Monday, March 24, 2008

104. Formation of Barrier Spits

A barrier Spit is a coastal sandy strip of land bound by the Sea on one side and river on the other. The Bengare to Tannirbavi coastal strip west of Mangalore is a Barrier Spit. As explained in a previous post in this blog, the Bengare- Tannirbavi Barrier Spit was formed by the migration of Gurupur River in the year 1887.
However, this not the only Barrier Spit formed in the recent past history. Oral tradition preserved with the elderly people of Karavali, suggest that several Barrier Spits along the Karavali were formed in the recent past centuries, even though the exact dates are not remembered.

Mulki –Sasihitlu Spit
The Bappanad temple, Mulki, has been shifted and re-built at the present location about a couple of centuries ago. The elderly people at Mulki report that the Bappanad temple was located on the banks of Mulki River near the old port of Mulki, about half a kilometer east of the present position of the temple. At that time the merchant ships have had direct entrance to the Mulki River from the Sea.
The data suggests that the mouth of Mulki river has been shifted southwards during the recent past centuries like River Gurupur.

Hoode –Bengare Spit
Similar anecdotes are available for the Hoode-Bengare Spit in Udupi taluk where Swarna and Sita Rivers join the Sea. Oral reports from the elderly people to their young ones explain how the rivers changed their course of flow during a story monsoon.

Kapu-Udyavara Spit
One more barrier Spit exists along the Kapu-Kaipunjal–Polipu-Udyavara coast. The Udyavara River takes a northward bend parallel to the coastline forming a thin Barrier Spit that ends near Malpe. This also could have happened during the recent past like the other Spits cited above.

Time of Spit formation
Documentation of date/year of these Spit formation is important for historical as well as geo-morphological studies. It appears that this type of information is available only obscurely in oral tradition, where grandfathers/grandmothers describe the wonder of the nature to their kids.
Or it is possible that some people with sharp sense of history and documentation may have recorded the date/year and nature of such changes. Anybody having any authentic relevant information on these natural changes may kindly pass on the information to this blogger for the benefit of the society in general.

Saturday, March 22, 2008

103. Rituals of religious transitions

The Karavali/Tulunadu is a mini India where one can study the cultural vestiges of the transition of religious cults that occurred down the time lane of history. The Spirit worship was introduced to Karavali/Tulunadu ca.750-600 BC followed by Buddhism and Jainism ca.300BC and mainstream Hindu temple culture ca.350-400 CE. Infact, all these religious cults are related to each other in some way or the other, being born and grown in the Indian subcontinent under different spatial-temporal environments.

Mainstream Hinduism
Our writers and philosophers have a tendency to brand the mainstream Temple culture, relating to the worship of Gods Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu etc as Vedic culture. That may not be the true picture of facts. Many of the core concepts of the Temple culture are pre-Vedic in origin and some of the concepts have obviously been added in the post Vedic period. And if we are referring to the word ‘Hinduism’ to the set of beliefs and practices grown and practiced in this country then the word ‘Hinduism’ should rightfully include Spirit worship, Jainism and Buddhism along with the mainstream Temple culture. Therefore this blog has preferred to use the distinguishing word ‘mainstream Hinduism’ to represent what other authors generally refer to as Vedic culture.

An image of flag-hoisting ceremony, Bappanad Durga temple,Mulky.

Rituals of transition of cults
The temples of Karavali evince a number of traditional rituals whose meanings have been obscure with passage of time. Have you ever analysed the nature and meaning of some of these rituals? I would like to draw your attention to a few rituals in the temples of Tulunadu/Karavali that reminds the conflicts developed during the shift of faiths.

