Monday, January 7, 2008

67. Bunts and Nairs

Contributed by Narayana T.Shetty

The tulu proverb says ”mara puttinalpane, naramani poyinalpane” (tree remains where it grown, man remains anywhere he goes). But a curiosity to know our past, origin still remains in major parts of human beings, including Bunts.
According to paDdanas (oral tradition of tuluva legends) we came from aichatra maDastana. This ahichchatra according to “purananaama choodamani” is a city in uttara paamchaala country of Drupada, the father of Draupadi. This is in “Uttaranchala” state today which is surrounded by Tibet in north and Nepal on east. The city is now called “Ram Nagar”.
According to another legend ahikshetra was a place on the banks of Saraswati river. “ahi” means snake (chiefly serpent). It is believed that we Bunts were “naga or serpent worshipers prior to being buta/boota or spirit worshipers. Of course, we worship our ancestors in spirits (kule) too and thus have various ways/rituals to pray and remember them (agel to kulekulu, new dress to kulekulu, marriage of kule etc.). So there is reason to believe that bunts were mainly serpent worshipers and many groups of us might have come from north.
Nairs or Nayars and bunts belong to same cast. Like Bunts and Nadavas (and other tuluva people) Nairs too follow their own form of inheritance called Marumakkathayam, which is “ali katt”. Bunts have “Nayaranna bali” (bali = matriarchal lineage). Last ruler/king of Kanajar (a village in Karkala Taluk) was Nayar Hegde. In this village it was prohibited to take name of the king. So Kanajar folks always called the plough equipment commonly known as nayer/naver in tulu as guddal (from kannada ‘guddali’). The royal house (oMjane ill) of my village Kowdoor (adjacent to Kanajar) is “Naayara bettu”. Nayara is one of the 93 Bunts surname. Varma is a common surname of Nairs and Bunts.
According to K. M. Parinikar "The Nayars [Nairs] were not a caste, they were a race”. Some think nair is the honorific plural of nayan which is derived from the Sanskrit nayaka (leader).
Again “Nayak” is a Bunts surname, mainly from Nakre village in Karkala Taluk. Majority of Nadavas of North Canara have got surname Nayaka. Father of famous queen Chennamma was Siddappa Shetty and her husband was (Siva) Nayaka.
Others derive nair from the naga (snakes) which they worship. The Brahmin-inspired Keralolpathi regards them as the descendants of the Sudras who accompanied the Brahmin immigrants from outside Kerala. There is a theory that they came from the Nepal Valley, adjacent to Tibet. Some consider them to be early descendants of the Newars of Nepal. Serpent worship is one of common custom between the Newars and Nairs. Dr. Zacharias Thundy’s theory is that groups of Newars who were partially Aryanized and would be later Dravidianized joined the Munda exodus and finally settled down in Kerala after a long period of sojourn in the eastern plains of Tamil Nadu. The Nairs were in Kerala before the Brahmins arrived in the seventh century A.D. The Chera kings were Nairs, and the Nairs were also Dravidians and not Kshatriya Aryans; the Brahmins, in fact, considered them as Sudras.
If I am not wrong “Mundal” of Tulunadu and the “Munda” have same synonym.
There is also a belief that the Nairs are Nagas and were already present in Kerala when Namboodiris came to Kerala. Nairs were martial Dravidian Nagas who had migrated like them, from the North. Like Bunts, affinity of the Nair community to Serpents and Serpent worship is indisputable. The mythical version says that Nairs being Kshatriyas belonging to the Nagavansham who removed their “Janivara” (sacred thread) and escaped to south to evade Parasurama. In the old Tamil texts, the Nairs were mentioned as Naka (Naga) Lords who ruled as feudal lords in the Chera kingdom.

-Contributed by N.T.Shetty


  1. Integration of Nadvas and Bunts took place in south kanara and happened around 40-50 years back But for the reasons not known to many of us attempt was not made for integration of nadvas of Uttara kannada and Bunts of South Kanara. Community leaders should act on this.
    V M Naik.

