Friday, December 27, 2013

321. Bangalore: Origin of the place name

Some places like Bangalore have standard explanations for the origin of place name that is being accepted and believed by people without questioning. This includes the explanation for the worlds’ favorite software city, Bangalore. Some smart one dared to think of the origin of Bengaluru (Bangalore) as a village of boiled beans (benda + kaalu + ooru)  and it has been accepted in general.
However, many like me may have their own doubts as to how the Benda-kaalu-ooru can become Bengal-ooru? In formal and/or common dialectical Kannada, benda-kaalu (=boiled beans) is not usually abridged to Bengaalu!  Only in poetry such a union or words can be expected. And it is quite unusual that a poetic term should become   accepted as a place for Bangalore.

Alternate theory for Origin
How about an alternate explanation for the origin of place name Bengaluru? The name Bengaluru could have been a modification of original Bangalur. The place name of Bangal+ur, the ooru (village) of Bengal or Bangal is similar to the Bengal or Bangal in origin.

Bengāl / Bangal
Surprisingly, the name Bengal in Bengaluru or Bangalore is also shared by Bengal (West Bengal, East Bengal, Bangladesh) region, where there is no widely accepted explanation for the origin of the word Bengal, even though the current wiki page on Bengal suggests that the term Bengal or Bongo may have been derived from the Bang tribes of Dravidian origin. In this blog we have explained that the suffix –al represents an (ancient) habitation located by the side of a river.
Banga being a tribe the Bengal or Bangal (Banga + al) means an ancient habitation located on the bank of a river. In fact even today, the Bangal or the Bengal is located on the banks of river Ganges.
Bangalore is not on the banks of any river at present but the geological and geomorphological evidences suggest that there was a river flowing on the western side of Bangalore once upon a time. The river appears to have dried up during the course of history.

Banga tribes
In different parts of India we have hundreds of place names associated with or attributable to ancient Banga tribes (Banga, Bangaria, Bangaon, Banganapalle, Bangarpalle, Bangarpete, Bangadi, .Bangara, Bangaro, Bangatiya, Bangawa, Bangama, Bangai, Banganj, etc ) Some of these places have been modified into prefix of Benga (Benali, Bengahi, Bengabari, Benga male,. Banganur, Baengadi, Bengama, Bengaipatti, Bengabad etc) . The Banga were an African tribe that apparently migrated and settled in different parts of India during ancient period.
As in Bengal, the term Vanga has been a regional modification of the term Banga.  Some of the Vanga villages in India are Vangara, Vangapalle, Vangai, Vangarai, Vangala, Vangali, Vangaon, Vangam, Vangad, Vangapalle, etc. Similarly, especially in southern India, the term Banga has become Panga (as in village name Pāngala) in some regions. Some of the Panga- villages in different parts of India are Pangal, Pangali, Pangam, Pangama, Pangar, Pangare, Pangari, Pangadi, Pangan, Pangaon, Pangaiyan, Pangath, Pangarkhed etc.

Surname:  Banga and Banger
The term Banga has survived as a surname among the Jains of Tulunadu.  Jain kings and chieftains with the surname Banga or Banga-arasa ruled parts of Tulunadu until independence.
Banger or Bangera is a most popular surname in Tulunadu common to many communities irrespective of their socio-communal status. The Banger is a plural or respectable for of the word Banga.
According to African mythology the Banga was a water God of the Ngbandi people. According to the African legends the Banga God created the white races. It is possible that Banga tribes in India were part of the white or fair skinned immigrants who have been documented distinctly as white tribes (Bola and Boller Tulu; Bellar -Kannada; Gore - Marati/Prakrit/Hindi etc) especially in the place names of the Southern India.


Monday, December 9, 2013

320. Manch, Manchi, Manchale, Manchakall: Early Religions

My Kannadiga friends used to tease about the apparent odd sounding place names in Tulunadu. Some of these prompted me to delve deeper into the meaning behind some of these place names. People generally look for meanings in the place names using the currently   prevailing   language without realizing that some of these odd sounding names could be heritage words preserved as fossils that throws light on the existence of an earlier and older phase of bygone languages and culture in our terrain. During the course of my studies and analysis I have realized that odd sounding place names are not unique to Tulunadu. Some of these odd sounding ancient place names are found all over India.
For example there are some 113 officially listed villages having the prefix of ‘Manch’ or ‘Mancha’ in the census of India 2011 , which obviously includes numerous hamlets and unlisted villages with the tag of Mancha.
The word ‘mancha’ in Tulu, Kannada and other Dravidian languages mean a wooden or stone bed or cot.  In North-Indian languages ‘manch’ generally  means a platform or podium. Let us evaluate some of the place names associated with the word ‘manch’ or ‘mancha’ and analyse the historical significance of these place names.

Manchi is a modest village in Bantwal   taluk, Dakshina Kannada district. Naturally most of the locals are not aware why or how their   place was called Manchi.  Some might think that it was derived from the Telugu word which means nice or good. Surely the word ‘manchi’ does not mean anything in Tulu language. Some have felt that the name Manchi was influenced by or derived from Telugu people since the word ‘manchi ‘ means good in Telugu.
 There are some 27 villages (this excludes hamlets named after Manchi   in different States of India. We find Manch in Uttarkhand and Mancha in Bihar and West Bengal. Similarly there are villages known as Manchi in Uttar Pradesh, Rajastan, Tamilnadu, Orissa,   Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, besides Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Therefore the place name Manchi is not a place name exclusive  to Tulunadu.

Manchale was the original name of the village now known as Mantralaya famous for the Brindavan of Guru Raghavendra Swamy on the bank of Tungabhadra River in Kurnool District (which borders  Raichur district of Karnataka). Before the establishment of Raghavendra Mutt at Mantralaya an ancient tradition of mother Goddess cult prevailed in the village of Manchale and the deity was known Manchalamma (= Mother of Manchale Village). It seems the place name Mantralaya was  thought out by Raghavendra Swamy and is followers who were influenced by the original name Manchale.
The ‘Manchale’ or manch+ale represents a habitation containing a ‘mancha’ (traditionally a rock bed used by ascetics to take rest) located on the bank of river.
However, the place name Manchal, Manchala or Manchale can be found in Bihar, Rajastan, Arunachal Pradesh, and Other States. Manchalkuppe and Manchaldore can be found in Tumkur District of Karnataka.

We have covered a post on Manchakallu. The Manchakall is a village in Udupi district near Shirva and Kapu. There is also a Manchakall in Kolar District and a Manchakal kuppe in Tumkur District of Karnataka, besides Manchikall in Guntur District and Manchikall-padu in Prakasham District of Andhra Pradesh.