A temple flag hoisting ritual
Flag hoisting is a ceremony that marks the beginning of festive activities (usually a week long) that culminate in the car festival of the temple. The occasion is known as ‘Kodi Eruni’ (=flag hoisting).In front of the temples there is a tall wooden flag post, usually covered with copper or brass sheets. The ceremony is centered on hoisting a flag (‘koDi’) representing a ‘Vetala’ or ‘Garuda’ (that looks like an image of a naked man) on the ornate flag-post called ‘kodimara’.
The flag hoisting ceremony of the Bappanad (pronounced: bappa naaD or naaDu.) Durga Parameswari temple, Mulki, located about 30 kms north of Mangalore city, recently occurred on March 20, 2008. The Bappanad temple is known to have been built by a Muslim sea-faring merchant called Bappa.

A Procession of Utsava-murthy at Bappanad after the flag-hoisting event.

Symbolic conflict of cults
An interesting sub-event of is celebrated on the occasion at Bappanad temple. This is symbolic of historical confrontation of the Spirit and Kapalika /Natha cults with Shakti cult. A group of people led by two persons dressed in the costumes of a human medium of a Spirit (darshana paatri of Bhoota) with a traditional curved sword (kaDsale) in the hand and a trident holding Kapalika/Natha arrive at the southwestern gate of the temple. The two characters are shivering in the typical style of Spirit trances. They watch the flag-hoisting proceedings with rapt attention and while the flag is being hoisted suddenly turn their bodies in the opposite direction of flag-post as if they do not wish to see the hoisting ceremony. They revert back to normal position after completion of hoisting event. The darshana patri of the Goddess who carries the utsava murthy on his head and walks around the temple in ceremonial procession approaches the two representatives of the Spirit and Natha cults. The Spirit-Natha duo confronts the ‘Goddess’-bearer as if questioning or complaining rebelliously that their rightful place and honour have been confiscated by the Goddess! (Eyewitnesses report that earlier days in the history scolding and foul languages were used).These Spirit-Natha duo are selected from the Malayalee Thiya(formerly Buddhists)community residing at nearby Sasihitlu village.
This enactment forms an integral part of the annual flag-hoisting ceremony at Bappanad. Similar events can be witnessed in Durga temples in the Karavali. The ‘Bali’ ceremony in Durga temples (like in Mundkur) also displays similar symbolic rebellious ‘confrontation’ between the Goddess-bearer and the Spirit medium.

The spirit-medium (in red headgear)and Kapalika/Natha (with trident)at Bappanad.

Throes of transition of cults
The origin and the socio-psychological interpretation of the above ritual are candid and clear. Infact, the cited celebrations are the representative vestiges of the historical confrontation between the rival cults. The native people worshipped Spirits since early historical days. The basic psychology of faith on the Supernatural works out in the same way irrespective of whether one worships a Spirit, a God or Goddess. When a new system of faith, another cult, was thrust upon them they were confused. While the common man was confused, the protagonists of the two rival cults were at loggerheads. At that time, the common man had to be convinced that cult 2 is superior to cult1.The new temples at that time in the history were architecturally and aesthetically superior, patronized by kings and chieftains and were more organized with ornamental and floral decorations, music, lights and rituals compared to that of the older cults.

Apart from the rituals of the sort described above there are a number of static evidences or relics of evidences in and around the Temples of Tulunadu that point towards the effect of transition from the Spirit cult to the Temple culture.A few of them are cited below:

Most of the temples have a ‘khetrapala’ (=protector of the premises) with a small shrine analogous to the modern security guard or chief with a cabin. The kshetrapala is mostly a vestige of Spirit formerly worshipped in the area.In the Bappanad temple the Kshetrapala Spirit was the Panjurli.
Again the psychology of the nomination of ‘Kshetrapala’ is candid. A Spirit worshipped by the natives formerly was not destroyed (as it would raise a rebellion) but was absorbed into the temple culture and psychologically reduced to the post of a security chief of the newly built temple!
In many temples initially the shrine of Kshetrapala was quite large like regular Spirit temples (Sana). With periodic modernization of temples (known as Brahmakalasha) the size of shrine of Kshetrapala were reduced consistently. Some of the lesser known Kshetrapala have been removed altogether during ceremonial renovations.

