Monday, November 26, 2018

411. Jāl (ಜಾಲ್) : as a place-name element

The detailed and comprehensive   study of  names in all aspects (“Onomastics”) as well as its branch, the general study of place names (“Topomastics”) has interesting outcomes, often   littered with unintended confusions. There are several villages ending with suffix of jāl (ಜಾಲ್) (or related sounds) in Tulu/Kannada areas of the West coast, like Kaipunjal, Heranjāl, Kodijāl, Renjāla, Kurinjāl, Kodinjāl, Neerchāl,  etc.
We shall analyse a couple of place names exemplified in Tulu Nighantu under the term Jāl.

Jāl(u) (ಜಾಲ್)
Jāl’ (or ‘Jālu)’ in Tulu language means a  levelled , usually large and enclosed,  ground in front of a house. In other words it is a courtyard.  Women-folk of the   house always keep it spec and clean. 
‘Jāl’ is ideal place for thrashing harvested paddy and for drying boiled paddy also before pounding to get rice grains.  One must have heard the proverb which is in vogue in Tulu Nadu:
ಅಪ್ಪೆ ಎಡ್ಡೆ ಆಂಡ ಬಾಲೆ  ಎಡ್ಡೆ, ಜಾಲ್ ಎಡ್ಡೆ ಆಂಡ ಅರಿ ಎಡ್ಡೆ.  
(English transcription: Appe eḍḍe aanda bāle eḍḍe; jālu eḍḍe ānḍa ari eḍḍe).

Proverb tells: “If mother is good (in character), the child also grows up as a good one.  Likewise, if courtyard of the house is kept clean, rice (produced by de-husking the paddy in the courtyard) is also good and clean (free of stones and pebbles). 

Kaipunjāl  and  Herenjāl
We come across one of the entries for ‘Jaal’ in the Tulu Lexicon (Page 1318) wherein it states that ‘jāl’ is used as an element in place-names, such as Kaipunjāl (near Kaup) (ಕೈಪುಂಜಾಲ್) and Herenjaal (ಹೆರಂಜಾಲ್) (near Byndoor).  

Analysis : When we dissect these two place names, which are invariably compound words, we get:

1.  Kai + punja + āl,  where kai means a tributary or a stream; punja means a rocky area, and  āl means watery place1.  

Kaipunjāl is a sub-village of Uliyāragoli of former Kaup Māgane.  Kaup (Kapu)  is now elevated as a Taluk of Udupi District. These streams and water bodies on rocky plains feed Udyavara River as a tributary.   These tributary gets swollen during high tides and rainy season.

Alternatively, if we split the word as ‘kaipun+jāl’, the main element ‘kaipun’?  becomes meaningless. Therefore we can infer that the spatial suffix in Kaipunjal is not jāl but only āl.

2. Here (= big)+ inja (= area) + āl (=water-body).
Or,  it could  have been Heren+jāl : where ‘heren’ stands for old Kannada/ Kundapura Kannada form of bigger or larger and jāl for courtyard.

We can find such derivatives of related ‘enja/inja  word elements in  several other place names. Eg.‘anje’ as in Bannanje and Innanje;‘inje’ in Elinje, and ‘inja’ in Karinja, Panja and so on.

Other -Jal places

Ranjal= Ranja+al. Ranja/Renja is a fragrant flowering tree. Often known as Spanish berry tree in English or Bakula tree in Sanskrit poetic works. -Al represents a settlement near a water body.

Kurinjāl =Kurinja+al. Kurinja or Kurunji is a blue colored mountain flower, famous for blooming once in twelve years. (kuru=mountain; kurunji= the flower on mountain).

Kodinjāl = kodi(n)+jāl.  Kodi=corner; jāl=courtyard. The Kodinjal  appearing in Tulu PaDdanas is also called Kodaje.

Summing up
There are distinct place names with suffix of jāl in Tulu toponyms  such as Kodijāl  but some of the places having ending  sounds of  jāl  like Kaipunjal,  might have been originally  intended,  by our ancestors as (punja) + āl   names in reality.

Linked posts in this blog:
1. TuluOnomastics (Post-166 / 14-1- 2009),
3. Kaipunjal& Kaup (Post  182/07.04.2009:
4. Uliyaragoli to Malpe (Post  183   ).

-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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