  2. Good article on the history of Bunts.
    Thank you.

  3. The migration of Brahmins and their Naga slaves from Ahichatra is mentioned in Keralolpathi as well Gramapaddathi of Tulunadu. Naayara or Nairs are definitely a branch of Bunts of Tulunadu. Bunts and Nairs are perhaps of Naga descent perhaps with a Scythians otherwise called in India as Saka. The Saka invaded India around 200 BC. The Nairi people of Central asia with their Mittanian Aryan rulers were defeated and assimilated by the Scythians around 600 BC. Scythians were a martial people of central asia who often went for long raiding trips against the cities of Persia and other Hindu nations of then Afghanistan. Scythians practiced Matriarchy,Polyandry and Slavery.Nairis were a sub group of Scythians. Nairi surname exists among many people from North India Nayyars, Nehrajats and Nepalese Newars. Nairs of Kerala also may have Nairi blood who had mixed with the Nagas of Ahichatra.

    Varma could be a surname of Bunts but in Kerala Varma title is used by only Kshatriyas and not by Nairs who were considered Sudras. Nairs or often considered Sudras by Kshatriyas. Kerala Kshatriyas may descend from original Tamil rulers such as Cheras, Pandiyas and Ays who mixed with the Kolathiris or Chirakkal dynasty of which established them at the Northern part of Kerala after the end of Chera Kingdom.
    The Chera kings were full blooded Tamils belonging to Villavar (Bowman or Archer) clan who assumed the title Villavar kon (Archer king). The Chera flag displayed the Bow and Arrow insignia of Villavars. The Chera kings had the title Alwar. The Chera kings practiced Jainism and Dravidian form of Hinduism.The Billava community of Karnataka could be the closest relatives of Villavar or the Chera people.
    The ancient rulers of Kerala such as Cheras, Pandiyas, Ays(Ayar) and Vels and Vellalas were Tamils went for a decline only after the fall of Chera kingdom at 1120 ad.
    The Pandiyas were a mixture of Villavars (Bowmen) and Meenavars (fishermen) two ancient Tamil Clans. The ancient Pandiyan kingdom included Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Souhern Karnataka including Tulunadu. The Pandya Kingdom is mentioned in the Ramayana with the same boundaries. The Alupas of Karnataka were a branch of Pandiyas. The lords of Pandiyan kingdom were called Nadalwar and the Nadava could be a corruption of the same. The Nadalvars of Tulunadu might have belonged to Alupas kingdom. The merging of some Nadalvar with ethnically different Bunts might have occurred after the collapse of Alupas kingdom.

