Friday, July 22, 2011

284. Vorkady : An Ethnonym

“Eeru Enmura Deyyu? Moole balle Orkaaduda kurle jaitu paadla”
Translation from Tulu: Are you Deyyu of Enmur? Come here, and listen: Go and defeat the piglets of Vorkady.”
(It is a string of a Tulu PaDdana, cited in Tulu Lexicon). 
(Male pig is usually called as ‘vargale’ in Tulu language.  Thus the term ‘kurle’(=piglet) might have been used in a contemptuous manner. This we can imagine scenes from the history of frequent fighting among feudal kings of yore in Tulu Nadu.)
On the trail of Vorkady
Vorkady is a village of Manjeshwara taluka, Kasaragod District, Kerala.  Kasaragod was the southern tip of Tulu Nadu earlier, now merged with Kerala State.According to the 'Gramapaddhati', Tulunadu is divided into 32 Villages - 16 Western and 16 Eastern.   Varkadi. or Vorkady is one of the sixteen Western Villages of Tulunadu wherein Brahmanas are settled originally.The rivulet is a tributary of Bangra Manjeshwar River. There is an ancient about 600year old  Subrahmanya temple in this village.‘Vorku’ or ‘Orku’ in general means ‘increasing in volume’ (like liquids, etc.).  We cannot say how it applies to Vorkady.  An attempt is made to analyse this Place name.
1.     Varaka+di: Varaka means jack fruit in Tamil and Sri Lanka.  In Tulu, it is known as ‘Barake/Barike or Barke’ (Note: Transition of ‘va’ to ‘ba’ is common in Indian languages). ‘Barike’ is used tautologically in ‘Barike Pelakkāyi, meaning a variety of jack-fruit with hard supple edible pulp. Here ‘Barike’ has dual meaning as ‘hard or tough’, besides jack-fruit itself in repetition. So it could be a village where jack fruits are available in plenty.
2.     Varike (Barike>Barke) + adi: If we quote from Census of India-1901, “Barika literally means a village watchman.  In the Deccan Districts, they are usually ‘Balijas’ and entries of the name is clubbed with the caste.”  In Tulu Nadu, Barike/Barke is a title of landed gentry, serving feudal Chieftain of the area (as is the case with Bhondaries of Ganjam, Orissa – q.v. Census-1901). These clans are known by their manor houses, like Barike, Guttu, Parari, etc.  They are below the ‘Beeduda’ (‘Booduda’) Arasu (King).  So Vorkady (Varike+ady) is a village having manor house of a Bunt with the status of Varike/Barike.  When Hoysala Ballals ruled Tulu Nadu, their Chieftains were assisted by Barike Gaudas/Gouds, who migrated from Kodagu and Hasan on the eastern slope of Sahyadri (Western Ghats).  Even when there is a change of overlordship, those Gaudas stayed back and served under local chieftains. Gaudas are tough people.  It is possible that  Barike/Barke gained the meaning of ‘hard’ (supple), as the pulp of a fruit (cf DED 5268).  Jack-fruit with soft pulp is called ‘Tuluve (soft juicy pulpy) pelakkayi’ in Tulu.

The other possibilities are:
3.     Vor+ka+adi : One portion of forest region. A dry region with forest cover.
4.     Varak+adi:  Varaku/Varak means ‘foil or leaf of gold’.  Could it be a place named after goldsmiths (Merchant class of artisans), who possibly outnumbered other class of people?
5.     Varaka +adi:  Varaka (Oraka) has meaning of ‘a spring or fountain’ (q.v. TL-p.2782). The Village could have a watershed, providing perennial water supply. There is a small rivulet and an ancient and famous Subramanya Temple is located on one of its banks.’ Varu/Varaka’ has the meaning of canal for irrigation in Southern Dravidian languages. In Kui language, it means ‘water channel, stream, torrent or flood’ (q.v. DED-S/N-4342).
We could conclude, based on the expositions, that Vorkady is an ethnonym and eponym, possibly derived from the name of the ‘Barke’ families once upon a time. Or it could have been village famous for a class of jack fruits.  The families must be the representatives of the Feudal Lord of the region for local administration.
-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Saturday, July 16, 2011

