Friday, June 27, 2014

340. Puyinke, Paika or Payike – An Assay of A Class

Puyinke’, a historical word, reminds us of traditional wars and the soldiers who contributed their time and energy to such wars.. History, in its stride, from foraging and hunting stage, has seen several phases like, a secular way of living, to socio-religious and political stage. It is a case with the Tulu word “Puyinke” (Tulu Lexicon p. 2065). Its cognates are Paik, Paika, Paike, Payika, Payike and Painka.
 Originally the term Pāyi-ka possibly meant a foot-soldier (Padāti or Padātika in Sanskrit) or infantry, since pāyi (in Prakrit) means foot.  The soldier may be an archer, a sword fighter, a petty soldier or a commander.  The Paika, subsequently also meant a camping area of an army (Tulu Lexicon, p.2117).  There was a Paika Village in Hampi, the Capital of Vijayanagara Empire.  It can be inferred that a colony of this Class of soldiers takes the village name as ‘Paika’.  Thus the term is also  equivalent of the English word Cantonment. Similar village names of ‘Paika’ are still extant in Tulu Nadu and Malabar areas and for that matter, in many places in India. Besides, the word paik or paiki gives a meaning of ‘one among a group, party, class or section’ in Tulu and Kannada, thereby meaning ‘a relative’ in general.
Traditional armies in India, were known as ‘Chaturanga bala’, ( four-tier military forces) consisting of (a) Foot Soldiers, (b) Horse-mounted soldiers, (c) Elephant-mounted soldiers and (d) Soldiers on horses-driven chariots. The strengths and weaknesses of   royal armies have often been highlighted in many of the Indian epics and other historical narrations.  Of these the infantry was the first segment of   king’s army. 
The  infantry name is perpetuated in Chennemane Game of Tulu Nadu (See Note below).  Thanks for industrialisation, the game is nearly at the brink of extinction. but for Software version of it now available in Internet.
With passage of historical times, the eponymous word became a caste or community indicator with varying shades of meaning during the colonial era.  Let us study and analyse the situations and significance of these words in the History.

Puyinke:  in Chennemane Game
In the Tulunadu, traditionally a number of indoor board games were being played during the monsoon period in order to tide over the monotony of rainy period especially after the completion of seasonal farm works. Of these, in the game of   ‘Chenne mane, the name ‘Puyinke’ is applied to one of the players. (Post 95, dated 23.02.2008)
The equivalents of Tulu Chenne mane game are found in different regions. In Sri Lanka it is called as ‘Olida Kaliya’, in Kannada above the Western Ghats as ‘Alaguli/Andeyala’ as prevalent right from Vijayanagara reign, and Mancala or Mangala games in Egypt and Mediterrian region.
It is considered as an auspicious game and is also played on specific occasions. Certain taboos are attached to this game, such as playing between sisters and between husband and wife are generally prohibited. 
The enmity between Bangarasa of Mangalore and his wife Abbakka, a Chauta Princess of Ullal, is said to be the result of a false move in Chennemane by her husband. This enmity ultimately resulted in Mangalore and Ullal going into hands of British.  The Tulu folk lore of Siri PaDdana, depicts a suspected mischievous move in the Chenne mane game by younger sister Dāraga that prompted elder sister Abbaga to hit Daraga’s head with Chenne mane in anger which resulted in death of the latter. Subsequently, Abbaga committed suicide in repentance of her misdeed.
Chen’ means moon, red, beautiful, or good. A Pious or beautiful woman is called ‘Chenne’.  Naturally, game is played by women, off harvest time in general.  Scarlet or deep red seeds and wood used may also be instrumental in giving the name to this playing board.
Chenne mane is a wooden board with 14 circular depressions (called ‘houses’ or holes, pits ; Guri or Illu in Tulu) arranged in two linear rows consisting of seven holes in each row. In ‘Arasāta, (King’s game), six middle houses (three in each row) are assigned to King and remaining eight  houses (four in each corner) are assigned to ‘Perdani’ (Pradhāni, the Prime Minister) sitting on left of the King, and a ‘Puyinke aka Paike’ (a tenant-soldier or Commander), who sits on the right.  Each of the houses are filled with 4 seeds or cowries.  Seeds are from Hongaraka (the Indian coral tree) or from Manjetti (Manjotti or Gulagunji , bright scarlet seeds derived from a wild creeper).
As generally known, in ancient India, there were 56 Kingdoms (as often tautologically uttered as ‘Chappana Ivattaar’ Deshas in our Yakshagana dialogues).  We infer that this is represented in 56 (14x4) seeds or cowries.  This may satisfy a questioning mind why there are 14 houses only.  Nitty-gritty of this game is nearly forgotten by the writer and also by his seniors whom he enquired. Some terms are still in memory, say bule (4 seeds collected in a house) and perga (heap of more than 4 seeds) in a house/pit across an empty house, which is earned by a player when he puts the last seed in the house before the empty pit.  King rarely loses but combined efforts of the PM and the commander defeat the king, i.e. deficit of seeds on hand to continue the game.  The game reminds us the feudal and vassal system prevalent in Tulu Nadu prior to recent changes in land revenue laws.