Other Mancha place names
There are other Manch place names prevailing in different parts of India such as Manchod (Bihar), Manchar (Madhya Pradesh, Maharstra) , Manchur (Andhra Pradesh), Manchia(Orissa), Manchang (Meghalaya),  Manchagaon (Orissa), Manchapur( West Bengal),  Manchanpur (Maharastra); Manchanbele, Manchasandra, Manchinakoppa, Manchagondanhalli, Manchibeedu, Manchanahalli, Manchiganahalli (Karnataka); Manchipatna, Manchanpalu, Mancharami, Manchippa,  Manchirevula, Manchagonda, Manchalkatta, Manchili,(Andhra Pradesh) etc.

Mancha-the rock beds
In all the village names cited above the common word is Mancha. The name Mancha has been named after rock beds (beds  or platforms fashioned in rocks and designed for resting of Jain ascetics in different parts of India during the Early history).  It is generally claimed that Jainism is a very ancient religion and that Mahaveera was the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism.  Stringent ascetism was the essential feature of Jainism and the monks made use of rock beds to meditate, relax or to take rest. Thus the rock beds or Mancha came into significance in early civilization.  In Buddhism the Mancha was the platform on which relics of Buddha were kept.
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Thursday, November 21, 2013

319. Atta and Kuttatta

"Old order changeth yielding place to new And God fulfils himself in many ways Lest one good custom should corrupt the world…”  These are words of advice by King Arthur to his knights (qv Passing of King Arthur by Tennyson).  A doubt crept into my mind about its applicability after seeing ‘Atta-Kuttatta’ during my recent visit to Tulu Nadu. Atta and Kuttatta are essential parts of any traditional housing - small, big or manorial - in Tulu Nadu.
Stuffy atmosphere
This year it was raining heavily from May through October especially in the Coastal area.  Rooms are stuffy and humid with smell of fungus in and out – on walls and doors and clothes tucked in cupboards.  Proliferation of fungus is harmful. It infects skin, leading to itches and rough skins. It is a problematic situation to deal with.
The traditional Atta and Kuttatta were designed to take care of humidity during rainy season.
It is an upper loft or garret in a house below the roof (Tulu Lexicon, p.54).  The roof is made of rafters (ಪಕ್ಕಾಸ್) with laths (ರೀಪು) covered by tiles.  It is a designated storing place rather than for living.  Thin and narrow wooden laths are used to cover the space in between two planks of ceiling, which is plastered with mud (in olden days) or cement to have flooring.
Size and fullness of ‘Atta’ with coconuts, rice and other agricultural produce is the sign of richness.   It has given rise to a saying: ಆಟ್ಟ ತೂದು ಪೊದು ಪತ್ವೆರುಗೆ, ಕೂಟ ತೂದು ಬೆಲೆ ಕಟ್ಟುವೆರ್ಗೆ (Atta toodu podu patverge, koota toodu bele kattuverge).  This means that “Matrimonial relationship is decided after mentally calculating the value of the things lying in an ‘Atta’ of the house in consideration.  Likewise, selling or purchasing prices of wares are determined on the strength of visitors in a market-place.”  This shows that wealth is measured on surveying the ‘Atta’ of a house.
There are childhood grandma stories.  A story tells that a house thief, hiding in an ‘Atta’, catches himself by passing urine out of fear.  There is another story.  There used to be families of thieves, who teach stealing to their young ones right from childhood.  This is a story of an uncle (named Govinda) and his nephew (Let us name him Gopala).  They entered a rich house at night.  Uncle tells his nephew to steal from below.  Uncle climbed a ladder.  Groping for things in the ‘Atta’, he dropped something with a thud.  Householders woke up and caught Gopala, he being a novice.  When questioned, he says: ‘ಎಂಕು ದಾಲ ಗೊತ್ತುಜ್ಜಿ, ಮಿತ್ತುಡು ಇತ್ತಿನ ಗೋವಿಂದಗೇ ಗೊತ್ತು(Enku daala gottujji, mittudu ittina Govindage gottu).  Translated it means, “I don’t know anything, Govinda above only knows”.  ‘Govinda above’ is a pun.  It means all-pervading God. However, householders got a clue that somebody could be at the attic (Atta) and caught the thief.
It means a small garret right above the fireplace (TL, P.830) below the roof with a smoke-vent or chimney.    Kuttatta is made of laths, i.e. narrow strips of wood (or split bamboos), which are fastened over the rafters or beams, keeping open space for smoke to go up and emanate from the chimney.This being straight above the hearth, it is a warm place at all seasons.  So this place is used to store food grains, pickles, packed ole-bella, etc.   (Note: Jaggery = bella in circular shape made out of toddy, rimmed by a ring made out of  dried palm-leaf (ole). This is the way of storing, adopted by our forefathers, in warm place for preservation of perishable things. It is worth emulating.
Old vs. New
Tennyson says, “Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers”. Knowledge gained by forefathers is wisely perpetuated by their progenies.  It is still visible in Tulu Nadu in small, medium and manor houses. The traditional agrarian society is steadily turning now towards industrialization.  Rural areas are becoming urban areas.  It is a trend to demolish ancestral houses (instead of renovation) and to construct terraced houses.  Sagacity of our forefathers is thrown to winds.  Ill-managed or faulty drainage system is giving rise to stink.  Aesthetic considerations should blend health considerations perfectly.  ‘Vastu’ considerations, preserving ‘positive energy’, were inherent in our old system.  This we perceive in similarities in construction of houses in Tulu Nadu.  These days ‘Vastu’ consultants make owners to alter their flats or houses even when builders profess adhering to Vastu Concepts in their Project advertisements.
Tail piece
We have no animadversion to the idea of development.  The question is whether the development is a well-balanced commix of time-honoured old system and new ideas. 
Hope, our enlightened readers would not mistake the writer to be a man opposed to changes – a Neanderthal, fossil or an old school.  The post was an outcome after seeing unhygienic conditions during my visits. 
 Tennyson was right in saying that change ensues on passing over of a man, a thing or a time-worn custom.  Besides, there is a saying in Kannada:
ಅಜ್ಜ ನೆಟ್ಟ ಆಲದ ಮರಕ್ಕೆ ನೇಣು ಹಾಕಿಕೊಳ್ಳಬಾರದು.
 (Ajja netta aalada marakke nenu hakikollabaradu)”.
Literally, it means: One should not hang himself on a banyan tree, planted by grandpa. That means:  Ways and means change with passing over of time).

