Saturday, March 20, 2010

233. Panjurli

The cult of Panjurli, the boar spirit, is a time tested icon of the early stages in the psyche and evolution of human tribes in this land. Early tribes trusted in supernatural forces that apparently controlled the good and bad conditions of their lives. They considered that a good, comfortable and secure life is the result of blessing of the deity and conversely believed that life gets upset when the deity curses.
The evolutionary transition of tribes from forest to agricultural phases some five to seven millennia ago also laid foundation for initiation of new cults among the tribes. A Wild boar that destroyed early farmers crop became a source of awe and irritation. The boar destroyed some crops and the affected person considered that it was the curse of the deity.This could be the origin of the cult among the tribes. However, it can be seen that successive theological cults absorbed and assimilated the essence of Panjurli cult. For example, the Varaha (=boar)incarnation of Maha Vishnu is a concept based on Panjurli or its equivalent cult. Kings of Kadamba dynasty,based in Banavasi region, upheld the boar cult as seen by naming of the river as Varaahi. Similarly, Vijayanagar Kings held Varaha, the boar, as their royal insignia.

PaDdanas (=oral epic poems), trickling down through ages, are only the sources of past history in the form of recitation of anecdotes. Variation is noticeable in these paDdanas from place to place and also in length, adapted to a particular performance during annual festivals.

Oral songs and ballads (kabitas and paDdanas) are sung during annual festivals and during day to day activities, viz tilling, seedling and harvesting in paddy fields, peeling areca nuts, function of ‘madarengi’ (henna tattooing custom) on the eve of marriage, tapping toddy, and as pastime during leisure.


Vedic scriptures make a division of Aryans and Non-Aryans, who are shown in poor light. Scholars now say that they were of one and the same race with common culture and languages and were dependent on each other. The division of Bharatvarsha as ‘Uttarapath’ and ‘Dakshinapath’ (also known as Aryavarta and Dravidavarta) was a regional one with ‘Vindhya Ranges’ standing in the middle as a divider. Dravidapath or Dravidavarta is so called, as it is a peninsula, encircled by three seas. This is vindicated by the great Philosopher Shankaracharya of 8th Century from South, while replying Mandana Mishra’s question, “Who is he?” Myth of Aryan and Dravidian Races, which is a concept nurtured by colonialists, continues still.

Tulu traditions and orature (=oral+ literature), as a part of Dravidian culture relate to social, political and religious psyche of Tulunadu, located between Western (Sayhadri) Ghats on the East and Arabian Sea on the West. Tulunadu is an epitome of peaceful co-existence. All regions thrived in Tulunadu. Hinduism (with Vedic Gods and later on Mother Goddess, Shiva and Vishnu
Taking center stage), Buddhism (later on absorbed into Shaiva cult) and Jainism are naturally evolved into socio-religious order. Islam and Christianity took root in India under political considerations and coercion. There is a synchronization of Daivas (deified living legends or heroes of Past, including Muslims) and Vedic Gods and Goddesses. They are worshipped as personalized, Community and Group of Villages (Maagane) Gods and Godheads in shrines and temples. This is unique to Tulunadu. The peaceful living is manifest in precedence and sequences of annual festivals/celebrations in shrines and temples. The meeting of deities takes place(in the form of possessed impersonators) of one temple, where the annual festivals (āyana , teru, kola or nema) have just concluded, is the mark of starting (‘kodi erunu’, meaning raising of temple flag) and permitting of annual festivals in an adjacent village. This meeting takes at the periphery of latter temple.

The Divine Spirits are classified in three categories, firstly ‘Ullaya or Chakravarti’ (i.e Lord of Lords, considered as manifestation of Devi, Shiva and Vishnu); secondly, Rajan (considered as Kings, who lived before deification after death) and thirdly, 'Kamberlu' (Danda nayakas or Chieftains). Firstly, these Daivas manifest themselves, through a medium, in the palace of their kingdom or house of their birth when alive and are worshipped in these places, called ‘moolada mane’ (place of origin), and they are believed in other places also as their devotees are spread. Here is a case of direct contact, though through medium, with the deities. This speaks a volume how the custom of ‘Daivaradhane’ (=Spirit Worship) took root in Tulunadu (as also in adjoining Kerala with migration of certain ‘Daivas’ (also called ‘Bhootas’) to Kerala and vice versa. (Note: In Kerala, this Spirit worshipping is called ‘Theyyam’. Refer article by Dr. U.P. Upadhyaya in ‘Taranga’, a Kannada Weekly, March 4, 2010 Issue).