    Nairs were Nagas from Ahichatra, not ethnic Tamils.Nairs appeared in Kerala History very late only by the end of first Millenium after the repeated attacks and occupation of Kerala by Rashtrakuta forces. Nairs perhaps never talked Tamil but the Prakrit or some other Aryan tongue. Nairs did mix with few Dravidian clans including Vellalas. The arrival of Nairs led to the mixture of Tamil with Prakrit and Sanskrit words converting the language to Malayalam.
    In the early period of Dravidian History Nagas were regarded as the worst enemies of ancient Tamils and Nagas were not related to Dravidians. Kalithokai an ancient Tamil book says about a fierce war fought by Villavars(Cheras) and Meenavars(Pandiyas) against the Nagas in which the Dravidians lost the central India, the presentday Madhyapradesh area to Nagas. Though some Nagas migrated to Tamil Nadu and Kerala before 2000 yrs and served in the army of Cheras and Pandiyas they were not related to Nairs.
    Dravidians, Nagas and Aryans were three completely different ethnic groups who had completely different traits.
    Similarly the Nayaka or Pada Nayakan is a Tamil title for army generals from Vellala community not of Nairs.
    Newars of Nepal could be the relatives of Nairs as the Newar architecture closely resemble that of the Nalu kettu of Nairs. Nairs even now display the slightly mongoloid features, yellowish skin, sharper features who closely resemble Nepalese or the highlanders of Uttranjal.
    Mundas and Santhals were ethnically different from Dravidians , speak a Austro Asiatic language. Munda exodus is the imagination of foreign missionaries working in the Central India.
    The Keralolpathi mentions the story of Rashtrakuta attack clearly. The Namboothiris of Perunchellur (Thalipparamba) requested the Aryan king of north from Arya pura called Krishna Rayar, the Rashtrakuta king Krishna to send them one Cheraman Perumal !. Krishna Rayar sent one Banapperumal with a Nair Army of 350000 soldiers led by one Pada Mala Nair. The Banapperumal assumed the title Cheraman Perumal and started ruling from Chitra Koodam in the Kolathu Nadu. This pretending Cheraman Perumal was not Tamil but a Arya Kshatriya send by Krishna Rayar according to Keralolpathi. The Ezhi Booban or Kolathiri was the descendent of this Cheraman Perumal according to Keralolpathi. Nairs perhaps came with the Rashtrakuta army at the end of Rashtrakuta kingdom. This Banapperumal was a Buddhist but converted to Islam and went to Macca according to Keralolpathi after dividing his country to his relatives. Keralolpathi calles him Arya Kshatriya and obviously he was not related to Nairs.
    The Nagas including Nairs became powerful in Kerala after the Muslim invasion of Malik Kafir at around 1309. All the Dravidian kingdoms of south India was destroyed in that war.
    Till then Keralas kings were of Tamil origin and were practicing Patriarchal descendency. After 1314 Nagas including Nairs became absolutely powerful in Kerala. Soon after the 1314 all the Tamil kingdoms were forced to accept princesses from Royal house Kolathiris and Matriarchy.
    Naga customs were never adopted by the Dravidians of Kerala who still practice Patriarchy and age old customs till date.Matriarchy, Polyandry and other practices of Nairs were never accepted by the people of Dravidian and Tamil origin who even now make the majority of Hindus in Kerala.
    The colonial powers supported the Nair dominated prinicipalities with their army and spice money which gave a new lease of life for these Rashtrakuta Naga kingdoms for another five hundred years where the old Dravidians,lived as slaves.
    Between 1300 to 1600 period all the Jain temples and Dravidian temples were occupied by Nairs and Namboothiris while banning the Dravidians entry into the temples.
    Even now many Kerala Temple has a Jain or Dravidian deity such as Kannagi or Mari but all called Bhagavati.Temple of Kannagi a Jain goddess,the goddesses of Chastity was built by the ancient Chera king Chenguttuvan at 2nd century even now survives as Kodungallur Kurumba Bhagavathi temple.

  4. "Nairis were a sub group of Scythians."
    -Do we have any evidences for this point?

  5. The Manual of Madras Administration Vol II (printed in 1885) notes that the Nadavas are the same people as the Nairs of Malabar(Kerala) and the Bunts of southern Tulu Nadu:
    "They appear to have entered Malabar from the North rather than the South and to have peopled first the Tulu, and then the Malayalam country. They were probably the off-shoot of some colony in the Konkan or the Deccan. In Malabar and south of Kanara as far as Kasargod, they are called Nayars and their language is Malayalam. From Kasargod to Brahmavar, they are termed as Bunts and speak Tulu. To the north of Brahmavar, they are called Nadavars, and they speak Kanarese.

  6. the present cast system and Malayalam language itself comes around 1000-1200 years ago. The present day keralam before that period was a part of "thamizakam"and the language was "chenthamiz", during"sankakalam" and later cheras,cholas and pandyas were the three prominent rulers of "thamizakam"."muziris" was the most important city of "cherakkam". Uzavar,panner, parayar,parathar(fishermen),kurumber were the main casts of that time, cheras were the ruling class people and they worshipped nagas,amma(devi,amman) deities they were followers of shaktheya shivasim based on tantrics. majority people were uzavas (farmers) and paravans(fishermen)who followed Buddha dharma came through sinhalam(lanka).later majority of uzavas became ezavas and thiyyas(means people from ezham (sreelanka probably the monks are come from lanka,any way no big migration from sreelanka not reported),deepu (island))and good portion of paravans became chiristans and Muslims. Jainism came through mysoor and Karnataka, they also had good followers among locals.Muziris, maduri,panthalayanikollam,vizinjam such cities and costal areas had roman,jewish,arab,chinies settlements, thus the 3 Semitic religions came to India, there were few Aryans(Brahmans) also settled in these cities but that time they were neither influential nor have any significant presence in society.

    Brahmin settlement start much later stage around AD 7-10 centuries. They came to kerala from tulunadu under kadamba king mayurasharma's directions and settled in 32 gramams (story is that thety come from “achitram with warriors and servents later they also assimilated to nairs).

