Sunday, July 14, 2019

420. The göḍu toponym tag, as in Kāsaragöḍu

The Kasaragodu district, encircling a city of the same name, formerly a part of the historical Tulunadu, is located to the south of city Mangaluru and is part of Kerala state in the current political scenario.

The place name Kasaragodu (pronunciation: Kāsaragöḍu) [even though appears like kasara and godu],  in essence consists of two words : Kāsaraka and öḍu. The Kāsaraka (Tulu: Kāyer mara, Kāveri mara) refers to a wild tree, common in coastal rural settings and familiar to botanists as: Strynchnos nuxvomica.  The tree has historical significance as some of the ancient royal families of Tulunadu held it as a power symbol of regality, as it was a common practice in the antiquity.  The tree is known in other languages  as: Kuchila (Hindi), Kanjaram or Yetti (Tamil), or Snakewood or Poison nut tree ( English).

The suffix   göḍu in Kannada is an alternate variant of köḍu, which generally means in Kannada, (a) horn (of a animal) or (b) horn –like peak of a hill. However, in Kasaragodu or any of the other kodu/ godu villages you do not find any steep hill peaks.

Thus, there is strong possibility that in this case the apparent word the köḍu ( or the göḍu)  is a homonym having a several meanings.  Besides, the analogous village names ending with similar  kod’/ god’ (or even  ghod) spatial  suffixes and their related variants in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh,Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and other States of India also. 

Gujarat and Maharashtra share many village names analogous to those found in coastal Karnataka. That is to imply that people of coastal Karnataka have shared certain strings of common linguistic affinities in the antiquity, besides socio-cultural ties with ancestral Gujarat and other adjacent regions in northern India.
The genetic connections are also apparent as Gujjaran (Gujjarannaya) bari lineage found in Tulu communities, is considered to have been derived from the immigrated Gujjar people. The Gujjar ancestors are considered as a sub-tribe of Huns. Incidentally, historical imprints of Puns (Pun< Hun) can also be recognized in the place names of ancient Tulunadu, as we have discussed in some of our older Posts herein.

köḍu- göḍu  relationship
Similar to Kāsaragöḍu, there is a place known as Kāsaraköḍu near Honnavar, Uttara Kannada district.  There are two possible ways of understanding köḍu - göḍu relationships:

1. In Kannada grammar, while two words join together (for example, as in Kāsara + köḍu), the consonant ka at the beginning of the second word, is replaced by ga, (as transition of ka>ga).  Thus, Kāsara + köḍu becomes Kāsaragöḍu on unification of the two words. Hence, the two place names Kasaraköu and Kāsaragöḍu can be considered as mutually alternate forms of the same word, or in other words: köḍu=göḍu.
2. In ancient Dravidian languages endowed with script,   like Tamil, there is no distinction between consonant pairs, like ka and ga. A single alphabet/consonant for ka would represent   ga also, since there is no separate alphabet for ga. This kind of situation has come into existence probably because among the consonant pairs ka evolved chronologically earlier than ga.

Other goḍu places
Besides,  Kāsaragöḍu, there are several other villages having the suffix tag of göḍu in their names, such as:

Balugodu, Sullia Taluk, Dakshina Kannada district,Karnataka
Basgod(u), Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka
Bisgod(u), Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka
Magodu, Gujarat
Magodu, Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka
Mangod(u),Udupi district,Karnataka
Nandigodu,  Karnataka

 The place names ending with -köḍu  or göḍu forms are almost exclusive to Kannada language areas hence the öḍu suffix format possibly could have evolved in Kannada speaking areas. However, the related –köḍ’ and göḍ’ suffixes along with their variants -köḍ, -köḍa, -köḍe, -köḍi or göḍ,  göḍa, göḍe and göḍi etc are distributed widely in India, suggesting that it could have been derived from an older language that once upon a time pervaded all over the country.

Other variants of goḍu: köḍi, köḍe and göḍi
There are some more apparent word variants of köḍu / göḍu toponym suffixes distributed in and outside Karnataka. The presence of such place names outside Karnataka also suggests that this basic toponym  köḍu/ göḍu may not an exclusive word of Kannada origin.