Significant ‘Rajan Daivas’ are: (1) Jumadhi (Sanskritised as Dhumavati), believed to be reincarnation of Aadi Shakti (Mother Goddess), (2) Jarandaya, supposed to be the reincarnation of Shiva or Dharmaraja and (3) Babbarya or Bobbarya [supposed to be the reincarnation of Shastara and born to a Mogaveera woman as Babbana at Mulki (See ‘Babbana Babbarye’ in Mogaveera January 2009 Issue, written by Narayana A. Bangera). (The other version says, he is born to a Bunt woman and a Muslim trader)

Panjurli Daiva is assistant to Rajan Daivas, as cited above, as 'Kshetrapala' (Guardian of the area), in maintaining justice and peace in the places where he is believed and worshipped. He has got seven manifestations. He is the Divine Spirit, who sits in judgement on the conduct of members of a family, village and cluster of villages. Hence he is known by different names. In South of Tulunadu, he is known as ‘Annappa Panjurli’ at Dharmasthala, in the North he protects the borders as ‘Tembikalla Panjurli’, in the East, he is worshipped as Kuppettu Panjurli, in the West he is known as ‘Bolada Panjurli’, and at individual Tuluva households he is known by simple name of ‘Panjurli’. His adventures while guarding and protecting the borders of Tulunadu and benevolence on oblating devotees are legendary.

Dr. B.A. Viveka Rai writes his impressions in “Epics in the Oral Genre System of Tulunadu” as follows:
“Interestingly, in one version, the narrative about the genesis of Panjurli is made to include even the Vedic gods, as Vishnu’s sweat is transformed into Panjurli. Likewise, Shiva has been depicted as a character possessing the qualities of both the deity and a village farmer.
More than ten paddanas exist that give an account of the adventures of Panjurli bhuta and thereby its dissemination in the Tuluva region. All of the episodes substantiate the supremacy of Panjurli bhuta and the reasons for its worship in different places. With its magical power Panjurli causes buffaloes tethered to a jackfruit tree to vanish, momentarily blinds the priest who carried the god in procession at Dharmasthala, makes the elephant of the Kepaadi temple fall sick, does the same to the cattle at Kalle beedu, kills the two wives of Hebri Ballala, and so on.
Thus it is that Panjurli bhuta exhibits its supreme power through an array of magical deeds. The people who are affected approach the soothsayer, who with the help of magical objects discovers the reason for the disaster, namely, Panjurli’s miracle. The remedy for the calamity is also provided by the soothsayer: he suggests that a shrine should be built for Panjurli and a festival performed. The people act accordingly and are saved from the disaster. These same incidents, with some variation in the manifestation of the calamity, are repeated in neighboring places. Thus Panjurli is worshipped in different places for different reasons, all concerned with untoward events involving the people, their crops, and their
The word: Panjurli
‘Panjurli’ as per tradition means ‘Panji kurle or kurli, i.e. a wild boar’s offspring. This offspring was created by Lord Shiva and was cursed by Goddess Parvati for his misdeeds of destroying her ‘kadalivana’ (=banana grove). The curse is mitigated by ordaining him to be born on Earth as a Divine Spirit to protect and uplift the masses from evil to good. There is another version in Bappanadu Kshetra Mahatme that he was born out of sweat of Hanuman, which fell into the ocean while carrying the mountain bearing the Sanjivani herbs.
Panjurli (Panji+urli) is a compound word wherein Panji = wild boar is clear. The exact meaning and source of 'Urli' here is baffling and is to be recognised.
‘Uri’ has the meaning of angry, savage, wild, ferocious and fierce, as we can understand in Ugra Narasimha or Uri Brahma (Uri Brahma is one of the Daivas, worshipped in Athur Bailu Mahalingeshwar Temple). The suffix ‘li’ generally represents ‘animal’ or ‘bird’, as we find in ‘pili (=tiger), ‘palli (=lizard), ‘eli’ (=rat) and ‘gili’ (=parrot), etc.
What makes it clear is that Panjurli means: an Ugra (=violent) Panji (=boar), a deity with abilities to punish for the evil deeds and bless the good. Overall, the word 'Panjurli' means a wild boar.
There is a place in Pune District, named 'Uruli'. One part of it is called ‘Uruli Devachi', which is famous for Mahatma Gandhi Naturopathy Foundation. This place is always in news these days because of villagers’ agitation against dumping of garbage by Pune Municipal Corporation and recurrence of fire at dumping sites owing to summer heat. The other village is called Uruli Kanchan and has a railway station by that name. This word ‘Uruli’ is fascinating as it is akin to our Uruli in Tulu. This word reminds me ‘Panjurli’, a Divine Spirit, worshipped in Tulunadu and enkindles my quest for exact meaning of ‘urli’ in ‘Punjurli’