The boom of construction business in Tulu Nadu, in the wake of rapid urbanisation, has ignored some of the natural laws such as bulldozing of picturesque hills or reduction or blockage of natural drainage channels

Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

318. Udupi and Orissa: Common threads.

Understanding the origin of ancient place names and their realistic meanings can often be hampered by limitations of our perceptions of our entire gamut of history and evolution of our culture and languages. When understanding or analyzing any unusual place name, people generally resort to compare with commonly known words prevailing in the local or the most influential language, without realizing that the words involved may also possibly represent unfamiliar ancient words that at present may or may not be in current use.

Let us compare and analyze two place names Udupi and Orissa and in order to arrive at some interesting and meaningful inferences. Udupi is a coastal town in West Coast of India, whereas Orissa is a State on the East Coast of India. On account of the Arya- Dravida syndrome, usually people consider that South and North have distinctly different sets of languages. Udupi is commonly considered to have been derived from Sanskrit words, whereas,   the name ‘Orissa’ has been changed into earlier form of Odisha.
Let us analyze the available data and understand how East (Orissa) and West (Udupi) Coasts of India shared common language and culture in the remote past.
Udupi in the Karavali (West Coast) of Karnataka is a small burgeoning town known for cultural centre of medieval Krishna cult and the dwaita religious philosophy founded by Madhvāchārya (1238-1317). The Udupi hotels are known as a brand worldwide for their exquisite delicious South Indian vegetarian food. Udupi is also known for quality education and medical facilities.
There are a number of explanations in vogue in the net for the origin and meaning of the place name Udupi (or Udupa). 
1. Udu+pa:  (Sanskrit) Udu = Star; pa= leader. Udupi=leader of stars, ie moon.
2. Udu+pa (Sanskrit) Udu= Moon; pa= bearer, Udupa= Shiva; who carries moon on his hairs.
In both these derivations, which mean the Shiva or the Moon, and there is no hint of any suffix indicative of place like village or town.

The name Udupi is the modified version of the popular Tulu name Odipu. (d pronounced as in English word Detail) . There are two more places near Odipu which possibly share the ancient name of Odipu or evolved from that name. One is Odabhandeshwara (also spelt as Vadabhandeshwara or Odapandeshwara). The other is Udyavara which could be the evolved version of the old name Odiyara. (Post.184 The Magic of Malpe ).
Even though now it is a fairly strange word, the word ‘oDi ‘carries some 18 or more meanings, as enlisted in Tulu Nighantu (see : Post No 109.Odipu-the Udupi)  . The various shades of meanings available for this word reflect the antiquity of this strange word. The meanings include:
(1) A branch of plant laden with fruits, (2)to drip, (3) to cease flowing,  (4)to control or regulate, (5).A raised divider between the agricultural fields,  (6) A narrow   strip of field   (7) A field canal, (8) Sorcery,  (9) A measure, (10)  A  tumour   (11). A hunters lodge, (12) Defeat   (13) Evil eye   (14) A pair, (15) to pull or pluck (oDipu) (16)  an union of members, [  as in 'ODi kaTTu' ] (17) A  competition,   like cock fight.(18) A raised ,high land (like ‘bettu’ in Tulu).and (19)  Odi, is a proper   name, for male person among certain tribes.
As discussed in older posts herein, the word ‘pu’ is an ancient suffix indicative of habitation as in Balapu, Mudipu, Polipu, Odipu etc place names. Probably the Sanskrit word pura (=town) was evolved (pu+ura) after the ancient suffix ‘pu’. Another related spatial suffix is –pe as in place names Didupe, ALape, Malpe etc.
Pura= pu+ura. Pu=habitation;  ur, ura or oor=town, city or village.
Therefore, an Odipu in the ancient sense of meaning   can be a magical, high land habitation or tribal village. We shall see the other important place which shares the magic of odi in the East coast of India.

The name of Orissa State has been changed over to Odisha in the year 2011. The term Odisha cited in Pali and Sanskrit texts is considered to be the ancient name of the region. The Official Language of the State has been declared as Odia. In ancient texts it has been recorded as Odra desa or Odra Visaya or Oddaka. Greek historian Pliny recorded the region of ‘Oretes’ which is said to be the ‘Odisha’. The Mount Maleus in Plinys accounts is said to be the Malayagiri (near Pala Lahara) and the Monedes are said to be the Munda tribes that inhabited the region. A part of ancient Odisha consisting of Kalahandi,Koraput and Bastar was known as Maha-kantara (great forest) or Atavi din epics like Ramayana and Mahabharat.
The place name Odisha can be analysed as Odi+sha. According to a Wiki contributor, the term Odi is a variant of Ora or Ura. Ur was a famous ancient Sumerian city. The Dravidian word ur or oor (Village/habitation)   seems to be derived from the name of the ancient Sumerian port city Ur in Mesopotamia. It is possible that the term Odi was an ancient variant or cognate of the word Ur or Or.
Further, the ancient suffix Sa or Sha is an indicative of habitation as in place names Belashe, Avarse, Teggarshe, Vaddarse, Amashe (bail), etc (Post. 141. Village name suffixes).

Parallels between Udupi and Odisha
There are several aspects common between the place names Odipu (Udupi) and Odisha (Udisha/ Orissa). Both were probably ancient port cities that carried the name of Ur the famous Sumerian port city of Mespotamia.
There are several other villages in Odisha that carry the place name Odi such as Odiso, Odisha, Odisagarha, Odiaalapur, Odiapali, Odling, Odisagarha, Odia munda, Odijambo etc (Census of India, 2011).
Similarly around Udupi also we can find several places that carry the tag of Odi. Odabhandeshwara  or  Odapandeshwara is the name of the beach, near Malpe, West of Udupi. The place name Malpe, which probably was originally Malapu. (In Tulu usage it is ‘Malapu’ similar to ‘Odipu’.).  Mala=hill; pu/pe=habitation. The hill implied may be St Mary and Badragada group of volcanic islands located west of Malpe.We also find Brahmagiri in Udupi as well as in Orissa.
In Orissa similarly we find Malaygiri hills. A part of Orissa was known as Kantara or Maha-kantara. Similarly we have Kantara Village (or Kantavara) East of Udupi, located near Bola in Karkal taluk. An area in Orissa was known as Atavi and we have an Adve,  near Palimar, South of Udupi, on the Padubidri- Karkal Road.
Similarly we have suggested in older posts that the Udyvara could have been the modernised name of ancient place known as Odiara.
Apart from the place known as Odilnala in Belthangadi taluk , Dakshina Kannada , we have a number of places in different parts of  India that carry the tag of Odi in the place names as compiled in Census of India 2011.
Some of these places are :  Odi (Madhya Pradesh, Rajastan and Himachal Pradesh) Odina (Jammu & Kashmir),Odidra(Gujarat), Odikhor(Bihar),Odiakhurd, Odiakalan (Chattisgarh), Odi pora shahoora (Jammu & Kashmir,) Odiso, Odisha, Odisagarha, Odiaalapur, Odiapali, Odling, Odisagarha, Odia munda, Odijambo (Orissa), Odi ka pura, Odia kheraOdia kheri (Rajastan)
Odium, Odiyathur, Odianthal (Tamilnadu), Odiarthnathpur (UttarPradesh), Odiyari(Uttar khand) etc. We have also Chikkodi (Karnataka) and Tirodi (Madhya Pradesh).
The above list is obviously incomplete because Census of India, 2011 has not considered names of hamlets and smaller villages.
On the whole, the word Odi is not exclusive to Tulu Language, nor it is a pure Dravidian word. Most likely Tulu and other Dravidian languages borrowed the word from older languages that prevailed in different parts of India including the ancient Karavali. Further it proves that there were intensive tourism by migration and cultural exchanges among different parts of India even in ancient period.