Suffixes:  -köḍ’, -göḍ’, -köḍi, -göḍi, -köḍe, -göḍe

(a) In Karnataka (sample list):

Adugoḍi, Bengaluru district, Karnataka
Kanakod(e),Udupi district,Karnataka
Koikoḍe, Mangaluru Taluk, Dakshina kannada, Karnataka
Tākoḍe, near Mudabidri, Dakshina kannada, Karnataka
Raikoḍ, …., Karnataka
Jamgod, (a hamlet near Ankola) Uttar Kannada district, Karnataka
Nagoda,…. Karnataka

(b) Outside Karnataka (sample list):

Bagoḍ(a):  Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan.
Digoḍ(a): Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan.
Gagoḍe : Maharashtra
Jamgoḍ/ Jamghod, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
Jamguḍa, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa
Magoḍa, Gujarat
Magoḍi, Gujarat
Mangoḍ(u), Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu
Nagoḍ(a), Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
Ogoḍe, Andhra Pradesh
Pangoḍe, Kerala
Raikoḍe, Andhra Pradesh
Sagoḍ,  Madhya Pradesh
Sagoḍa, Madhya Pradesh
Sagoḍee, Uttar Pradesh
Sagoḍi, Madhya Pradesh
Tiruchengoḍe, Tamilnadu
Velgoḍe, Andhra Pradesh

 There are also stand alone toponyms like Koḍ,  Koḍa,Koḍe, Goḍe etc distributed  in various States of India:

Koḍ: Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan.
Koḍa: Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan.
Koḍe: Maharashtra.
Goḍe: Karnataka.

Additional variants: -kuḍe and -guḍem
Another variant of the suffix -koḍe is kuḍe. The kuḍe and its transformed equivalent guḍe have a meaning of cavity in Tulu language. A large number of places ending with suffix –guḍem exist in Andhra Pradesh.

Tulu, Kannada and other resources
The word köḍu in Tulu and Kannada generally means (a) a pod, a plant part or (b) horn of animals like cow, bull, deer etc. This connotation does not appear suitable for application in place names. However, by extension, the word köḍu can be extended to geographic units with peaks of hills or vertically projecting rock outcrops. However, this application also appears untenable as most of these places (especially the Kasarkodu/Kasaragodu places we began with) do not have such peaks of hills or rocky inselbergs.
One of the apparent variants of koḍi usually means corner or end point in Tulu and Kannada. Usually such koḍi place names are associated with estuary/ river mouth endpoints. Such koḍi toponyms can be considered separately and not as part of kodu-godu group of place names.
Therefore, to understand the original meaning of the place names of koḍu-goḍu group, we may have to look into other languages and types of words that prevailed in this land in the antiquity.
The wide distribution of these toponymic words suggest that the roots of these kod(u) - goḍ (u),   toponym suffixes and their alternate variants could originally be from older languages like Prakrit and Austro-Asiatic/Munda that once pervaded through  various regions of India.

Short morpheme like prefixes
Note that some of these ancient place names have, rather strange sounding, morpheme- like, short prefix words such as: Aa- in Akoda, Ba- in Bakoda, Da- in Dakode, Ga- in Gagode, Ir- in Irkode, Le- in Lekoda, Ma- in Magodu , Na- in Nagod(a), O- in Ogode, or Sa- in Sagod or Ta- in Tākode.
Available data on such ancient short words appears to be limited. The ancient Austro-Asiatic languages are reported to have such short words. (Tunga,  ). Since, there were quite extensive inter tribal communication and  exchange of words among Austro-Asiatic Munda, Tibeto-Burman, Prakrit and Dravidian speaking tribes in the antiquity, we can presume that short primitive words prevailed in all these ancient languages.
Sudhamsu Sekhara Tunga (1995 ), for example, provides some insight into the short words that exist in the place names of North-Eastern India. The short word ḍi in Bodo place names (as in Dimapur) relates to river, whereas the equivalent word for river in Austro-Asiatic Ahom language is ti.  We find toponymic suffixes like: -ḍa, -ḍu  and -ṭa represent habitation indicators, possibly located by the side of water bodies, in numerous place names. (It is similar to suffix -ala)
Similar, short words also prevailed in Dravidian languages. For example, Tamil word kovil  is made up of  kov+ il  (= a shrine; an abode dedicated to God) where ko(v) represents supernatural or God and ill’ means abode or house.