J.T Molesworth's Marathi-English Online dictionary provides the following meanings for the word 'Urli':

1) Borders or skirts or purlieus.
2) Curling or entangling (as in cloth threading)
3) Gurgling, rippling of whirling brook, purling
4) A stanchion, purlin, etc.
5) suspicious, jealous, malignant, grudge-bearing, morose, sulky, churlish.

Uruli in Tulu

This interesting Tulu word 'Uruli or Urli' is a bell metal vessel. This process of alloy making involves mixing and rolling. The utensil rolls over or tumbles down because of its round shape. Rice, cooked in this vessel, is offered to God as 'Naivedya' (Oblation) in temples (See Tulu Lexicon). Tumblers, made of brass or bronze, are also called as 'uruli or urli'. They tumble down because of its round shape, tapering at the bottom. Such tumblers are not used these days. One, who is now between 40 and above, must have eaten in trays made of bell-metal (Pitteleda battalu) and drunk water in ‘urlis’ in one’s childhood. Tulu villagers know these utensil-objects, which are now part of antiquity. Steel glass (without rim) has taken the place of brass/bell metal ‘urli’.

Panjurli and Varthe

The cult of Panjurli appears to be as old as the beginning of agricultural phase of human civilization,probably it dates back to 3000 BC or older.
The cult of Panjurli appears to have been rejuvenated around 4th Century CE during the uprise of Kadamba regime.As you know, Sanskritization was the order of the day at that period.The age old Spirit of Panjurli became Varaha and was moulded as one of the incarnation of Lord Vishnu!
Besides, the incidental information suggests that Panjurli was worshipped in female form during the Kadamba regime. It was known as Varahi. One of the rivers flowing in the Banavasi(Kadamba Kingdom)-to Kundapura region was named as Varahi! Further, it appears that the people began to worship Varahi as "Varah(i)ti" . The ti or thi suffix is indicative of female forms, as you know, from examples like gowdti,ullalti, etc.In due course, Varahti became Varti or Varte!
So there were two forms(avtars) for the same cult!There were people who worshipped both the forms together.
This has lead to the confusion of relationships between the two forms. Some people think that Panjurli and Varthe area brother and sister while others argue that they are husband and wife. It can be opined that this can resolved by considering that Panjurli and Varthe are the two forms of a single Spirit power.


Panjurli is a powerful Divine Spirit. He is considered to be intolerant to feuds and disharmony in a family, in a village or between villages and becomes vengeful when devotees commit mistakes. So, Marathi meaning of ‘urli ‘(i.e. suspicious, jealous, malignant, grudge-bearing, morose, sulky, churlish etc) seems relevant.

Our academic interest is limited to theoretical analysis of the word without any disrespect to the Deity or the believers. Bear in mind, there may be no connection between Uruli/ Urli of Pune District to Urli in Panjurli. It only provoked us to search for possible meaning of the word.