Odi Oli and Ur or Oor
In ultimate analysis it seems that the word Odi is a variant of the common word Ur or Oor or Or that means village or habitation.Similarly when we compare the place names in Maharastra we find that Odi and Oli (=village) are interchangeable words having the same meaning.It is interesting that all these words Odi, Oli and Oor have been preserved in place names of Tulunadu suggesting that there was  an intimate connection and exchange of people, culture, words and language even during the remote past in spite of poor civic, and transport facilities.

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Wednesday, October 9, 2013

317.Gadang, Bandasale & Bankara Katte

Apparently, it looks that the words Gadang, Bandasale with its corrupted forms and Bankara Katte give different meanings. Is it so? Emphatically, ‘No’ is the answer.  Let us explore.
I have been wondering about the odd-sounding word Gadang (ಗಡಂಗು), both in Tulu and Kannada,during my school days. My knowledge was limited to that ‘it is a toddy selling shop’. I remember the tall and big building with a large hall, which was standing on the north-end of coastal part of Hosabettu, traditionally called ‘Hosabettu Patna’. It was a toddy storing and selling shop, under a Billava contractor.  My father, a ‘Shenava’, an Accounts Writer, used to take me there once in a while  for giving me  a glass of ‘sweet toddy’ (Note: Freshly drawn toddy is always sweet, which is not intoxicating).  Once I felt ashamed on seeing near the counter my teacher Babu Master of Vidyadayinee Higher Elementary School.
It is noted from documented records of travelers and geographers that Indian place names are corrupted by foreign traders of early Christian era and by colonial traders of 15th Century and onwards. Readers may do well if they revisit our Posts on Mangalore to recollect the various names of Mangalore. We have touched the topic of ‘Bankara Katte’ in our Post No. 183:  Uliyaragoli to Malpe-II. My curiosity is rekindled on seeing an Entry on ‘Bankshall’ in Hobson-Jobson Dictionary. 

Gadang specifically means ‘a toddy storage and selling shop’ by a Guttigedar (ಗುತ್ತಿಗೆದಾರ್ ), a contractor holding a monopoly licence of Government for supplying certain goods (Tulu Lexicon, p.1042) within a certain area.  Even today, a toddy or arrack selling shop is called a gadang rather than ‘godamu or gudam’, meaning store-house in general. Toddy is stored in big earthen pots (Skt. Ghata, Tulu: Gada/ Gaddavu?).  Gadang is attached with a ‘Chakana’, providing spicy curries of fish (Post-179: Chakana).
It could be guessed that it is equated to ‘Godown’ by foreingers on coming across the word ‘Gedang’ in Malaya archipelago.  Synonymous words (ibid, p.1042) in other languages are as under:
Tamil: Kitanki = prison, store-house.
Malayalam: Kittannu
Telugu: Gidangi.

Hobson-Jobson (p.381-382) gives studied description of ‘godown’, constantly in use in India and China, by quoting from various quotations from earlier works of 16th to 19th Centuries, as:
1.       A warehouse for goods and stores.
2.       An outbuilding used for stores.
3.       Store Room.

4.       It is ‘Gudam’ in Hindi and Bengali, apparently an adoption of the Anglo-Indian word.
5.     It says a Malay word ‘gadong’, which appeared to have passed to the sub-continent of India from Eastern Settlement. It means a store house, built of brick or stone.
6.   But the Book opines that it may be common Java and Malaya words from Tamil as many settlers from Coromandel Coast settled in Malacca Archipelago.: Telegu ‘gid(d)angi’ and Tamil ‘Kidangu’ signify ‘a place where goods lie, from ‘kidu’, meaning ‘to lie’.
7.       Sinhalese: Gudama
8.       It is thought to be a construction ‘almost under-ground’ and hence, the coinage of word ‘Godown’ in English.
Bankara Katte
It is a locale in Kidiyur (near Udupi) on the bank of curvaceous stream originating around Ambalapadi and joining Udyavara River.  As we gather, once upon a time it was a market place where boats and sailing ships anchored for unloading and loading (see our Post).  It may not be a name, derived from a person named ‘Banka’.  Ban (Skt. Van=water) + kara (= Bank) + Katte (Market or Meeting Place).  It, however, draws us near to ‘Vanik>Vania>Bania, i.e. a class of (marine) merchants of yore. It is common in phonetics, ‘v’ changing to ‘b’.
Tamils call Tulu as ‘Tamil Tulu’ during Sangam period (q.v. Vishwamurugu’s articles).  As we also understand, Tulu is very near to Kannada and Tamil. Applying the meaning of ‘kidu’ (Point-6 in earlier sub-title), we can deduce that there could have been storage facilities (Unfortunately, we see no trace of it now).  It may also answer our query for the origin of place name ‘Kidiyur’ as opposed to the one derived in our earlier Post.
Corrupted form of ‘Bhandashale’ is ‘Bankshall’ in Hobson-Jobson (P.61-62).  It describes ‘Bankashale as: (a) a warehouse and (b) as the office of the Harbour Master or other Port Authority. In the former sense, the word is still used in South India; in Bengal, the latter is the only sense recognized……..In Sea Hindustani, in the forms ‘bansar’ and ‘bangsal’ for a store House (Roebuck).
Bankshall’ is in fact one of the oldest of the words taken up by foreign traders.  Portuguese King John (C. 1524) adopted this word very early. Hobson-Jobson reveals many serious etymological analyses:
1.       Bangsal: Crawford says that  it is “a word defined in Malay dictionary as:
(Java) A Shed; a store-house, a workplace’ a porch; a covered passage.”
2.       Bankasala, from Skt. Vanik or vanik, ‘trade’, and sala ‘a hall’ as per Wilson’s etymology.
3. Skt. ‘Bhandasala’, Canarese ‘Bandasale’, Malayals ‘Pandisala’, Tamil ‘Pandasalai’ or ‘Pandakasalai’:  a storehouse or magazine.
Editors express difficulty in deciding which one of the two last is the original word; “the prevalence of the second in South India is an argument in its favour; and the substitution of ‘g’ for ‘d’ would be in accordance with a phonetic practice of not uncommon occurrence.”
The term ‘Banksoll’ was a puzzling word to English in India.  It is borrowed from the Dutch Dutch’s ‘Soll’ or Danish ‘Zoll’ is equivalent of English ‘Toll’.   The Banksoll was then the place on the bank where all tolls or port duties were levied on landing goods (Talboys Wheeler, Early Records of B. India, 196).