283. Aggargona, Agumbe: Aga/Agher tribes

A river flowing by Kumta town and to the South of piligrimage centre of Gokarna in Uttara Kannada District is known as Aghanäshini. Aghanäshini in Sanskrit means destroyer (näshini) of sins (agha).While you may be wondering why this particular river was named as destroyer of sins, you shall encounter a place called ‘Aggar-goNa’ in the surrounding region.
Aggargona is a village in Kumta Taluk named after ‘Agher’ (pronounced as Agyer or ‘Aaghers’). Aaghers are a backward tribe distributed in parts of Uttara Kannada district. Aagher is a collective noun wherein the plural suffix ‘–er’ refer to a group of Aga tribes.In Munda tribal belts of Northern India they are known as Agariya.
The place name Aggar-gona could have come from agar, the Marathi word for salt pan, or from the Agher  (Agar or Agari) communities that involved themselves traditionally in the manufacture os common salt from the sea water.
Thus, it can be suggested that Agha in the River name Agha-nashini is derived from the Aagha tribes. And the suffix Näshini was attached to the Agha just to complete the Sanskrit nomenclature. Some of the random places named after Aga tribes in India have been recalled here below:
Agumbe, the hill station famous for a charming sunset on the Sahyadri range in Shimoga district is again named after the Agha tribes.
Agari is a hamlet near Bajpe, Mangalore Taluk.
Agadi: Aga+di village in Belgaum district is suggestive of an ancient habitation of Aga tribes.
Agartala: A place named after Aga(r) tribes.
Agastya: An ancient sage mentioned in Sanskrit as well as Tamil Sangam literature. In his name you can find the prefix ‘Ag(h)a’ suggesting his connection with Agha tribes.
Aga/ Agariya tribes: The Aga or Agariya are an Austro-Asiatic Munda group of tribes, possibly part of the pre-Dravidian settlers in India.
Similarly, 'Agri'  appears to be an variant of the tribe 'Ag'.  'Agri' and 'Koli' are original ethnic (fisherman) tribes of Mumbai and other Konkan coastal belt.  Agri (Ag+ri) is a village in Ghansoli of New Mumbai. There is one 'Agripada' in Central Mumbai and other at Danda-Agripada in Bandra-Khar belt.  Similarly Agari hamlets exist in the Karavli also. Kolis speak Marathi and Agri-Kolis speaks a mixture of Marathi, Hindi, Sanskrit and Kannada .
Like Kols the Aga/Agar/Agariya tribes were involved with metal smelting. The tribal word ‘Ag’ probably supplied the root for the Prakrit /Hindi word ‘Aag’ for fire.
Salt makers
Agar in Marathi means salt pan or bounded farm. In Uttara Kannada district,Karnataka, near Aggargona and Gokarna, traditional salt making industries do exist. The saline water from the tidal stretches are spread on open agricultural fields and are allowed to dry up under the Sun. Desiccation of saline water forms crystals of common salt that are eventually gathered and marketed.Similar native salt making industries prevailed all along the coast since antiquity.
According to legends prevailing among Agari (also known as Agle) tribes in Maharastra, Agela and Mangela were two sons of the sage Agastya.On growing up Agela pursued the art of producing common salt from sea water, wheras Mangela became a fisherman.

Mangala Poojari
Mahakulastri Ammanavaru temple at Benne Kuduru near Barkur, Udupi district is the major centre of worship for Mogaveeras of Tulunadu. The mother Goddess temple is managed by preists designated as Mangala Pojaris. The origin of the word Mangala comes from the name of fisher tribe of Maharastra, the Mangelas. It term reveals that the temple was traditionally owned and maintained by fisher tribes of Mangela who have been known as Mangala Poojaris with passage of time.
-Ravi and Vishwanath.

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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