-By H. Vishwanath & Ravi


  1. 8, 2011 at 3:07 PM

    Its great to know more on 'Panjurli' daiva as worshipped in Tulunadu or earlier Dakshina Kannada Jilla. In my opinion, one more version of Panjurli daiva can be depicted. In this district, people also call thier dieties as 'Yajamana' daiva and 'Yajamanti' daiva. In Lalita Sahasranama, one of the name to Maa Lalita is 'Yayamana Swaroopini'. Here, Yajamana swaroopini is 'Varahi' the male form of Mata Lalita. Varahi is with borehead with woman body. As I mentioned above, we mean 'Yajanti' daiva is also called 'Chikku', the famale form of daiva. We also have 'Bala Chikku', which relates to 'Bala', the daughter of Mata Lalita. Here, Chikku is Mata Lalita itself.
    In my opinion, Panjurli or Varahi i.e. varaha roopa and Chikku are male and female form of the same Mata Lalita.

  2. Good Information, thank you. Panjurli in different evolving forms was being worshipped by Kadamba, Chalukya and Vijaynagar Kings through the history, showing the spread of this Panjurli/Varaha cult beyond Tulunadu. It would be an apt topic for studying further various evolutionary forms of this worship.

  3. Sir i want some information of Panjurli.
    1) What is realationsp between panjurli and Varthe?
    2) Varthe & Kallurti both r one?
    3) is Varthe or Kallurti Kalkudas Sister?
    Plz give info abt theese qustns.
    my id is :

  4. Raghu,As you know, Panjurli and Varte are being worshipped together in many households. Varte is considered to represent Kallurti, the sister of Kalkuda. Kalkuda was the sculptor of the statue of Gomateshwar at Venur. According to legends a narrow minded King mutilated Kalkudas arms so that he would not repeat the feat of sculpting some more statues of Gomata!
    After this event of mutilation Kallurti, Kalkudas sister got wild with anger and cursed the King.
    People feared the rage of Kallurti even after her death and began to worship her as a Spirit.

  5. ಧನ್ಯವಾದಗಳು,
    ಕೆಲವೊಬ್ಬರ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ವರ್ತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪಂಜುರ್ಲಿ ಸೋದರ ಸೋದರಿ ಎಂಬುದಾಗಿ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಆದರೆ ನಾನು ಪಡೆದ ಕೆಲವೊಂದು ಮಾಹಿತಿಯ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ವರ್ತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಕಲ್ಲುರ್ಟಿ ಒಬ್ಬದೇವಿಯೇ ಆಗಿದ್ದಾಳೆ ಎಂಬುದು. ವರ್ತೆಯೇ ಕಲ್ಲುರ್ಟಿ, ಅವಳೇ ಕಲ್ಕುಡನ ಸೋದರಿ ಎಂಬುದು. ಆದರೆ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ನನಗೆ ಮೂಡಿರುವ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆ ಎಂದರೆ ಒಂದು ಪಾಡ್ದನದ(ಮುಡಿಪು) ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಕಲ್ಕುಡ ತನ್ನ ಸೋದರಿ ಕಲ್ಲುರ್ಟಿಯನ್ನು ಪಂಜುರ್ಲಿಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ ಎಂಬುದಾಗಿದೆ. ದಯಮಾಡಿ ಪಂಜುರ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ವರ್ತೆಗೆ ಏನು ಬಾಂದವ್ಯ ಇದೆ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿಸುವಿರಾ? ನಾನು ತುಳುನಾಡಿನ ಉತ್ತರ ಭಾಗದ ಕುಂದಾಪುರದವನು. ನನಗೆ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ಮಟ್ಟಿನ ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ ತಿಳಿದಿದೆ. ನಾನು ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆಯ ಮುಡಿಪು ಒಂದನ್ನು ಕೇಳಿದಾಗ ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ವರ್ತೆಯ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಕಲ್ಕುಡ ತನ್ನ ಸೋದರಿಯನ್ನು ಪಂಜುರ್ಲಿಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ ಎಂದಿದೆ. ಆದು ಯಾವ ರೀತಿಯಾಗಿ ಎಂಬುದು ನನಗೆ ತಿಳಿದಿಲ್ಲ. ವರ್ತೆಯನ್ನು ವಿವಾಹ ಮಾಡಿ ಕೊಟ್ಟಿದ್ದೊ ಅಥವಾ ಶಕ್ತಿಯಾಗಿ ಕೊಟ್ಟಿದ್ದೊ ಅಥವಾ ಸೋದರಿಯಂತೆ ಕೊಟ್ಟಿದ್ದೋ? ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಪ್ರಚಲಿತದಲ್ಲಿರುವುದು ವರ್ತೆ-ಪಂಜುರ್ಲಿ ಎಂಬುದಾಗಿ. ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ನನ್ನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ಬೇಸಗೊಳ್ಳದೆ ನನ್ನ ಻ನುಮಾನ ಬಗೆಹರಿಸುವುರೆಂದು ಭಾವಿಸಿದ್ದೇನೆ. ನಾನು ದೇವರು ಮತ್ತು ದೈವಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ತಿಳಿದುಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಕುತೂಹಲದಿಂದ ಈ ಮೇಲಿನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳನ್ನು ನಿಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿ ಕೇಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದೇನೆ.. ಇಂತಿ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಉತ್ತರಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಕಾಯುವ ನಿಮ್ಮ ವಿಶ್ವಾಸಿ : ರಾಘವೇಂದ್ರ ಕೋಟೇಶ್ವರ.