The Vetala (Betala) raised as a flag in the temples is also a form of Spirit worshipped formerly in parts of northern Karnataka, Maharastra and Andhra. Similar to the concept of Kshetrapala, the ancient cult of Vetala worship was absorbed into the temple culture and was made into a flag.

Brahma, the Jain Yaksha
The concept of absorption of Spirit cult as Kshetrapala is not exclusive to mainstream Hindu temples. The Jain temples have an imposing rock-pillar called mana-sthambha in the front. Many of these rock pillars have Brahma as a Kshetrapala or Yaksha. The Brahma on the mana-sthambha is not the four headed creator popular in the post Vedic traditions, but the Bermer, the horse mounted Spirit deity traditionally worshipped by the Tulu communities.

Thursday, March 13, 2008

102. Legends of Parashurama

Most of the myths in Indian culture are quite ancient in origin and have evolved in multiple chronological stages over the years in tune with the periodic phases of cultural renaissances mostly sponsored by various regalities. In other words the same set of myths have been polished, reedited and repackaged several times in the history to suit the demands of the environment and time of the reprocessing.
The legend of Rama is an example. An ancient folk-lore theme of primitive Bhil archer hero was enriched and updated by Valmiki; it was either re-edited or recomposed subsequently by numerous other bards in several ‘renaissance’ stages. The original composition conceived by Valmiki based on older folk-lores as well as the revised versions by bards of successive generations have altogether enriched the overall cultural fabric of India for centuries.
Another example for the chronological evolution of legends relates to the indefatigable hero Parashurama, the Rama with an Axe.

There are evidences of heroes with axe in the ancient history in the Mediterranean area like Storm God. The axe was an ancient implement in terms of human evolution. In the Stone Age, stone axes were in use, which were later replaced by iron axes. The original folk-lores of an axe wielding indefatigable hero Parashurama (‘Axe- Rama’; or ‘Rama with an axe’; Parashu =axe) was apparently repeated or revived several times in the early literary history by several generations of bards with deliberate addition of doses of supernatural myths. Thus, we find the Parashurama re-appearing in Ramayana, Mahabharata and other ancient works representing distinctly different time periods.

Vedic Parashurama
The Parashurama renowned in Vedic age was the son of sage Jamadagni and his wife Renuka. In a fit of anger on his wife, the short tempered Jamadagni ordered his son Parashurama to chop of his mothers head! Parashurama obligingly carried out his order which pleased his father. Parashurama was allowed to ask for a boon in return for the deed he accomplished; and Parashurama immediately asked his father to revive his mother!
The couples, Jamadagni and Renuka had in their possession, Kamadhenu, a mythical cow that gave whatever is wished. One mythical, fantasy character of King Kartha Veerarjun, endowed with one thousand arms (!) intervened and desired that this Kamadhenu should belong to him. He carried the Kamadhenu against the wishes of Jamadagni couple, which enraged Parashurama to pursue the fellow, subdue him and chop of his extra arms.
The legends of Vedic Parashurama may have originated around the northwestern India as these are to be popular in this region. Temples dedicated to Renuka, mother of Parashurama can be found in Himachal-Punjab region.
These legends of Vedic period appear to have been developed on an ancient platform of folk-lores that prevailed around the Mediterranean-Central Asian region.The cult and imagery of Parashurama evidently was an influential one at that time and that prompted Vedavyasa to include it as one of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.