    Then came 100 years of war between cheras and cholas, at 1st cheras lost heavily and chera power started to vanish, this time with the help of Brahmins cheras formed "chavers"(suicide squads) and finally cholas defeated, during this time social system started to change, Brahmins got upper hand in society ,cheras lost their men’s in battle field,chera women’s accept Brahmin partners, matriactial system started, these Brahmins received local customs and imposed their vedic and knowledge and became namputhiris , their childrens and relatives from cheras and (rashtrakuta rajputs and nagas,sithiyans and some Dravidian nobility also assimilated to nairs) became nairs, adisankara established Brahmin supremacy among other ideologies especially among budha dharma, and namputhries accept and accommodate so many local believes and rituals such as chera king of ancient time"vell kezu kettavan" myth became parasurama myth etc. then the last ruler of cheras converted to Islam( or budhisiam) and divided the country among his relatives and generals. Each village was under one nair lord and these lords are reported to some greater power known as” swaroopams” and there were so many of them in that time and all of these kings/rulers were NAIRS EXCEPT THREE BRAHIMN RULERS (that is Edappaly Nampiyathiri,Vegnattu Nampidi and Ambalapuzha nethra narayanan) including the most powerful Samuthiri and Venad kings. There were so many subcast among nairs and they strictly practiced untouchablity and rigid practices

  7. hi,the nadavaru of ankola,kumta are not related to the bunts.they do not practice matrilineality and serpent worship which is integral to bunts,nairs culture.i have seen these nadavaru trying to show relation to us bunts but they are not related expect that naadava and nadavaru sound similar.but bunt nadava and nadavaru are completely different

  8. hi,iam a bunt originally from udupi and the paddanas i have heard mention us the bunts as nagavansham kshatriya the original nagaradhakas(serpent worshippers) who came from the serpent kingdom of akshikshetra in the north(Badakaye in tulu).akshikshetra is somewhere in uttarakhand near nepal-tibet border.there newars or newari people are known to be serpent worshipphers.Do we have a connection to them.Also many of us bunts atleast i have slight mongloid feautures not very prevalent but you can observe many of us bunts not all have sligtly smaller eyes like b.r.shetty or ajit shetty of jannsen pharmaceuticals or even aishwarya rai who eyes are slightly smaller and curved.this again points to scythian naga origins what say?.bunts are also the comeliest people in south india.some of us bunts are tanned but never dark.

    1. Where Paraná has mentioned it?.I have read about nadavars mooguveras and billvas are the original people of the coastal side and there r like sisters. Bunts are not mentioned. As far this naga thing which the Nair's adopted from the kurubas Kannada yadavas when they were made to staying region. Both Nair's and bunts came from north. Mysore the naga nadu. Any civilisation u take naga r the first to form it. Even in African the Egyptian r considered master race. They r nagas present day Sudanese r biblical Egyptians. As far nagas in India they r indigenous people who r present in karanata. The kurubas form the largest indigenous group. They have oldest custuma and traditions kept even today.the Scythian is not vedic origin. They entered India around 2century ad. As the Nepal naga worship is consider it was taken to Nepal by malla from mysore even the kumari tradition comes from Kannada people of mysore. the Kannada kingdom which was ruling that region. In up and Bihar they do not celebrate. Mahisasura mardini went to Bengal when senus who r karnatic khastriyas entered Bengal. Scythian breed has adopted the traditions quite late. Same with rajput and Punjabi and western up where Scythian population is more. The original people.of western up r andra people not telenagan. Telangan maharastea are basically kanaresa origin. Scythian breed like bunt and nair no went in vedic history or blood. It is only after the British given western education these community became successful. Before British era the condition of bunts and nairs in Kerala is very different. Swami vivekanan called Kerala has mental asylum. Quite shocking when read the book but it is true. There was no thali padathi no that great customs and even the girls r left freely to wonder. In up region the brahmins were warned not enter to punchanadu that is Punjab. Women r left freely and too much of drinks non veg illegal relationship when scythian breed entered in to india this is how they were. Even the so called Jews in isreal r Scythian by origin. They think that they r the children of abrahmin. But the children abrahmin r sark race. Entire history including the bible has been edited to fit the whites in missile east. But the truth is very different. Get out of this internet garbage start reading books.