In restricted sense, the word Gadang basically means a Toddy House in Tulu Nadu. In nutshell, all the words under discussion are related to ancient marine trade where produces of hinter land, such as rice, fish, spices, coconut, coir and other products of coastal area were brought to ports.  They are stored in Bhandasāles (Storage house) of ultimate sellers before export. 

This traditional system of export trade is in contradiction to the sophisticated container system of the present day, wherein   the designated goods are loaded immediately into ships as pre-arranged.

-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Tuesday, October 1, 2013

316. Jangal, Jangar or Jangad – A classic usage in Trade & Travel

There are many antiquarian words of Indian origin, understood even by foreigners.   Some such words go defunct due to changed circumstances.  Some others still survive in spite of onslaught of modern trends, thanks to their uniqueness in Trade and Travel and communication.  We have explained one such antique word ‘Al or Aal’ in our previous Post-315.    Another word is Jangal, Jangar or Jangad and its derivatives.
Jangal Wada ( Jangal Oda)
Have anyone in Tulu Nadu seen the ‘jangal wada’ in his/her childhood?
This takes me to my childhood days:  My mother’s younger sister Mammubai (Note: Mammu is a shortened form of Mammayi, meaning Mother of Mothers, i.e. Mother Goddess) was a good speaker and story-teller.  She is good at telling news and stories in an interesting way.  In rainy days, she has the news of havoc done by heavy rains and mishaps at ferry points, capsizing boats and jangal wadas.  My childhood idea is that it is a ‘double boat made one’, not knowing that it is a ‘teppa’ (raft).  I had seen such a boat at Kulur ferry point on Gurupura River (Phalguni) during my school trip to Mangalore City in 1950-51 (when I was in Sixth Standard).  First leg of journey was on foot from Suratkal to Kulur Ferry Point (under the care of our Teacher P.C. Vasudeva Rao, classmate of my brother Cpl. M.H. Sadanand) and the second leg was by bus after crossing the river by boat.  The Kulur River over bridge was under construction then.
Jangal Wada’ is a two-boat structure with balanced fitting of a raft for ferrying heavy materials, sugar cane and field products, goods laden bullock-carts, cars and motor bikes, logwood, etc. It was commonly seen at ferry points and river navigation.
Jangal, Jangar, Jangad
It is a classic word used since time immemorial.  A comprehensive meaning is explained below to give a glimpse of the memories of the Past.
Mercantile Agent:  Jangad means goods taken on approval, held by agent on behalf of owner.  There are many case laws in Mumbai (Bombay) High Court and other courts during Raj Period onwards to decide about fraud and criminal conspiracy to deceive owners of properties.
Jangad sale is ‘a sale on approval and/or consignment basis’ (that is taken without definite settlement of purchase).
Military Guard: Jangadiyo (Gujarati) was one who delivered products into the treasury. The business tradition of ‘Jangad’ is prevalent even today among diamond merchants/cutters of India. The derivative of ‘Jangadiyo’ is ‘Angadia’, that is a courier who carries goods from point to point, based on ‘trust’.  This is well explained in meaning of Jangad as ‘Entrust Receipt’ in Diamond Platform in Mumbai.
One of my colleagues is ‘Jangad’. Rajasthan is also famous for diamond and other jewelry business.  The surname Jangar.>Jangad is common among Marwari’s, which was based on profession.
‘Entrustment Note’: It is interesting to note that this traditional trade transaction process known as ‘Jangad’ is traceable to hieroglyphs (secret, symbolic or picture writing = ರಹಸ್ಯ, ಸಂಕೇತ ಅಥವಾ ಚಿತ್ರ ಲಿಪಿ) of Indus Scripts.
Throwing light on Indus Script Corpora & business transactions of Jangad, Dr. S. Kalyanaraman of Saraswati Center (April 12, 2012), says:
“….This monograph posits a function served by the seals of Indus Script Corpora that the hieroglyphs used on such seals were intended to connote ‘entrustment notes’.   Jangad for trade transactions from Melhuhha constituted an improvement in documentation and control of guild (Corporation) transactions over earlier system of token, tallies and bullae…” (Note: Bulla, Plural bullae, in Medieval Latin means ‘sealed document’).
A Jangad Note is an acknowledgement of entrustment, which is invariably forwarded with ‘goods sent on approval’ or ‘sale or return’ basis in diamond business, mentioning quantity and value of consignment.  Thus the meaning of the term Jangad is well settled in legal system as aforesaid.
Tally of Products: In Marathi, Jangad means ‘a tally of products delivered into warehouse for approval’.
A raft on two boats: The Tulu Lexicon ( page 1274) gives the meaning of Jangal/Jangāl as: (a) A wooden plank fixed across the canoe to serve as seat for passengers, (b) Two canoes joined together with flat planks on them and used for transporting vehicles across the river, a barge.
In Tamil and Malayalam, it is ‘ Channatam’;  in Pali/Prakrit,  Sanghaata, equivalent to ‘Sangatha of Sanskrit, meaning companion, union, association.
In English, there is a word ‘Joint’ (= combined), might have been fashioned out of ‘jangad’. This word becomes ‘janti’ in vernaculars. It could also be guessed that ‘Jangad’ is derived out of or related to ‘Janga/Janghe (Thigh or joint between hip and leg ?), supporting part of human body. ‘Jang’ also means ‘war’ in Hindi, so ‘Jangada’ is a warrior.
The Hobson-Jobson Glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian Words by Col. Henry Yule and A.C. Burnell, Ph.D., first published in 1903 and Asian Edition in 2012,  quotes from books, letters and notes on Travelogues of travelers of 16th to 19th Centuries.  The picture of Jangada/Jangar emerging from it (page 450) is as under:
1.       The name Jangada (aka Jangai) was given to certain responsible guides in the Nair country who escorted travelers from one inhabited place to another, guaranteeing their security with their own lives, like Bhats (= soldiers) of Gujarat.
C. 1672: “The safest of all journeyings in India are those through the Kingdom of Nairs and the Samorins, if you travel with Giancadas, the perilous if you go alone…. (sic)”  (quoted from P. Vincenzo, 127; See also Chengathum in Burtons Goa, 198).
2.       Jangar or Jangada is “A raft (a double platform canoe made by placing a floor of boards across two boats, with bamboo railings) (Madras Glossary)”
It is a word of particular interest as being one of the few Dravidian words (but perhaps ultimately of Skt. Origin), preserved in the remains of classical antiquity, occurring in the Periplus as our quotation shows.  Bluteau does not call the word an Indian term.
3.       Fleet of jangadas kept in readiness (by Portuguese and other  European traders) with dry wood, barrels of pitch (= residue of tar) and other combustible stuff, while entering ports.
Rani Abbakka’s Navy
This reminds us how Rani Abbakka’s naval fleet under Mogaveeras of Ullal preempted the attempt of Portuguese from Goa to capture  Mangalore Port by their exemplary valour.  They ventured into sea in dead of night and rained torches of fire (Toote=ತೂಟೆ)on anchored ships of Portuguese, who ultimately fled the scene of fight.
Today, fleet of small ships or small fleet is called ‘flotilla’.
Though ‘Jangal’ is rarely seen or heard in Tulunadu now, it is still known around ferry jetties in Southern States as ‘Jangad’- in old and new forms -  for river transportation of man and material. In tourism, it plays an important role there. In the North, it is surviving in the world of diamond business.

- Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

315. An Ancient, Place name indicator word: Ala

Languages undergo drastic changes with passage of time along the history, such that some of the earliest words may be obliterated from the memory and general usage of our people. However these words or their derivatives may still continue to live in the form of prefixes and suffixes or other modified words. 

The word ‘Ala’ was in use in Tulu and other Dravidian languages as seen in some of the older Tulu place names,  but it is not in common current usage with the traditional meaning attached to it. As an exception, some words, based on Ala with implied meaning   connected to water, are still current.

Note the following Tulu words derived from the ancient word Ala:
Ale =waves;
Lat/Latti =Return sea waves after flashing shore, colliding with incoming waves of varying force; ( It is a delightful sight to see spurting of foamy water),
Ale2 =Butter milk,
Alankunu = to splash and spill (as applicable to liquids),
Alanku = a kind of fresh water fish,
Alambu= rinse cloth in water.
Aalambu =  moss,
Aaleppatu = a small canal or ditch for water flow in fields,
Aalenji = muddy substances settled down in water and/or moss-like tiny plants growing on surface of stagnant water,
Aalikallu = hailstone,
Aalibarsa = hailstorm,
Alli poo = water-borne flower, water lily, lotus , etc.
 The word Ala seems to have been derived or borrowed from an older language that existed before Tulu.  Or else, is it a Proto-Dravidian word?  We have to find out the origin of the word.   It is bit difficult to get to the source of ‘Ala’ as it is also associated with similar sounding words in Arabic and Uralian languages, including Indo-Eurasian?  
In Tulunadu, there are many place names with ‘aal’ as suffix as well as prefix.    For example, we can quote some names:  As suffix in Posraal, Koosaal, Kemral, Puraal, Kadal (Sea), Kudla/Kudal, Perdala, Perla, Kerala, Panchala, Ambala, Kandla/Kandal, Khandala, Kurla and so forth. 
As Prefix in Alade, Alangar, Aluve, Alipe/Alupe, Alike, Alwar, Alawaye, Almora, Alexandria (a port city of Egypt), Alquos/Alqueze (UAE), Aleutian Islands in Alaska (USA) and so on.  There are many place-names in West Coast and East Coast with Suffix ‘kulam’ i.e. area of pond, lake or a water-body (q.v. our earlier Posts –186, etc. - on place-names). 
‘Aal’ is an ancient word, provenance of which is not attachable to any definite language. It is plausibly derived from African heritage.  It is thought to be connected to water, shore or a habitation by the side of a river.
‘Alam’ is also shortened to ‘La(m)’.  Note the word ‘Lambalaki’, meaning ‘Sagaratanaye’ (= Daughter of Ocean), in Kannada devotional song on Goddess Lakshmi (qv ಅಂಬುರುಹೇಕ್ಷಣೆ ಲಂಬಾಲಕಿ, ಜಗದಂಬ ಪೊರೆಯೆ, ಸತತ ಗಂಭೀರ ಗಜಗಮನೆ = Amburuhekshane lambalaki, jagadamba poreye, satata gambira gajagamane…). She rose from the sea while it was being churned out and chose Lord Vishnu as her spouse. Compare Samudra Mathana (Churning of Sea) of Hindu Mythology to Loss of land of Lemuria or Kumaria or Gondaranya as geological event.