Kadamba Parashurama
The Parashurama legends reappeared and were evidently repackaged during the Kadamba period ca. 4 to 6th century CE.
Mayura Sharma (later Varma) during early part of fourth century CE, founded a new dynasty at Banavasi, near Sirsi (present Uttara Kannada district) under the mast of Kadamba (a wild flowering tree, traditionally considered as pious by the ancient Munda tribes of India).The young Mayura went to Kanchi, the ancient Tamil capital of Pallavas, in order to pursue (Vedic) studies. A guard of Pallava king somehow insulted Mayura which forced him to abandon studies and build an army to subdue the haughty Pallavas. He succeeded in recruiting local people at Banavasi into an army and staging armed attacks on the Pallavas.
The story of Kadamba Mayura Varma bears striking similarity to the legends of Parashurama who subjugated the ruling class (Kshatriya).Therefore it can be deduced that Mayura Varma or one of his descendants commissioned court bards to compose the updated myth of Parashurama. Or a few official bards, who equated the Kadamba Kings to incarnation of Parashurama, composed the legends in praise of the Kadamba rulers. The Parashurama legend now popular in the West Coast of India is a part of Sahyadri Chapter (Kanda) of Skaanda Purana. The composition of Sahyadri chapter can be related to Kadamba Kingdom at Banavasi, which is an integral part of Sahyadri or the Western Ghats.
On the basis of these circumstantial evidences, the Sahyadri Kanda and the composition of Parashurama Shristi (creation of land) legend can be dated at ca 350-500 CE. Temples dedicated to mother Renuka also popular as ‘Ellamma’ are found in northwestern Karnataka, in the region of ancient Kadamba kingdom.

Parashurama Srishti
The Sahyadri Kanda visualizes that Parashurama threw his axe into the Sea and retrieved as much land as the Axe flew from the King of Sea. A marvellous fantasy that has inspired and mesmerized the coastal folks for hundreds of years! The retrieved coastal land is called ‘Parashurama Srishti’ (creation) or Kshetra (land). Further Parashurama allocated the newly retrieved lands to Brahmins to settle down comfortably. This again is in tune with the works and ethics of Kadamba Kings, who provided lands to immigrated Brahmins to settle down in Karavali and Sahyadri.

Marine transgressions & regressions
The most curious anecdote the Kadamba/Sahyadri bards weaved into the legend is the retrieval of land from the Sea. Infact the transgression (onward march of Sea into the land) and regression (withdrawal of Sea from the land) are periodical natural phenomenon controlled by several factors connected with the earth movements.
From the standpoint of logic and geological science it needs to be clarified that no human being can ever modify or induce such regressions by wielding his modest tools in front of the mighty powers of nature. Infact, there has been several episodes of marine transgressions and regressions in the geological history of the Earth.

However, we may predict that this event of retrieval of land from the Sea visualized in 'Sahyadri Kanda' was based on an actual event of marine regression witnessed by folks that occurred in the past before the Kadamba period. The regression event by all means was a stunning imagery for the innocent folks; and it was described in detail to their kids for several generations.
Thus inclusion of the Parashurama legend in 'Sahyadri Kanda' served to explain a seemingly unexplainable past natural event to the innocent folks and at the same time it glorified one of the mythical (Parashurama) while the Kadamba King was indirectly projected as an incarnation of the mythical element.

Parashurama’s marine regression
The marine regression (retreat event) attributed to Parashurama along the West Coast of India must have actually happened sometime before the composition of the Kadamba Parashurama myths. The historical records of Srilanka discuss a marine regression that took place in the region ca. 300BC.The event must have been a regional one that affected Srilanka and southern India. Apparently the Arabian Sea receded by a distance of a kilometer or two. Since there are evidences of many regressions in West Coast, the actual affect of this particular event (the Parashurama’s regression) needs to be studied in terms of actual geological data.

Natha Parashurama
Parashurama legend did not end with Kadamba-Sahyadri episode during ca. fifth to sixth century CE. Further during tenth century CE, the Natha bards slightly modified and repackaged the Sahyadri legends of Parashurama in Kadali Mahatmye in Bharadwaja Purana to add glory and aura to the Buddhist-Natha-Shaiva center at Kadire, Mangalore.
According to the modified legends, Parashurama retrieved lands around Kadire, Mangalore and handed over to Natha Jogi monks to maintain the temple.


Friday, March 7, 2008

101. Early dormant Jainism

Readers may have noted that the earlier posts in this blog have marshaled a few strings of evidences to assert that Buddhism was present in Karavali /Tulunadu since ca. 300 BC from the times of composition of Siri paDdana upto 10 or 11th century when Shaivism gradually overtook the Buddhism as mass favoured religious cults. While the evidences in favour of Buddhism are strong during the early period (ca.300 BC to 500 CE) similar evidences are not distinctly available in favour of early Jainism in Karavali/Tulunadu.