  9. Jai Menon:
    The homeland of Nairs and Bunts, that is the region of Malabar (North kerala) and south canara is one of the beautiful places in India in terms of the natural riches. Bunts of South Canara, kodavas and the Nairs of Malabar are culturally and ethnically related. Most of them are lighter skinned, they dont have resemblence to the low castes of mainland south. One can notice the cultural continuity in the people of south west coast from Karwar to Calicut. These people are different from the mainland south of Tamils, and telugus or kannadigas in bangalore region. The physical separation of the imposing western ghats is very clear. That also adds to the possibility that 1000-2000 years back not many people lives west of Sahyadri, as the Konkan or south west coast was called no man'd land. Except for the low caste tribals in kerala who lived in the mountains, the coastal plains in malabar were always ruled by the Nairs. It is important for the growth ofthese regions that the major capitals like Mangalore and Calicut prospered and became important cultural centers. Today so many Nairs and Bunts have migrated to Bombay and Bangalore that nobody has the affinity to their homeland. We should have created a common state of South Canara and North Kerala with Mangalore as capital. The rise of BJP in Canara is a clear sign of the Hindu cultural nationalism of this region. Calicut which was once the greatest capital of Nairs, of the Nair kings of Zamorin, were dominate by Hindu culture, which is very much visible in the strong RSS bastion of Kannur and Thalassery. I dont support any form of violent means to impose one's ideas, neither I believe in religious bigotry. But the decline of Hindu cultural domination in Calicut happened because of a brief period of muslim rule by Tippu sultan, and the population explosion of muslims in North kerala. It is important to regain the Hindu cultural nationalistic spirit in south canara and North kerala.
    I love people of south canara and I wish mangalore rises to become an important capital in south west coast the home of the Nagas or scythian nairs and Bunts.
    Jai Hind

  10. Jai Menon:
    The homeland of Nairs and Bunts, that is the region of Malabar (North kerala) and south canara, is one of the beautiful places in India in terms of the natural riches, green forests, great ecological treasure. Bunts of South Canara, kodavas, and the Nairs of Malabar are culturally and ethnically related. Most of them are lighter skinned, they dont have resemblence to other low castes of mainland south, esp the converted low-caste christians in kerala. One can notice the cultural continuity in the people of south-west or konkan coast from Karwar to Calicut. They are different from the people of mainland south like Tamils, and telugus or kannadigas of bangalore region. The geographical separation created by the imposing western ghats is very clear in terms of lifestyles. That also explains the possibility that 1500-2000 years back not many people lived west of the Sahyadri mountains, as the Konkan or south west coast was called no man's land. The Shakas along with Tulu and kerala Brahmins obviously migrated from the north konkan into malabar. The culuturally different lower caste kerala tribals lived in the mountains bordering Tamilnadu, and they were enslaved by the ruling Nairs; the coastal plains of Malabar were always ruled by the Nair kings. Today, it is very important for the development of these regions that the major capitals like Mangalore and Calicut in malabar became important Hindu cultural centers. Today so many Nairs and Bunts have migrated to Bombay and Bangalore that nobody has the affinity to their homeland. We should have created a common twin state of South Canara and North Kerala with Mangalore as capital. The rise of BJP in Canara is a very clear sign of the spirit of Hindu cultural nationalism of this region. Calicut which was once the greatest capital of Nairs, of the Nair kings of Zamorin, was dominated by Hindu culture and civilization, and it is very much visible in the strong RSS bastion of Calicut, Kannur and Thalassery. The low caste supporters of CPM are a huge nuisance here. I dont support any form of violent means to impose one's ideas, neither I believe in religious bigotry.
    But as a Hindustani, it pains me to see the decline of Hindu cultural domination in North kerala region, it happened mainly because of a brief period of muslim rule by Tippu sultan, and the recent population explosion of muslims in North kerala. Muslims have evicted hindu population from many regions in north kerala. It is important to regain the Hindu cultural nationalistic spirit in south canara and North kerala.
    I would encourage Bunts and Kodavas to travel to Hindu Nair cultural centers in North kerala, it is a great experience. I love people of south canara and I wish mangalore rises to become an important capital in south west coast the home of the Nagas or scythian Nairs and Bunts.
    Jai Hind

    1. @ Jai Menon,

      It is true that the Nairs of Kerala and the Bunts of Tulunad have many things in common- both racially and culturally. This should be taken up by anthropologists and historians to be studied in detail.