Migrational aspect
A curious aspect is that it is ubiquitous in lands between two Poles.  With fragmented accounts, it may seem difficult to come to a conclusion about this ramification. Migrations may be the reason for such a phenomenon.  We have records of migrations for the recent historical events and political upheavals around the world. Some are even fresh in our memory. There are many  reasons which are instrumental for mass migrations, viz natural calamities (eg. earthquakes, tsunami, volcanoes, weather changes leading storms, incessant rains, landslides, change of river courses, global warming, glaciers,draughts, etc.) and Political, Linguistic and Religious strife. Outlining migration is difficult without the knowledge of major events in global history, spanning thousands and thousands of years. In the beginning, millions and millions years ago, the earth was one continent with one ocean.  Later it split into seven continents and seven oceans (q.v. Web-page: Timeline Index and our Post-275 of 17th April 2011: Geography in Puranas- Concept of Continents). The early intelligent people of some highly evolved civilizations were able to reach different regions quickly (as manifest in our legends).  So it is imaginable how languages travelled with people originally from Africa along coast lines to Asia, Australia and back to Africa via India and thence to Europe via Nile and Mediterranean, Turkey to Siberian and America (q.v. Journey of Mankind). When we encounter or bounce against some words, it is evident that they or their derivatives have similar meanings in various languages.  It shows an under-current of a proto language known by several linguistic/tribal groups, closeted in a region.  Going downwards in timeline, we can recover or reconstruct lost pages of history by deciphering the words percolating from past to present with their original and/or evolved meanings.
Shades of Meanings
Alam means an area around or near waterbody in most of the Indian languages.  Connection to water is attached to most of Indian place names in coastal belt right up to Kanya Kumari. However, in Persian, it means an area under rule of a king (Alamgir, Alamshaw). [Confusion may arise when one equates ‘ala’ with French compound word ‘a la’, which means ‘like or in the manner/fashion/style of’.]
Aal basically means water body, like river, lake or sea shore.  In Kannada speaking areas too we have Alur, Alamatti, Almel, etc.
‘Alu’ has another meaning of ‘snake’.  Tulu Nadu is also called as Nagara Khanda (Land of Nagas). Could we apply this meaning to have alternative explanation to ‘Aluva’ in Aluvakheda, ruled by Alupas?
Let us study ‘al’ in other languages in the World:
Al (Arabic and Tulu) = family, race, person/place of.
Al, Alb (Aryan languages) = high, hill (Albania, Alps – cognate with Latin ‘albus’ = white). Compare the word Mala, male in Dravidian languages, meaning elevated area, hill or mountains (Eg. Malpe, Malabar, Malenadu, Malad, etc.)
Al = forest
Al = Red or Gold (Turkic  & Mongolian)
Ala (Bantu) = a cliff
Alas (Russian, Uralian and Norse) = Port
La = Mountain Pass
(See: Glossary of Geographical Terms and Place names by J.N. Larned).
Ale3 has also the meaning of ‘to wander’in Tulu and Kannada.  ‘Lam’ in English and Scandinavian means ‘beat or thrash and to flee or escape or headlong flight’.
Some Cognate Place names
Toponym(y) is the study of place-names, their origins, meanings, use and typology.  It is a branch of Onomastics, i.e. Study of names of all kinds.  Settlements of people were known by the natural landscape features, such as hills, rocks, valleys, islands and harbours, from remote historical times. As man advanced to a high degree of civilization trade and commerce increased with regions within and lands without.  Maritime trade and also migrations for various reasons were instrumental in coinage of new names even from prehistoric times. Places were also named after man-made features, say forts, etc. and personages. 
Demonymy is a part of toponym(y), as are Ethnonymy, Hydronymy, Exonym and Endonym. Demonym is a Greek compound word, which means: Demo = Populace + nym = name.  It means a name for a resident of a locality, Eg. Alemanni for several Germanic tribes settled in Switzerland.  Many surnames of Tulu people are identified with their place of origin, etc.
While writing on Toponymy one has to examine the linguistic origin of place names.  Etymology is breaking up the word elements or stems to find out its origin and meaning.  Study of Toponymy is difficult. It deals with people, their culture, language, geographical features and climate, which condition the style of living of the settlers of the area. Cross cultures in a region, involving two or more languages contemporaneous in such and such periods, also play a vital role.   Linguistic convergence is the product of many factors, such as pidginisation and creolization (i.e. mixture of different language groups with specific cultures and emerging as one group).
Let us analyze some cognate place names around water-bodies world-wide:
Algeria:  This country takes its name from City of Algiers (French Alger), which in turn is derived from the Arabic word ‘al-gazair’, (= ‘the islands’).  Four islands off the city’s coast became a part of the mainland in 1525.  It is a short name for the older name ‘gazair bani mazhanna’, meaning ‘the islands of the tribe Bani Mazzhanna.’
Aland:  It is an autonomous Province in Finland.  It means a ‘Land (in the) water’ from the Germanic root ‘Ahw’ cognate with Latin Aqua.
Alasund: It is a Port City in Norway.  It could be split as ‘Alas (water) + Und’ (place).
Alemanni (aka Alamanni or Alamani):  They were a confederation of of Suebian Germanic tribes, inhabiting Upper Rhine River in modern Switzerland.  The legacy of Alemanni survives in the name of Germany in several languages (Eg. French: Allemagne, Allemand.  Portuguese: Alemanha, Alemao.  Spanish: Alemania, Aleman.  Welsh: Almaen.  Arabic: Almanya, Language Alemaniyya. Persian: Alemaan – language Alemaani. In Gothic, Alamanns means ‘totality of mankind’ – al = all + mann = man). In spite of these foreign names, they called themselves Suebi who were constantly engaged in conflicts with Roman Empire in 3-4th C.  They settled in North Switzerland and Alsace when driven from there.
Alaska (USA):  It was a Russian colony until March 30, 1867 when it was purchased by the United States. When dissected, the name ‘Alaska means Alas (water-bodied) + ka (place). Since Russian occupation, it was known for the peninsula only. It is derived from ‘Aleut’, meaning the mainland or more literally, ‘the object which the action of the sea is derived’ (q.v. Wikipedia). It is also known as ‘Alyeska’, the Great Land. It has 34,000 miles tidal shore-line, has more than three million lakes, has marshlands and wetland permafrost cover to 188,320 miles.
A part of Aleutian Arc is a group of 14 large volcanic islands and 57 smaller ones.  The topography is like a broken bridge from Asia to America.  It was a route of first human settlers of Americas, as found out by Anthropologists.  Early human sites in Alaska are supposed to have been submerged by glacial water.  The Islanders are skilled hunters, fishers and basket makers. Japanese held these islands for some time during World War II.
Altai:  In means ‘Golden Mountain’ in Turkic and Mongolian (Al = Red or Gold + Tai/tag = Mountain. Altai Mountains are a mountain range in East-central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together and where Rivers Irtysh and Ob have their head-waters. The Altai is one of the Russia’s highest-lying region and place where many cultures mix.  Telengits are one of the most ancient people.