Jainism and Buddhism
Gautama Buddha and Mahavira were contemporaries and hailed from the same province. Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha ,but Jains, in general, believe that Jain philosophy was founded by the first Tirthankara known as Rishaba and Mahavira has been considered as the last TIrthankara in the sequence of 24th tirthankaras. This assertion of pre-Vedic antiquity possibly suggests to the existence of basic ascetism in pre-Vedic cultures. It can be b noted that the concept of Shiva, with tiger -skin loin cloth and ash covered body, which was subsequently developed into Shaivism during post-Vedic period, is also basically a primitive path of ascetism.
Jain tradition also believes that Chandragupta Maurya (grandfather of King Ashoka) adopted Jainism and travelled to Sravanbelagola along with Jain monk Bhadrabahu. These data suggest that Jainism was introduced to southern India before the introduction of Buddhism.
However, the available evidences in the Karavali are in favour of imprints of Buddhism rather than Janinism especially during the early centuries of the Christian Era.
Dormant Jainism in Early CE
This apparent paradox has been answered by scholars. The early Jainism (Nirgrantha) was highly ascetic that did not attract common people. The Buddhism and mainstream Hinduism followed paths of Bhakti to attract common people. The Jain monks had to compete with these devotional cults like Buddhism and mainstream Hinduism, which they resorted to after 5th century CE to enhance the mass appeal according to scholars and religious analysts like M.A.Dhaky and John E .Cort.
Thus we find proliferation of Jainism only after 5th century CE in different parts of southern India including Tulunadu/Karavali.

Monday, March 3, 2008

100. Kadamba Dynasty

An image of Halmidi inscription with Buddhist wheel at the top.

The period of Mayura Sharma (later he was known as King Mayura Varma), who established possibly the first Kannada dynasty and his successors (ca.345-525 CE) at Banavasi (near Sirsi in the present Uttara Kannada district) is a significant milestone for both Kannada and Tulu history. There is a viewpoint that he came from northern India and settled in Banavasi area.

Kadamba tree
The traditional accounts describe him as a Brahmin turned Kshatriya. However there are claims that he hailed from an ancient tribe known as ‘Kadambu’ tribe, who worshipped Kadamba tree. The early Munda civilization that was prevalent in peninsular India since ca.3000BC had a cult of worshipping Kadamba trees. The Kadamba trees are worshipped as apart of festivals even today by the Munda tribes presently living in Chotanagapur areas.
It is possible that the selected from brighter students from the population were trained in Vedic studies and made priests (Brahmins).It is possible that Mayura thought high of an educated priestly career but could not accomplish it because of the humiliation he suffered.

Mayura Sharma/Varma
His background is quite interesting. He was said to be a student and went to Kanchi, (now a part of Tamilnadu), a major educational centre of that time for pursuing Vedic studies. On an occasion, he was slighted and insulted by Pallava guard at Kanchi. The young Mayura could not bear the humiliation and vowed to avenge for it. He returned to his place, organized the people and built an army. He fought against the ruling Pallava Kings and retrieved the Kannada areas around Banavasi and other areas. The Alupas of Tulunadu were chieftains under the Kadamba Kings.
Obviously the Mayura Varma was influenced by the Tamil language and literary activities. He was impressed by the use of Tamil script for documenting literary works and temple culture of the Tamils. The Tamils had a flourishing temple culture at that time.

Introduction of Script for Kannada
Therefore when he established a new kingdom at Banavasi, he introduced a script for the archaic form of Kannada (now known as old Kannada) prevalent at that time. The script was based on the Brahmi script but was deeply influenced by the Tamil script of that time.