      Wanted to point out a mistake in your reply. You said, the Nairs have no similarity with the "converted Low caste Christians of Kerala". Well, if you are aware of the ethnic groups of Kerala, you would know that there are 3 types of Christians that actually function as 3 distinct castes within the larger Christian frame :

      1.The Syrian Christians - The oldest Christian community in the country. They have their origins from West Asian traders who intermarried with the local population of Kerala as early as the 5th/6th century AD. They have made immense contributions to the state of Kerala, particularly in the fields of Agriculture, Commerce & Banking, Health and Education. Today they surpass every other community in Kerala in terms of socioeconomic significance. They constitute the largest group among the Forward Castes in the state.

      2. The Latin Christians - They are the descendants of those converted to Catholicism in the 16nth and 17nth centuries by the Portuguese missionaries. They were mostly converted from backward castes such as 'Mukkuvars' (Fishermen), Ezhavas etc.

      3. The Missionary converts - These are the latest group of Christians according to the chronology of origin. They were converted mainly from the depressed classes (SC/STs such as Pulayas, Parayas, Arayans etc) by the protestant European missionaries. They presently belong to various churches such as Pentecostal, CSI etc.

      Having said that, The first category of Christians, called the Syrian Christians, are not to be confused with the last two categories, as they have nothing in common with them, be it racially or culturally. So, your comment that the Kerala Christians are all converted from the lower castes have absolutely no validity.

    2. It is proved beyond doubt that the initial converts to Christianity (Nasranis) were Saiva Vellalas (Enna Chetti) from Kollam. The famed Manorama (MRF) scion has personally admitted that his ancestors were Saiva Vellalas.

  11. The bunts and nairs definitely do not have north indian connection , the reasin being in north india hinduism was very strong , the nairs and bunts embraced hinduism very late basically after the brahmins came down to south. This is the reason why inspite the bunts and nairs being waariors by profession were never considered as Kshatriyas by the brahmins but shudras

  12. How long Kerala people live in the world of stupidity of Keralothpathi and suffering from anti Brahmin phobia. The problem with Keralites is that they don't want to identify with Tamil but call themselves as Dravidians. Mahabali never ruled Kerala. As per Valmiki Ramayana Sage Viswamithra during his sojourn to Mithila shows Siddhashrama and narrates Bali story. The Mahabali legend is always associated with AKASH GANGA I.e., water washed by Brahma for Vamana formed River AKASH Gang a. If Bali was king of Kerala where was AKASH Ganga in Kerala? Kerala unlike other south Indian states does not have history in the absence of inscriptions, copper plates or literature. Primarily it was a trading center unconnected with mainland. That was why Cholas ransacked since the conglomeration of trading groups without authority endangered other south Indian maritime groups. The Pallava Chola Rule was dominated by maritime trade interest of south east Asia which successfully competed both Chinese and ArabTrade. The decline of Cholas is annihilation of south Indian trade guild due to assassination of ATHRAJENDRA by Kalyani Chalukyas who did not fully support south Indian trade guilds in overseas trade. From time immemorial India is the only country where religion was sustained by merchant guilds. Up to the rise of Cholas Buddhism and Jainism thrived and there was no Hinduism in North up to First century AD. THE RISE of Kadambas and their matrimonial alliance with Guptas paved the way for consolidation of Saivism/Vaishnavism. This is pereceptile from the fact that Satakarnis and others were dichotomic. They were Buddhists/Jains but performed all vedic rites. Hence the talk of Brahmin immigration etc., is utter nonsense. Unless Keralites throw Kerothpathi and others to dustbin they will be living in illusory world of Namboothiris taking their history only to seven hundred years