(1).Thus, köḍu or kö+ḍu  would possibly mean a place dedicated to a supernatural force.  As ka>ga transitions suggest, we can consider göḍu as modified form of köḍu.
 Probably the original ancient word form was: koḍ’ or koḍe (or its transformed equivalent goḍ’ or goḍe),  which we find extensively in ancient place names such as Bagod, Irkode, Jamgod, Kakode, Legod, Magod, Sagod, Takode etc.

(2). The koḍa also represents a earthen pot, (equivalent of mūri or kalasha,) which was used in auspicious and obituary related ceremonies. It was an ancient practice to preserve the dead remains of people in   the koḍa earthen pots.  Even after adopting the custom burning of dead bodies, the Hindus have retained usage of a ceremonial water filled earthen pot (koḍa), with a hole, during the cremation of dead bodies.

Besides, the koḍa  or koḍapāna  (especially in Tulu and Kannada) was also used to carry water from the river to the house. The short root word cu, cua or co preserved in Tibeto-Burman languages means water.(Tunga,1995 ).
(3). That the word  koḍe or koḍa was connected with burial ceremonies is also attested by existence of the term Kodekal in place names. The Kodekal refers to megalithic stone burial structures.

Evolution of word koda
Thus, in conclusion, on overall analysis of the available data, it appears that habitations and villages located near ancient burial structures were used to be named as koda/kode/kodu or gode/godu villages.
Words are essential heritage elements that have been passed on along the human evolutionary chronology, among different cultures, and adopted by different languages somewhat like valuable coins. Existence of similar sounding words among diverse regions, located geographically far apart now, say like in India, Japan and Europe, owe their existence among primitive cultures that have been dissipated and have planted the heritage words in places they settled in the due course of history in diverse regions.
The koḍa family group of words, that encompasses kuḍe,koḍe,koḍa,kḍd, kḍdu and their k>g transformed g - equivalents (guḍe, goḍe,goḍa, goḍ, goḍu etc) appears to have been survived and evolved over along a prolonged period of time, considering their existence in several languages, cultures, time and space zones.
 In the cited word family, the word ‘kuḍe’ (> guḍe), which refers to cave or cavity, may one of the earliest one. Further, ‘koḍa’ was attributed to earthen pot with a cavity inside to hold water or any other material. There are numerous words, apart from koḍa, to represent the earthen pot like muri, kaḍya, kalasha etc which probably came from tribal diverse cultures. The water bearing pot was auspicious at that time and it was used for ceremonies to symbolically represent the divinity or the supernatural force.

The ancient tribes also held that dead people continue to exist in the form of supernatural forces, in the form of spirits divine or malignant depending on the service rendered by the living ones. During the course of such beliefs the practice of preserving the remains of the dead evolved and some cultures the dead remains were preserved in earthen pots or the koḍa or koḍe.  The word kode appears to one of the early words in this word family, as it is associated with short ancient words which we discussed above in brief. The megalithic burial structures, dolmens, made of stone slabs, and known as koḍe-kal (For example, Panḍavara kallu) also conform to this viewpoint. The place names Koḍekal  (and its evolved or deformed variants) represent places of megalithic burial structures.


Sudhamsu Sekhara Tunga (1995 ) Bengali and other related dialects of South Assam. Mittal Publications.  Also in Google books

Monday, June 3, 2019

419. Village names ending with suffix: -kūru

Beauty of  Temple chariot (Ratha or Teru), Mundkuru.