Paika or Hale Paika
Hale Paika means ‘old soldier’ as we know now. This nomenclature could have also arisen from ‘Halu’ meaning milk, a product of husbandry as a Paika is partly agrarian. They are found in Uttara Kannada District, Shimoga Malenad areas and Mysore. They are also known as Divaru or Idiga because of their toddy tapping profession. Their cognates are known as Billavas (Archers) and Thiyas in (erstwhile) undivided Dakshina Kannada and Malabar Coasts.  Toddy tapping and farming are their main professions.  They served as mercenaries and commanders under many Kannada dynasties, such as Chutu Satakarni, Kadamba, Vijyanagara and Keladi, and other feudal kings and/or chieftains.  Kannada speaking Kumara Kshatriyas, later on known as Rama Kshatriyas, were brought to Bekal by Keladi/Ikkeri Nayaks as ‘Koteyavaru’ to guard the forts conquered by them.
Nayak, (meaning commander or leader), is a title which denotes their earlier profession as solider.  By legends, they were Shiva-worshippers. Later on, they espoused Vaishnavism, professed by Ramanujacharya. Epithet ‘Nāmdhāri’ is given because of their applying a ‘nāma’ (religious mark) on foreheads. Some bear Nāmdhari Gouda appellation akin to Vokkaligas.

Origin of Halepaika
What is the origin of Hale Paika as a community name? Sham.Baa.Joshi says in ‘Kanmareyada Kannada‘and ‘Maharashtrada Moola’ that they migrated from Central Provinces/Berar, which retain a population as ‘Halba’ who speaks ‘Halbi’ akin to Kannada but with heavy Marathi accent.  They further migrated to Gulbarga to Banavasi and Tulu Nadu. Prof. D.L. Narasimhachar dissented  this view-point.  According to Anthropological Survey of India, Hale Paiks/Komarapaiks are migrants from Andhra Pradesh.
Hale Paiks of Mysore speak both Kannada and Tulu. Gopalakrishna Raya, ruler of Vijayanagara Empire, granted Village of Halepaika aka Kumara Kshetra to Narayana, son of Ranga Naik & Laxmi Devi, for his unstinted loyalty in serving the king.
Heroics of Paikas were highlighted in Kannada Classic Poetry.  Adi Kavi Pampa (10th C) praised them in his ‘Vikramarjuna Vijaya’.  ‘Kanthirava Narasaraja Vijaya’ (17th C.) by Govinda Vaidya, woven around Mysore Wodeyar Kanthirava Narasaraja, describes a battle scene where Halepaika troops were in action against invading Bijapur Sultan’s army. Testimony to their heroism is evident from the Hero stones and dolmens of men and women of forgone days.  They are not forgotten but many are deified and are worshipped in temples built for them.