The Altai Mountains were home to Denisovan branch of hominids who were contemporaries of Neanderthals and of Homo Sapiens (modern humans), descended from Homonids who reached Asia earlier than modern humans. Knowledge about Denisovan humans is derived from DNA evidence (dated to 40,000 years ago) and artifacts, discovered in Denisovan Caves in Altai Mountains in Southern Siberia in 2008.  During Bronze Age around the start of the 2nd Millenium BC, a massive migration of peoples from the region took place into Europe and Asia.  It is a land of many lakes (q.v. Wiki).  It is identified as a point of origin of cultural enigma (Seima-Turbino Phenomenon). It is a place of endangered animals, like snow leopard, Agrale sheep, etc.;hence a World Heritage Site.
Linguists note that there was dissolution of the Uralo-Siberian & Uralo-Yukagir language families in 6000-4000 BC.  Frederik Kortlandt of Leiden University (Netherlands) concludes that “Proto-Indo-Uralic and Proto-Altaic may have been the same thing and contemporaneous with Proto-Indo-Hittite (4500-4000)* and that Proto-Finno-Ugric and nuclear Proto-Indo-European may again have been contemporary languages (3500-3000).   This puts dissolution of the Uralo-Siberian language family in the 7th Millenium.  It now becomes attractive to identify the latter with abrupt climate change of 8200 BP or 6200 BC when severe cold struck the northern hemisphere for more than a century.  The catastrophic nature of this disastrous event agrees well with the sudden dispersal and large scale lexical replacement which are characteristic of the Uralo-Siberian languages (qv. Indo-Uralic and Altaic, www. kortlandt. nl.” *Hittites were the ancient people of Asia Minor & Syria.
Shangri La: Shang (Mountain) + La (Mountain Pass) in Tibetan language. It is a place accessible by a passage or opening between two mountains valleys.
Shambhala; Shambala: A mythical kingdom hidden in somewhere in Inner Asia – known to be Buddhist Pure Land.  Though physically hidden, it is accessible by spiritual or visionary search through meditation.  It is a Society where all inhabitants are enlightened
Latvia: It is derived from the name ‘Latgale’.  The stem ‘Lat’ is associated with several Baltic hydronyms , places named after water bodies, and other element ‘gale’ means ‘land’ or ‘boundary land’ in Baltic language.
Lebanon:  The place name is derived from Semitic root LBN, which is linked to closely related meanings in various languages, such as ‘white’ or ‘milk’. In local dialect, it is known as ‘Lubnen or Lebnan’ and ‘Lubnan’ in standard Arabic.  It refers to ‘snow capped Mount Lebanon’. It is an Arabic country in East Mediterrean basin, having a long coastline.  Located at the cross-roads of Mediterrean basin, it has rich ethnic and religious diversity.
Alabama: It is a State in USA on the South-eastern region.  It has got long navigable inland waterways.  Indigenous people of different cultures lived here many a thousand years ago before European colonisation.
Lanka: It is an Island country, famous as Golden country in ‘Ramayana’ time. When split, it means La= (in) Water + an=raised + ka=country. The term ‘Lanka’ means an island as in ‘Olalanke’ (=kuduru or river island) in Tulu/Kannada.
Alakananda: It is a river in Himalayan range in Uttarakhand State, flowing partly in Tibet.  It is a source stream for the Ganga Nadi according to hydrology. It joins Bhagirathi at Devprayag after flowing about 180 km through Alakananda Valley.  In Sanskrit ‘Alaka’ means curl or lock of hair.
Alakavati: In Mythology, it is the capital of Kubera (Vaisravana), half-brother of Ravana.  It is old name of Tibet. It means the land of flowing or braided locks.  It is named after the style of men and women of yore wearing their hairs in that way.
Lāta:  It is an old name of Gujarat and is also a ruling dynasty.  Lātas were spread from Gujarat to Karnataka.  This land of Lāta (La=Water + Ta=Region or country).  This place name is comparable to Latvia.
Lavasa:  La (Water) + Vasa (Locality/Settlement.  It is a locality in Pune on foothills of Sahyadri with a lake.
Tulu Cognates
Let us analyze at random some Tulu Place names:
Aluve: It means an estuary.
Aluvakheda of Alupas: Kheta>Kheda means a valley or depression.  Therefore, it is a valley near an estuary (aluve/aruve).  It is the original place of Alupa/Alupe Kings rather than Alike.  Alupe now is an rural area with deep valleys where, Alu, the  river course (of River Netravathi) has been shifted in the course of history.  River estuaries of Mangalore, Udyavara and Barkur were the main trading centres of Alupas under their rule.  So they used to change their capital to one of these centres owing to natural calamities or exigency.
The Alupas were indigenous family, who ruled from the coastal cities in erstwhile Tulu Nadu (Now South Kanara and Udupi Districts) for more than thousand years, were probably of the Naga Race.  Geographer Ptolemy mentions Aluvakheda as an independent unit in the 2nd Century AD.  Halmidi stone inscription of 5th C. contains a general reference to Alu, i.e. Aluva country.
Posrāl: It is an Ethnonym.  It was probably a habitation of new comers, as we find out while dissecting the word (Posara=newly arrived + Aal=people.  It is a hamlet on southern part of Mundkur Village on the bank of River Shambhavi, which debauches into Arabian Sea at Mulki. Who are these new people, who assimilated with local populace? Or is it a new area, which came into being around a water-body on some natural changes?
Kemrāl: A village of red-coloured people, viz. Kemmar or Komma people as discussed elsewhere in our Posts.
Koosal:  It was a land of Koosa tribal people. 
Puraal (Polali)/Pulinapura): An ancient Temple dedicated to Goddess Rājarājeshwari stands on the bank of River Phalguni here. F. Kittel’s Kannada-English Dictionary gives the meaning of ‘Pura’ as a stream, a rivulet, a brook, a water channel (Poral, Ponal, and Kalpura. Poora, natural water course, and drain).  In Sanskrit, ‘Poora’ means overflow or an inundation.
There is a place name Chitrapura (between Hosabettu & Baikampadi), a Sanskritised name for ‘Pori+pu’ in local tongue, about which present progeny is not aware of.  This area is part of natural storm water drainage, joining Gurupura (Phalguni) River.  This water course was bypassed to Arabian Sea before taking up the New Mangalore Harbour Project on hand.
Uppala: It is a coastal village in Kasaragod.  When dissected as Uppu+ala, it means a salty water(marshy)area. Possibly, it would have been a place for salt pans earlier.  
Volalanke: Read our Post-305; 18th October, 2012: Mulki – an emerged land.
Alevoor: Please read our Post of 2009.

Sifting through available data collected from various sources, it is inferable from our general survey that ‘āl’ with its derivatives, convincingly implies connection  to water or places near water or to ‘people’ or habitation beside a water source. The usage is found in various languages of the world, including Dravidian and Sanskrit, suggesting that it could have been a very ancient word which has travelled many places along with the migrating human tribes in the history.
 It is hoped that the interesting ineluctable truth in this disquisition may spur readers to comprehend ancient heritage words in a broader plane.

-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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