Halmidi inscription
The Kadamba period is a datable event since the Halmidi inscription (ca.450CE) belongs to the reign of Kakusthavarma. Possibly, he can be credited for laying the foundation for evolving and popularizing the initial form of Kannada script. The script used in Halmidi (near Belur, Hassan district) used Brahmi characters but was influenced by Tamil script. Interestingly, a wheel has been sculpted at the top of the Halmidi inscription. The wheel is a symbolic of existence of Buddhism and the King who installed the Halmidi inscription (Kakustha varma?) may have been a Buddhist in faith. However, some have interpreted the wheel as ‘Sudarshan Chakra’ of Lord Vishnu.It seems that the Kadamba kings favoured all religious cults including Jainism and Buddhism.

Introduction of Temples and Brahmins
Mayura Varma, influenced by the Tamil temple culture, initiated the temple culture in Karnataka and Tulunadu. He built several new temples and organized people to run the temples in an orderly manner. This necessitated the immigration of priests (Brahmins) to regularly carry out the ceremonial pooja in the temples. He is said to have brought Brahmins (those trained in Vedic studies) from Ahicchatra and granted 144 villages (agrahara) for Brahmins to settle in the area. The exact location of Ahicchatra has been disputed with opinions ranging from banks of Godavari River to parts of Uttar Pradesh.
Until then the spirit cult was the dominant form of religious faith in both Karnataka and Tulunadu. The Spirit cult was largely centered on families and landlords, whereas the temple cult became a community affair that involved the people of the whole village or cluster of villages. New communities like Sapaligas were introduced to play musical notes in the Karavali temples. Devadiga were introduced to look after sundry works in the temple premises.

Parashurama cult
The cult of Parashurama was re-introduced during Kadamba period. The story of Mayura Sharma and his conquest of Pallava kings bear similarity to the legend of Parashurama.. Moreover the legend is a part of ‘Sahyadri Kanda’, the Sahyadri being the environs of Banavasi, the Kadamba capital. It was probable that myths of his time considered Mayura Varma to be an incarnation of Parashurama the saviour of sages and priests (Brahmins) from the tyranny of the ruling class (Kshyatriyas).
Consequent upon the introduction of Parashurama cult and the associated myths, the coastal Karavali, Malabar, Konkan people were made to believe that their land was retrieved from the Sea.

Saturday, March 1, 2008

99. Kundapura

The place name Kundapura is quite interesting. The ‘Kunda’ is a Pali and Prakrit word signifying the gold. The word 'Kunda' also means 'lake' or 'pond'.There are also other meanings attached to the word such as melt,pillar,flower etc in different contexts.

The historical significance is that it is the name of the village (known as Kundagrama or Kundapura) near Vaisali in Videha (part of present Bihar) where Mahavira was born. Thus evidently the place name Kundapura signifies the role of Jainism in the Karavali.

Jainism & Buddhism
Since Mahavira (ca.599-527 BC) and Buddha (ca.563- 483 BC) are contemporaries it can be considered that the Jainism and Buddhism flourished simultaneously. Jains, however, believe that Jainism was founded by Vrishabha the first of the twenty-four Tirthankars. Yet critics opine that during early period upto 5th century CE was not emphatically present. The usage of the word Jainism, like the word Hinduism, itself is said to be rather recent.
The antiquity of the place name Kundapura is historically significant as it may throw light on the ascent/spread of Jainism in the Karavali/Tulunadu.

Because of the presence of the word ‘Kunda’ in Pali (Buddhist) and Prakrit (Jain) literature it is difficult to distinguish the exact religious connotation in the said word. The word ‘Kunda’ also exists in Tulu: it means either (a) pillar or (b) melt.
The Alupa King Kundavarma, who installed the idol of Avalokitesvara at Kadire, Mangalore, has been interpreted to be a Shaivaite by Dr. Gururaja Bhat. But his very name suggests that he was either a Buddhist or a Jain. It may also mean that religious affiliations were not emphatic in those days among the ruling class.

An interesting surname among Mogaveeras is Kundaran. In view of the significance of the word Kunda, the surname Kundaran possibly carries implications of the Jain/Buddhist heritage of a sect of Tulu Mogaveera people.

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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