Paika System for Royal Service
There was a ‘Paika System’ of land holding during the rule of Ahom Kings in Assam. Pieces of communally held cultivable land (Roopeet) were distributed as grant, say 2 Puras equal to 2.66 acres each as ga-mati (wet paddy-growing land) by the king to people who undertook to fight as warriors to help the king during wars.  These holdings were neither hereditary nor transferable but a Paik could maintain his tax-free ancestral home and garden (basti and bari). Wastelands reclaimed by paiks or non-paiks, not covered by a royal grant, were subject to inclusion in ‘Roopeet’, which is distributed as ga-matiin next paik survey. Surplus cultivable land was distributed as ‘ubar mati’ among paik.  Ahom Kingdom did not have a standing army till the beginning of 19th Century.  Its fighting force was made of ‘citizen soldiers’.  Every male in the Ahom kingdom between the ages of 15 and 50 was a Paik except a noble, a priest, a high caste, a diabled or a slave. This system was in vogue in Bengal and Orissa as well.
There were two classes of Paiks – (1) Kanri Paik (archer), serving as solider or as a labourer and (2) Chamua Paik rendered as non-manual service and hence enjoyed a higher social standing.  Kanri Paiks could move up to the rank of Chamua. 
In the first major survey taken by Suhugmung in 1510 CE, Paiks were organized as families and lineage (Phoids) and resettled according to skills.  Royal service was rendered by 3/4th of a family and ¼ of household remained at home to continue ga-mati. There was rotation system for doing royal services.
From the above, it is seen that it was a type of corvee, a system of exacting unpaid labour.  Royal services of Paiks included defence, civil construction (embankments, roads, bridges dykes, etc), and military productions (boats, arrows, muskets, etc.). The entire population in ga-matis were divided into Khels (Guilds), each numbering about 1000 to 3000 able-bodied men (paiks) in a locality according to functions.  Specific services rendered in a Khel gave names to villages.   Later on these Khels were reorganized and made self-sufficient as trade guilds by infusing Paiks of various trades in each khel. The officers in hierarchical system, such as Borah, Saikia, Hazarika, etc., were responsible to mobilize the Paiks on requisition by the State.
The origin of this Paik-Khel system was obscure. According to ‘Burunjis’, i.e. Historical Chronicles in local Ahom language (later on in Western Assamese dialect), the first Ahom King Sukapha/Sutapha brought this system from South East Asia in 1228 CE, which was in force till the time of (Circa 1714) Rudra Singh. (Bu = Ignorants; ran = teach; ji = store; Buranji= Store that teaches). It is said that Khels & Paiks were the obverse and reverse of the same coin in a feudal system of revenue collection, not common in the rest of India.

Paiks in Medieval India
The Paiks who were Hindu Infantry-men, also   served the Sultans.  They formed a Royal Guard under Balban. Under the Khaljis/Khiljis (1290-1320), these royal Paiks played an important role.  The dynasty founded by Raja Ganesha (1415-18) ruled over Bengal from 1415 to 1435.    The Kingdom survived with the support of royal Paiks.

Paikas of Mogul Empire (1526-1857)
These Paikas were messengers or harikaras or couriers.  It is supposed to be a word borrowed from Mongols or Persians.  They are runners.  Their salaries were fixed on their running speed.  Some could run 50 to 100 Coss/Koss per day.  They are mentioned in Ain-i-Akbari written by Abul Fazal. The Persian original was translated in English by H. Blochman (Vol. I Calcutta 1873) and Vol. II and III by Col. H.S. Jarrett, 1891-94.(Skt. Krosa – roughly 3-4 miles according to Pakka and Kachcha type measurements practised in India.  Sultani Koss in Mysore was 4 miles).

Pyke or Paik in Colonial Era
Transitions of meanings occurred in Anglo-Indian speech.  These are reflected in records, letters and travelogues of Europeans and Arabs. Accordingly, a Pyke/Paik (qv. Hobson & Jobson Dictionary) was given different shades of meaning, such as a footman, an armed attendant, Peon or Payde, an inferior Police Officer & Revenue Officer, a messenger, a courier, a village watchman, a local militia holding land of zamindars (hereditary landlords) and Rajas (kings) by the tenure of military service (paik). It was a custom in those days (C.1590) that the palace of Bengal King was guarded by thousands of pykes, spelt as Payiks.  It is opined that the two terms are rolled together into one. The vestige of Paiks is visible in West Bengal and Bangla Desh under the name ‘Painka’, a labourer in Tea Gardens.
Treatment of entire land and Paiks as things at the disposal of Ahom Kings had a deleterious effect on Society.  Farmers were treated as slaves. If they refused to do royal services, they had to pay a heavy poll-tax.  This de-humanised tendency of Paik-Khel system was mitigated to a great extent by Gurus of Neo-Vaishavism, taught by Saint Shankardeo.  People took refuge in ‘Namghars’ (Prayer Halls).  With social awareness and British conquest of Assam (1826), there was a decline of Khel-Paika system. With the development of distinct professional army and an elaborate administrative bureaucracy, the labour services of Paiks became redundant and irrelevant (“The Cambridge Economic History of India”, Vol.2, p. 92, Editors: Tapan Raychaudhari, Irfan Labit, Dharma Kumar).
During colonial era, a word ‘Paik’ was coined to mean ‘to strike hard and repeatedly’.  It is a dialectal word and hence is not included in normal dictionaries.  Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Unabridged) has included this word, saying ‘Origin unknown’. It is definitely originated in India. Pseudo fight (Talim=Gymnastics) is still extant in Tulu Nadu in ceremonial processions.  Gymnasts hold a shield in one hand and in the other a sword, spike or a cane.  It is a relic of royal/feudal era when Paiks had significant role in battle fields
Oriya Paika Dance
The Paikas in the Paika Sahi were a warrior caste, serving the Gajapati Kings of Orissa (Utkal), in the battles of 15th and 16th centuries (Koraput Gazetteer, 1944).  Paika Dance with shields and swords is a famous dance form, which is practised by Paikas of Oriya Army.