Ooru (or Ūru) is a common Dravidian word for village or habitation and it occurs as a suffix in many South Indian place names as a suffix (or last part of the word).
Comparatively, there are also several ancient village names in coastal Tulunadu that end with a suffix of –kūru. For example: Nandikūru, Mundkūru, Balkuru, Barkuru, Saukūru.. etc.  Similar –kūru ending place names are common place in the eastern parts of peninsular Andhra Pradesh/Telangana region.
Now, what was the difference between Ūru and Kūru? Or why some village-names were chosen and named with the suffix of –kūru,  while simple suffix of  Ūru would have been  suffice?
Some readers may confuse the suffix: kūru with kuru. The ‘kuru’ (as in Kurukshetra), means a hilly region, whereas kūru  (ku+ūru)  is an alternate compound form of the common Dravidian word ūr (or oor ). The kuru (and its alternate form, kor) is a part of tribal group names such as Kor, Korava, Koraga etc.
Kūru  villages
Village names such as Athikur, Bailkur, Balkur, Barkur, Betkur, Bhankur, Chowkur, Halkur, Huskur, Kandakur, Karekura, Tumkur, Nandikūru, Mundkūru, Balkuru, Barkuru, Saukūru..  in Karnataka and  Agomothkur, Andukuru, Anukuru, Atmakuru, Bhuthkur, Chillakur, Ikhuru, Kondikur, Modukuru, Nadakuru, Birkoor etc in Andhra Pradesh serve as some of the examples for villages ending with -kūru suffix.
Kūru: an analysis
Thus, the suffix word/component kūru can be analysed as: ku+ūru. Regarding the meaning of the component ku here, there can be two possible answers:
1.  The suffix tag of   -ka (or -ku or -ki ) was one of the oldest decipherable habitation indicator tag, which was used in those days of early civilization, to refer to a small human colony or habitation of say less than about 100 people. Village names like: Baraka, Bekha, Booka, Dabka, Gokak,  Hebbaka, Kabaka, Moka etc in different parts of Karnataka can be offered as examples for ancient village names ending with -ka . Here the suffix –ka  or -kha represents a habitation or a tiny ancient village.
2. In some of the ancient Indian languages, a prefix tag of “ku” served to mean good, beautiful, auspicious etc. For example: the ancient word “kumāra” was formed by joining,   ku and māra.
 Of the two options discussed above, the first one appears realistic as there are many ancient habitation names ending with -ka, -kh, -ke, -ki or -ku. ( For example: Kabaka, Moka, Gokak, Alike,Belke,Barke, Kukke,Jowku etc).

Small ancient habitations
Human evolution grew in the form of small habitations and these colonies were designated with simple suffix tags that ended with ka (or its phonetic variants) or with similarly simpler consonants such as:  ta, pa sa, ya ..etc. We shall cover more these aspects in some of our forthcoming posts. Primitive words were simpler consonants which evolved with time to form more complex words.

Antiquity of  word Ūr ( Oor)
The word Ūr ( or Oor) has widely accepted as a common word for village in Dravidian languages including Tulu. However, the word does not appear to be the exclusive property of Dravidian languages of India. Sumerian civilization, that flourished some 6000 years ago in Mediterranean region had a town known as Ur!. This confirms that about 6000 years before present the word Ur existed in Mediterranean region also! Whether the ancient Dravidians borrowed the word Ur from the ancient Sumerians or vice versa can only be finalized after intensive research into the available historical data. But the fact remains that Uru was a global word that existed at least since 6000 years.
Evolution of  -kuru suffix
The discussion above leads us to conclude that the spatial suffixes like -kuru grew as  the human settlements grew in population and size.  Words like Uru represented evolved villages that possibly contained hundreds of people.  As the size and strength of the human colonies increased new words like –uru (= village) were added to the old habitation names that previously ended with a simple  suffix such as -ka.
In other words the original or older village names were Mundaka, Nandika, Baraka etc which later with addition of –uru suffix, became Mundkūru, Nandikūru, Barkūru .. etc.
Mundaka+ūru= Mundakūru
(Notes: Munda refers to the name of an ancient tribe; Nandi= a bull ; or Nanda = a tribe; Bāra= an estuary; river mouth at sea beach)

Antiquity of spatial suffix -ka
 Our proposed model of evolution of habitation/village names based on the sequence of affixation of spatial tags of -uru over –ka, suggests that the suffix -ka might be much more older than -uru , may be about 10,000 years old . Similar to the word Ur, the suffix ka is not only ancient but also global in extent as you can find similar suffix tags in African/Mediterranean ancient country names such as : Iraq , Morocco, etc.
The josh of temple festivities, Mundkuru, Udupi district, Karnataka.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