  13. Indians shy away from facing crisis which is eulogised as philosophical attitude and lack of history. But that is not correct. They wait for somebody to do research make findings train somebody out of available lot and others will gather knowledge from the trained lot and criticize when such knowledge fails dubbing the poor trained people as stooges. This happens in science technology law and all other walks of life. In the case of history India waited for arrival of William Jones to John Marshall and began to tread on the paths already made. Another classic case is HINDU LAW which was enacted by Britishers with commentary by Mulla.The term Hindu is a residuary term. Strictly it can be allowed only who follow Smrithis. The South Indian Brahmins follow Grihya Sutras which is mainly temporal and not at all secular concerning mainly with evolution of birth and successive events after death including rebirth. It has nothing to do with property rights which is only incidental. The import of Grihya Sutras can be understood only when one follows the concept of Chaitanya Swaroopa of Sri Aurobindo. The reliance on Manu Smrithi is even more puzzling. It has never occurred to Indian historians how can Manu the first progenitor of Mankind can speak about Mlechchas, degraded Kshatriyas since the latter have evolved after a long span of yugas. It has never occurred to Indian historians how can there be two kinds of evolution the Chatur varna as springing from Lord Brahma simultaneously having MANU a Kshatriya being the first born. Thus we are having two opposing evolution the first man being a Kshatriya and simultaneously seven Rishis from whom Brahmins trace their origin. The Brahmin chronicles never has answer how Chatur Varna evolved or the Chatur varna applies to progenis of seven Rishis. The Foremost Rishi Kashyapa is simultaneously a Prajapathi from whom different Ganas sprang Devas, Nagas, Asuras etc., It should be noted that out of eighteen ganas only Devas Rakshasas and Manushyas have Chatur Varnas. Other Ganas like Gandharvas, Danavas, Asuras and Nagas don't have Varna system. Further the evolution of categorization of Kshatriyas under five categories of Brahma/Surya/Chandra/Agni/Naga has not been analysed and how can there be two streams of Kshatriyas one under Varna system and another independent of Varna system. Just as of now there are so many reference books Manu Smriti acted only as reference book ingeniously translated into Sanskrit by some intelligent persons. It is a standard practice in Sanskrit to refer anything to Brahmins since nobody is offended just as Tamil Brahmin is taken for granted for making fun in Tamil/Hindi operas. It is more visible in inscriptions of Chalukyas where Dandanayakas Vanigyas or Hergedde everybody will be Brahmins which is not the case in any other part of country except Bengal due to presence of Brahmaksatriyas and nobody knows who really is a Brahmins. The whole ridicule started from Nanda who claimed as Brahmakshatriyas though they were termed as Ambashtas followed by Sungas Kanvas and all Deccan kingdoms starting from Satarkanis to Chalukyas. Let us stop Brahmin baiting and correct the historical injustice done to Original Brahmins descended from seven Rishis vis a vis KAL BRAHMINS(KALABRAS, FALSE BRAHMINS) shifting the entire blame to them by the dubious Brahmins starting from Nandas to Chalukyas which was unfortunately followed by Namboothiris and Peshwas.

  14. Nairs in Kerala has been classified has Shudras by Brahmins, the nairs are subsects of Bunts. Bunt in kannada means bonded slave or enslaved. Nairs show there presence first before Bunts in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi region and brahmins who moved them to kerala, the bunts in the coastal side came later.

    Brahmins in kerala have classified Nairs as Shudras. Nairs show scythian origin similar to that of Jats, Rajputs. Scythian(saka came to India in 200 AD. They entered vedic system quite late. Please do research on Scythian(saka race entering India). It is Rastrakuta dynasty who brought nairs from North to serve under brahmins. Before the colony British period, the history is very clear of who is what.

    For more Read "KERALA mENTAL aSYLUM" by Swami Vivekananda. The atrocity of Brahmins on Nairs and Bunts are well described.

    1. Comments, viewpoints, research tips are all welcome in the interest of everyone concerned and in the interest of reconstruction of authentic history.
      ...But, be kind enough to spell out your name.

  15. @jacob j Most syrian christians were ezhava converts who claim brahmin origin to escape casteism,in 1815 forced labour or oozhiyam which was imposed on travancore syrian christians was abolished by dewan reddy rao
    Syrians dominate liqour trade just like ezhavas-that itself is the link which proves common ancestry


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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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