  6. Dear Raghu
    Incidentally,Your questions contain the answers.
    Most of our theologic heritage is based on the renderings of persons who have impersonated or have composed legends ( as PaDdanas or Puranas as the case may be) during the history.If you are an strict theist or total believer in the legends, it is natural that you may encounter such debatable questions. On the other hand if you are an atheist (or partly so) you may find logical answers to such natural queries.
    In general I avoid providing logical answers to such issues as it may hurt sentiments of strict theists among us.
    If you promise that you shall not get hurt by rather logical answers my explanation for the issue raised by you is as follows:
    1.Panjurli (may be under different names) is one of the oldest ancient spirits believed and worshiped by many of the early agricultural civilizations of the world.It might have been adopted by Tulu/Karavali communities.It was later adopted as Varaha/ Varahi avatar by other components of ancient Indian civilization.Basically these are all notions or concepts used as object of worship.Every believer or worshiper in general needs an symbol or idol to concentrate his mind, and this has been the practice since the beginning of civilization.If you believe in Panjurli or Varahi, Varthe or some other divine manifestation the result is the same provided you are able to concentrate you mind on that object faithfully.More advanced thinkers therefore said: One ,many names.
    2. Kalkuda Kallurti story is relatively recent one, may be 16th Century CE or so, when Baira Kings commissioned the project of carving and installation of One of the Gomata statues in the Karavali. So the element of Kalkuda offering his sister (a relatively recent symbol of Spirit worship) to Panjurli an ancient symbol of spirit worship seems rather anachronous if you think it is a marriage between Panjurli and Varthe.Therefore you can infer it as a transfer or association of Shakti (as you have pointed out).
    3. The association of Panjurli and Varthe (Kallurti) possibly came into being because of certain believers who worshipped the two Spirits together, during the recent history (some 300-400 years ago).

  7. Great article Ravi Sir. Can you give me some books name, from which i can read more about these deities?

  8. Dear Mundkur ji,A laudable work on Panjurli, by you & shri.H.Vishwanath ji.

    Sir,I get two different versions regarding Panjurli and varte, from different people of our Tulu clan settled in Chennai.

    Certain section say that they are blood relatives like say brother & sister ! and yet other section of people say that they are husband & wife !

    Which one of either relations stated above seems to be correct as per your perspectives of study?

    And also,whether the synonym of either Panjurli or Varte or both together is "SATYA DEVATHE"?

    Sir, could you please throw some light regarding the above specified facts/myths.

    Warm regards & hats off to you & the other four members of your team, for the untiring efforts in trying to explore the linguistic Tulu.

  9. Blitzkrieg,There are some paDdana books describing the Panjurli in the Collections Basel Mission Library Mangalore.I am not aware of any analytical works on these.If I get any other references I shall report here in due course.

