava tribes.
Maravur= A village of Marava tribes.
Maroli= A village of Marava tribes.
Mudupu = A reserved village.
Mulur=An ancient village of aboriginal (Moola>. Moolya) tribes.
Naguri= A village named after Nāga (worship) or Nāga tribes.
Nantur= A habitation on a steep cliff.
Neermarga= A road by the side of a river. (The said river is now dried up!)
PachanāDi= A habitation of greenery.
Padavinangadi = An urban area (with shops) on the elevated plateau
Padavu = An elevated lateritic plateau or zone.
PaDavu= A sunken area, formerly occupied by streams.
Padil = An ancient deserted field.
Panambur =A village of Panaba tribes
Pandela= A sea port, a boat yard. Pandi=a large boat.
Pandeshwara =Later modification (6-8 CCE) of the word Pandela.
Parari= A large settlement. Possibly originally it was ‘PerāDi’.
Pavur= A village beside river (Pav=river /flow, a Toda word).  (2) A village named after ‘Pāv’ (=snake) or Nāgas?
Permanki= A large habitation of (a) Mang subtribes or (2) on an elevated area.
Phalnir= Pala Neer.Pāl +nir. Old river course.Area where an ancient river (now dried up) in braided form (or split up).
Saravu= A habitation beside a lake (=’Sara’).Now modified to ‘Sharavu’.
Shaktinagar= A colony named after Ramashakti Mission. (ca. 19th CCE)
Shedigudda = A hill of clays.
Surathkal = Rocks (on the beach ) washed by waves.(Originally ‘Toratt-kall’).
Tannirbāvi= A place named after a cool fresh water well on the beach.
Tiruvail= Originally Tiruvoil. An area where the river Gurupur took a sudden shift turn ( An historical incident of change of river course ) .
Tokkottu = A village/settlement (‘ottu’) on a river valley (‘toke’).Toke+ottu.
Tokur= A village on a valley. Toke+uru.
Uchila = A Village named after ‘Uchu’ (=Nāga).Uchu+ila. Ila=house,habitation,settlement.
Ulaibettu= An island with hilly area. [Probably original name ‘Uliya bettu’ has been modified into Ulaibettu. And the river has shifted its path during the course of history.]
Uliya= an island.
Ullal= Ulla +al= river inside the village. [Ula or Ola=interior or linside; ala=water;river. Now the former river inside Ullal town has been dried up.]
Urwa= Uru+va. A settlement of urban land.
Vamanjur= (1) A village named after Vāma or Oma tribes (2) A village of Vāma/ Oma crop?
Yekkur= A village of Yekka  .
Yeyyadi = An habitation of Yeya (>.Yeda, Yadava) cowherd tribes.
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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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