Paika Rebellion& Ban on martial art centres
Paik Akhade was patronised by King Kharavela of ancient Kalinga. There was a Paika Rebellion in March 1817 under the leadership of Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar Mahopatra against British colonial rule.  Though revolt lasted for a year, the British could quell it by September 1818. Martial art practices and teaching centres (Akhadas) were weeded out by the British in Orissa   thereafter..
Likewise, Garadi/Garodis, Kalaripats were also banned in Tulu Nadu and Malabar area after the revolt of Raja Ravivarma Narsimha Domba Heggade of Vitla Principality against British with help from Rajas of Kumble and Nileshwaram. Though he regained the kingdom with the help of the British after the beheading of his uncle Achuta Domba Heggade by Hyder Ali, he wanted to get rid of the British from South Kanara. On unsuccessful attempt, he was executed on 22nd August 1800 with nine members of his family by the British.

Paika Place Names
Vestiges of Paikas are evident from village names in Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Districts of Karnataka.  Paika is a village in Bantwal Taluk.  Paika Houses and Surnames are traced in Puttur and Subramanya and Kasaragod.  There is a news story of Paikas of Kodagu, who traced their ancestral root in Puttur and their family bond is re-established with Paikas of Puttur.  They are Tulu speaking Goudas, who were invited by Lingaraja to populace Kodagu as cultivators. This was necessitated as Kodagas were taken prisoners to Srirangapattanam by Tippu Sultan of Mysore.  History tells instances of migration of Goudas to and fro Kodagu as village watchmen during Hoysala conquest of Tulu Nadu.
In the historical past of Tulu Nadu, Pashuka (i.e. ‘Gorashtra’, country of cowherds) was northern border of Tulu Nadu. Paikas are mostly found in Honnavara, Kumta, Gokarna and other areas of Uttara Kannada.  We can also deduce this from transformation of Pashuka (“Tulu Nadu” by P. Gururaja Bhat) as Payika>Paika and now Haiga (Change of ‘Pa’ as ‘ha’ and ‘ka’ as ‘ga’ is common in Kannada/Tulu).
Proliferation of ‘Paika’ place names is common in India, as is evident from enlisted village names in Census records. In Karnataka, name of ‘Paika’ village not mentioned. It is observed that local name (Eg. ‘Paika’) in a village is normally left out in Census records. The following Paika village names tell the story of Paikas (peasant-soldiers of yester years):