  10. Dr Ranga Prasad,
    The cult of Panjurli appears to be as old as the beginning of agricultural phase of human civilization,probably it dates back to 3000 BC or older.
    The cult of Panjurli appears to have been rejuvenated around 4th Century CE during the uprise of Kadamba regime.As you know, Sanskritization was the order of the day at that period.The age old Spirit of Panjurli became Varaha and was moulded as one of the incarnation of Lord Vishnu!
    Besides, the incidental information suggests that Panjurli was worshipped in female form during the Kadamba regime. It was known as Varahi. One of the rivers flowing in the Banavasi(Kadamba Kingdom)-to Kundapura region was named as Varahi! Further, it appears that the people began to worship Varahi as "Varah(i)ti" . The ti or thi suffix is indicative of female forms, as you know, from examples like gowdti,ullalti, etc.In due course, Varahti became Varti or Varte!
    So there were two forms(avtars) for the same cult!There were people who worshipped both the forms together.
    This has lead to the confusion of relationships between the two forms.In my opinion these two should be worshipped as two forms of the same concept as the interrelationship is rather immaterial.

  11. Dear Dr Ranga Prasad
    Thank you for your kind appreciation of our modest efforts.In fact having like minded partners helps a lot in endevours of this kind.While a blogger gets bogged down by mundane miseries, his partners can enthuse him to prod on! It is more like a relay race!
    Vishwanath takes the credit for pulling me along whenever I get sloppy!

    We invite appreciative people like you to join your hands with us and contribute posts of your choice, broadly pertaining to the framework and theme of this blog.
    If you like please email your write-ups and pics to :

  12. Dear Shri Vishwanath and Ravi,

    Thanks for your work on historical aspects of Panjurli Daiva. It's very informative.

  13. An informative article. I have one observation. Daiva "Panjurli" is not assistant to any Daivas. In many very old House's(Hale Manetana), Panjurli adores himself as 'Pradhana Daiva" and Jumadi and others are on the next level for various poojas and Vidhi's.
    Varte: It is an addition and contribution from Darshana Patri's and others. I have great example of our own house, where we had only "Panjurli" as Pradhana Daiva and now Varte also joined recently.Nothing more to say..

  14. Panjurli is one of the oldest (ancient) spirit for worshipped by all/many householders in Tulu Nadu. This also reflects the antiquity of Deity Panjurli. He is considered 'moola daiva' and hence is called as 'Panjurli Ajja' by believers. It appears other spirit forms were added later in the timeline.
    Varte, Kallurti, Baikadti or any other female divine spirit is worshipped by Tuluvas with same warmth or intensity of feeling but their Bimbas/Masks or Consecrated Stones are usually outside the main 'sana' of Panjurli.
    What required is the fervency in our faith to all divine spirits.

  15. Are all these daivas, being sent by Lord Shiva from Kailash to maintain law and order in the society ? Are they Shiv Ganas ? Is there power limited to only Parushuram Shrishti, because in rest of India we don't see such kind of tradition.

  16. Dear Anonymous (comment Received :9-10-2016)
    [Please write your name in the comment].
    Well, your question can be answered in more than one way. But I shall follow a simplistic logical explanation in my reply:
    The spirit cults like Panjurli are evolved by our ancestors in the early agricultural societies located beside forest areas mainly to protect their crops and their families from predators. They are not considered as part of Shiva-gana o begin with.(Subsequently some people might have considered the spirits as Shiva-ganas)
    On the other hand, the Vishnu followers adopted the Panjurli/Varaha doctrine as one of the ten incarnations of Vishnu.
    In the region known as Parashurama Shristi, the worship of Panjurli has been distinct. You can also see evidences of similar cults in other parts of South India as Varaha cult. A river originating in Uttara Kannada Western Ghats (Sahyadri) has been named as Varahi. Probably during Vijayanagar regime (or before)the Varaha cult spread to Andhra also as you can find a temple devoted to Varahaswamy in Tirupati (which as per traditions should be visited before visiting the Lord Venkatesha.

  17. Hi can you please explain which is the ideal way to place the panjurli daiva sthana..Is it I side the house or is it to be placed in outside house this has been decided?


Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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