418. Moolianna: An ancient priestly designation

Most of the ancient religious shrines in Tulunadu have survived to this date as they were well managed with the active cooperation and participation of devout public. Each shrine was   an institution   with a designated administrator and caretaker (usually hereditary) to oversee the proper functioning.
One such ancient religious designation is known as “Moolianna” (or Mūlyanna). The word is significant for students of history and heritage as it throws certain light over the way our religious customs and institutions evolved over the time. We shall discuss and analyze the word “moolianna”( and related  mooliyadige” ) considering an example from Uliya  in Ullal, southern Mangaluru.

Devu Moolianna at Uliya, Ullal
On the southern bank of River Netravati, to the south of Mangaluru city, lies the port town of Ullal, historically well known as the bastion of dynamic queen Abbakka, who is well remembered for her freedom struggles against the tyrannies of Portuguese invaders.
Geographically, Uliya is a river island within Ullal. There is a historical undated Ullaldi Dharmarasu (dharma=righteous path; arasu=king) shrine, located within Uliya area consisting of a large number of members of Sapaliga community. It is managed by a “Moolianna”. Based on the religious designation, the Dharmadarshi (religious caretaker; a trustee) is specifically is known as “Devu Moolianna”, wherein the name “Devu” refers to the name of first person who donned this designation in the past history.  The title “Devu Moolianna“continues usually along hereditary lines. Presently, Shri Kripanand, son of Bhavani and Shivappa is holding the moolyadige rights of the shrine.

Muri: an  earthen vessel

Origin of  Moolianna
What could be the origin of this designation: Moolianna or Mulyanna?. The term “mūlya” or “moolya” usually   refers to members of Kulāl community, who are traditional pot makers in Tulunadu. In this case, the designated title: ” Devu Mooliyanna”  is not selected from Moolya community. Then what is the relationship between the designated title “mooliyanna” and the nature and duty of caretaker (dharma-darshi) of the shrine?
In order to understand the significance of this religious title, we have to review the evolution of our ancient religious practices that date back to a historical period, before the formation of communities and castes in Tulunadu.

Mūri and mūrlu : the symbolic holy pot worship
The word “mūri” (or mori) refers to small   earthen pot.  It is also at places known as “mūri-ginde”. (Tulu Lexicon, vol.6, p.2659).
Following the invention of wheel, the art of pot making from earthen clays came into being in the early civilizations.  The earthen pot, a wonderful creation at that point of civilization, was used as a holy symbol of deity or deities. Thus, in the tradition of one of the oldest religious customs that prevailed all over ancient India, the earthen pot was used symbolic of the deities they worshipped at that time period.
 The devotional symbol “mūri” is also associated with the word “muri”or “muria”, the ancient form of swearing or the prayer to divinity. The word “muri” is a homonym with several interpreted meanings and one of the oldest meanings associated with word means swearing (to God) or praying (Tulu Lexicon, vol.6, p.2638). The related Tulu word “mureDunu” also means swearing, entreating, praying etc. In the traditional devotional ceremonies, usually three earthen pots (“mūrlu,” plural of mūri; also known as “murlu daiva”) were used. (See also: “Tuluvara Moolatāna: Adi AlaDe” (Kannada) by Dr. Indira Hegde, (2012), p.44).

Mūri and mūrte
The earthen pot is also used traditionally for tapping toddy from toddy palms/ palmyra trees. The art of tapping the tender parts of the toddy palm trees and collecting the toddy into the mūri vessels is known as mūrte.

Kadya and Kādya
Alternate regional variants of “mūri” are known variously as kaDya, kandel, kumbha, kalasha etc. The  kaDya, another form of mūri, was used as symbolic of the ancient serpent god , the Nāga. Thus, the word  KāDya” also used to represent  the Nāga deity.
The word  kumbha also means a pot and thus the traditional pot makers are known as kumbhārs. The kumbha also became a zodiac symbol of an astral constellation.