Assam: Paikandara (Dist.Kokrajhar), Paikartol (Goalpara), Paikarpara (Dhurbi), Paikan (in Goalpara, Chachar & Hailakundi), Paikana (Kamrup), Paikarkuchi/Paikan Bonmaza/Paikandirua (Nalbari).
Bihar:  Paika Charia (Dist. Darbanga), Paikant (Khagria), Paikauli/Paikaulia (Kaimir & PaschimChamparan), Paikauli Bodo & Paikauli Naraen (Gopalganj).
GoaPaikapann, Paikara.
Kerala: Painkulam.  Paippad & Paivalike (part of erstwhile Tulu Nadu) could also be added, as they are enlisted under ‘Paika’.
Madhya Pradesh: Paikangaon (Rewa), Paikaura/Paikauri (Satna).
Maharashtra: Paikmari (Wardha)
Manipur: Paikholum (Churachapura)
Mizoram: Paikhai (Aizwal)
Orissa: Paika Miniguda, Paika Baranga Padar, Paikaantarada, Paikabadiguda, Paikabagad, Paikabahal, Paikabasisada, Paikabankatara, Paikabarabati, Paikabasa, Paikabati, Paikabhuin, Paikadahkhor, Paikajagannathpur, Paikajamuna, Paikjodi, Paikakatara, Paikakupakhal, Paikakusadhia.
Tripura: Paikhola
Uttar Pradesh: Paika, Paikapur, Paikarai, Pikaramau, Paikauli (7 villages of the same name), Paikauli Kala, Paikauli Khurd, Paikauliya, Paikawali, Paiki Shukla, Paikipur, Paikoliya, Paikora.
Uttar Khand: Paikatiya
West Bengal:  Paika (2), Paikan (2), Paikan Durjyodhan, Paikan Ghoshpur, Paikan Karanji, Paikanbalia, Paikanmunibgar, Paikar (2), Paikar Raut Chak, Paikarai (2), Paikarapura, Paikardanga.
Tracing back to Varna
Attempting an analogous process explanation, we can go back to Chaturvarna System of Vedic period. Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra categories or classes are known as four divisions of a society.  One could change his position by one’s deeds then.  The system collapsed with the obstinacy of Brahmins, having authority of dispensation according to scriptures.  Tussle between Brahmins and Kshatriyas (Kings) was proverbial. 'The prevailing position is that castes outside 'Brahmanism', are known by specific occupation-centric caste names'..  As we notice in Indian Epics, tribal warriors took part in Rama-Ravana Battle (eg. Vanaras, meaning forest-dwellers) and Mahabharata War between Kauravas and Pandavas (Eg, Samasaptaka warriors of Bhagadatta, made of eastern India tribals). There were warriors fromSages, Yadus, Hunters,Kshudraka-Malawas (Kuru = Mala = mountain dwellers), shepherds, cattle herds to cultivators. Kurubs aka Dhanagars attained royalty by their valour (Eg. Kanakadasa, Holkars). 
The Ambasththas of Punjab region (between Drastavati, ie. Beas and Chandrabhaga, i.e. Chenab) and Saindhavas (under Jayadratha of Sindhu) were the other armies from West who sided with Kauravas. Puranas say that  Ambashthas are created by Brahma from his body, so they are known as Kayasthas, the merchant class.
Bravery of Kshudraka-Malawa army could dent the advance of Alexander, the famous Greek world conqueror, across the River Beas. Greek Ambassador Megasthanese wrote that Iranian Kings used to entice them to join Iranian army.  But these Kurubas were called as ‘Kshudrakas’ (qv. Karnata Sanskritiya Poorva Pithike, Sham.Baa.Joshi, Part-1 page 70-71).  Indignance of the age could be guessed by this name. So propensity for adding ‘Arya’ is seen in various Caste Associations these days.

Summing up
 ‘Prehistory’ of Paika community  can be traced backwards on the lines of human development by means of oral poems, legends, and archaeological evidences – lingual and physical.  Puyinke, an analogous word to Paika/Paike, is retained as a caste name though they are not doing military services now as was vogue with monarchies, their provincial representatives, local feudal chieftains or landed gentry.  They are equated with Goudas, Vokkaligas, Bantas, Billavas, Thiyas, Kshatriyas, etc.  Legends say that they are fallen Kshatriyas.

Suggested Reading:
Mysore Tribes & Castes, Dr. L.K. Ananthkrishna Iyer
Our Posts on Mogaveeras, Bunts-Nadavas, Billavas, Thiyas, Weavers

-Hosabettu Vishwanath (Pune)

Monday, June 16, 2014

339. Kinnara – Origin of Myths

   Indian mythologies have described a number of mythical exotic people such as Kinnara, Kimpurusha, Yaksha, Gandharva, Rakshasa, Kirata, Vanara etc. Some of these might have referred to specific immigrant tribes. For example, Gandharva may refer to those who hailed from Gandhara which was the ancient name for the present day Afghanistan. Kirata may refer to a tribe of hunters. Vanara may refer to a specific species of humanoid apes. Kinnara people were considered to be fine musicians.
 Half human-half bird form of  Kinnara in South east Asian  artworks

However, it appears that the visualizations of  some of these tribes  have been exaggerated beyond the scope of realities, especially  for the purpose of lending curious phantasy elements in the anecdotes. Kimpurusha has been described as lion headed human being. The term Kimpurusha in Sanskrit means a questionable human form or literally  “is it a human being”!