Kalasha and brahma-kalasha
An alternate word for “mūri”, was “kalasha”. Even nowadays, the kalasha consisting of earthen or metal pot filled with water and overlaid with mango leaves and coconut, is used extensively in auspicious ceremonies. This appears to be an evolved form of the ancient “mūri”.
The concept of kalasha, originally derived from ancient primitive prayer forms has evolved further and in the present cultural scenario it is customary to perform periodically  the auspicious “Brahma-kalasha” ceremony during the  renovation of  temples.

Mūri > mūli
The word “mūri”, has an alternate, probably an evolved   form in “mūli” (or mooli). Thus traditionally, the person or the priest who conducts worship and prayers to “mūli” was known as “Mūliyanna”.  The designation initially was formed before the ancient society was divided into different communities.  Thus we find the “mulyādige” (or the status of conducting muri/muli worship) was independent of community tags.  However, with passage of time, those priests were known as “mūlya”.
Since such muri/muli worships were conducted by traditional pot makers (now known as Kulāls (old name: Oḍāri) in Tulunadu), the term “Mūlya” (the priest of holy pot worship) became a surname of pot makers. (The –anna suffix tag in the designation “Muliyanna”, is   an honorific  suggesting ‘elder brother’).
There is village known as “Moolara-patna” on the banks of River Gurupur, near the ancient temple town of   Polali.

Muri> murthi
From one original word another word derives during the course of the time. The ancient practice of “muri”, the symbolic holy or auspicious pot worship, has evolved over the time and refined artistic idols replaced the place of symbolic worship.  The auspicious time for performing any ceremony is known as mūrta (> muhūrta). Similarly, the   symbolic artistic idols were and are known as “mūrthi”. Thus the word mūrthi  appears to have been derived directly from the ancient word : mūri.

 Murthi: A bronze idol of Krishna.

Mooliyanna vs. Mukkaldi
Similar to “Moolianna”, there is another priestly designation namely, the Mukkāldi .  Mukkālti (or Mukkāldi) is a designated person who would take care of the facial mask symbol of the Bhūta deity (moga/mooka/mukha) and other accessories of the spirit shrine.  In some areas he is known as “Bhūtada māni” (man of Spirit deity).
Usually there will be a mukkāldi  (Bhuta mask keeper) in every family, who carries on the duty of performing periodical worship rites in the Spirit shrine of ancestral house. The designation and rites of  Mukkāldi  was once commonly found all over southern India, as evident by   the existence of Mukkaldiyar caste in Tamilnadu
The status of Mūliya  priesthood is known as Muliyadige. The designation was irrespective of the caste or the community.  Even though the origin of the word “Mūliya” (or “Mooliayanna”) and the parallel word “Mukkāldi” are different, nowadays due to confusion, the words are sometimes used interchangeably.
  For example, the Tulu Lexicon defines the term “muliyadige” as …” the duties of bringing the mask and other objects of worship to the place where annual kola rituals of Bhuta take place, holding of torch and other responsibilities usually performed by the members of potter community” . (Tulu Lexicon, vol.6, p.2663).

Gunaga priests
After the communities were formed in the society, the members of Mulya (now equivalent of Kulal) community were the traditional priests. The Gunaga (potters) are the equivalents of Mulya/Kulals  in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka. Even today, they are performing the worship rites in the rural temples of Uttara Kannada.

1. Following the invention of wheel, the art of pot making from earthen clays came into being in the early civilizations.
2. The earthen pot, a wonderful invention during the early civilization, became the symbol of the invisible supernatural, the God.
3. The holy earthen pot was referred to as muri, muli, kadya, kalasha, kumbha etc in different regions and sub-cultures.
4. The priest and the caretaker of mūri/mūli was designated as “mūliya” ( or respectfully: “mooliyanna”).
6. The priestly designation “mūliya“, eventually, became the surname of a community.
7. The ancient symbolic worship cult of “mūri”, further evolved into the art of making   idols or “murthi”s.
8. Presently, the priestly two designations “mūliya“, and “mukkāldi”, are sometimes used interchangeably due to confusions, probably because of the merger of essential duties handled, in spite of the independent origin of the two words.


Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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