 In some of the Puranas, the Kinnara people, well versed in music, have been described as horse-necked people or human beings with long necks. The long necked humans might have been inspired by some of the African tribes who lengthen their necks by wearing a series of rings around their necks as a traditional practice. While in some Buddhist  and Hindu mythologies,  Kinnara is a mythical character with an upper  half-human and  a lower half-horse form especially in India;  or a half-bird (lower body) and half human (upper body)  in South-east Asian legends. The evolutionary changes or deviations in Indian and South-east Asian myths on ‘KInnara’ show that the formats have been inspired by phantasies that have evolved with time and distance elements.
In Southeast Asian mythology, Kinnaris, the female counterpart of Kinnaras, are depicted as half-bird, half-woman creatures. The Kinnara character is described in the Adi parva in the Mahabharata, they are depicted as perpetual lovers and celestial musicians. They are also featured in a number of Buddhist texts, ilike the Lotus Sutra. An ancient Indian string instrument is known as the Kinnari Veena or simply Kinnari. In Burma (Myanmar), kinnara are called keinnaya or kinnaya. Female kinnara are called keinnayi or kinnayi.
Migration of tribes
We talk of the global village nowadays but the human tribes were migrating from one country or region to the other since the beginning of the human history even though in those days they had to travel exclusively by feet or by means of horses. Thus the Indian subcontinent and the Africa were connected since early history by migrating tribes and travelers.
The Gandharva were the people from Gandhara or ancient Afghanistan. Immigration of white skinned people from Eurasia has been recorded in ancient Indian place names. Place names containing the indigenous phrases suggestive of immigration and settlement of white skinned people such as Bola (Tulu), Bela/Bellar (Kannada), Vellar (Tamil/Telugu), Gore (Marati/Hindi) can be found all over India.

Tribes from Kenya
There is a village known as Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh. The Kinnaur tribes living in the area consider themselves as descendants of Kinnaras, referred to in our mythologies. One Puranic reference   describes Kinnaras as long necked human tribes. This reminds us of several African tribes who traditionally lengthen their necks by inserting rings. The mythical half horse imagery of   epics might have been sparked by the fleet footed athletic African tribes. The fast paced runners from African tribes could have helped modeling the half human-half horse phantasy attributed to Kinnaras. The Burmese equivalent word of Kinnara is Kinnaya or Keinnaya possibly suggests the tribes from Kenya.

Kenya in Tulunadu
Tribes from Kenya could have wandered along different areas of India including the coastal Karavali and Tulunadu, where a number of ancient place names suggestive of Kenya are still surviving (Post 217) .
There are atleast two villages in Karavali known as Kinya (Mangalore Taluk) and Kenya (Sullia Taluk). Besides, there a number of ‘Kinni’ villages such as Kinnigoli, Kinni Padavu, Kinni Kambala,  etc.
The Kenya/Kinya/Kinna/Kinni villages are found all over India of which a sampling is given in the list here below:

Kenya / Kinna places in India
Andhra Pradesh: Kinnamguda, Kinnarpalle, Kinnervada, Kinnerle, Kinnamguda, Kinnisapugh, Kinnisadak,
Haryana: Kinnar, Kingra, KInana, ,
Karnataka: Kinna, Kinnarhalli, Kinnya, Kenya, Kinni, Kinnisultan. Kinnigoli, Kinnikambala,  Kinni-padavu,
Madhya pradesh: Kinnapura, Kinna, Kindri, Kiniya, Kenjar?, Kenjur?
Tamilnadu:  Kinnakorai, Kinnimangalam.
Bihar: Kinnu Dehri, Kinaur, Kinjar.
Himachal Pradesh: Kinnu, Kinner.
Uttar Pradesh: Kinnupur, Kinoti, Kinaura, Kinki, Kinawa, Kinauli.
Chattisgarh: Kinari.
Jharkhand: Kini.
Maharastra: Kinhi, Kinhala, Kini.
Orissa: Kinam, Kintala
Punjab: Kingra.
Uttar Pradesh: Kinnupur, Kinner Patti.
Uttar khand: Kina, Kinath, Kinsur
West Bengal: Kinkarkoti.

The ancient mythical concept of Kinnara could have been recreated on poetic imagination as phantasy creature based on immigrant fleet footed athletic tribes with long necks from ancient Kenya. Ancient settlements and villages named after the Kenya tribes distributed all over India lend credence to the concept of immigration and settlement of ancient Kenyan tribes in India who might have been assimilated in indigenous heritage in the course of passage of time.


Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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