Sunday, December 26, 2010

264. Genetic Assimilations: Ashoka Period

Before Ashoka period Paisachi languages were in vogue in southern peninsular India, known as ‘Bekinata’ during Vedic period (ca.1700-1500BC). Paisachi language apparently became obsolete in southern India, during the period ca 200-100BC as a result of replacement by Prakrit language as well as introduction of Dravidian languages. Influx of white immigrants (ca 500-400BC) was apparently one of the reasons for downfall of pre-existing language (Paisachi) and culture (Munda) in southern India.By Ashoka period (ca.250) the Bellar/Boller/Vellala white tribes not only admixed and assimilated with dark skinned aborigines consisting of early immigrants (60,000-10,000 BC) from Africa as well as early Munda tribes of Austro-Asiatic origin, but also superseded the aborigines in terms of socio-political advantages.
The Bellar immigrants introduced proto- Dravidian languages that evolved on a basement of Paisachi language, in southern India. The Dravidian languages Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Tulu and Malayalam gradually evolved in different regions of the southern India. The languages developed individual identities depending on regional features and the nature of basement language.
King Ashoka (ca.304BC -232 BC) of Mauryan dynasty employed Brahmi script for engraving rock edicts (inscriptions) in Prakrit, the main administrative language of that period in India.Prakrit flourished along with Buddhism in parts of southern India probably till 400CE. Prakrit was influenced by evolving Sanskrit and vice-versa.
After 400 CE, Sanskrit and later Early Kannada replaced Prakrit as administrative language, especially in northern Karnataka.
Immigrant Bellar tribes (Vellala, Boller)
All over southern India, immigration of white (fair) skinned tribes into the peninsula has been distinctly marked out in place names.Karavali Tulu aborigines called them ‘Boller’ (=white people), Kannada aborigines designated them as ‘Bellar’(=white people), Tamils and Telugus noted them as Vellals(white persons).It is possible that in northern India these white immigrants were known as ‘deva’s (or Gods). Sanskrit Vedic texts and Puranas described wars between Deva and Asurs. Asur is the name of the subtribe of Munda aboriginal tribes of India. Who are these ‘Gods’ referred to by texts?
King Ashoka has described himself as ‘devanam priya’ or ‘devanām priyadarshi.’ ie One who is beloved (favourite) of Gods.  By the term ‘deva’ (or Gods), Ashoka meant fair skinned people who were abundant in his kingdom that spanned all over the north India and extended upto present Afghanistan.Following Alexander’s Indian expedition, Greek and other Mediterranean people were frequenting northern India before and during the time of Ashoka.
Considering the explanation given by King Ashoka, the major period of immigration of these white skinned people into southern India probably corresponded with ca. 500-400 BC. However faired skinned tribes were evidently present in north-western Indian subcontinent as early as 1700 BC, the period of compilation of Rigveda.
Evolution of Indian Languages with passage of time.

Assimilation with Bellar ‘Gods’
In the Koppala Gavimata inscription (Koppal district, Karnataka) and in Brahmagiri inscriptions King Ashoka describes that people of the ‘Jambudwipa’ (ie south Indian peninsula), who were not mixing earlier with Devas (=Gods’), are now mixing with them (‘Gods’).
In the edicts Ashoka points out that earlier (before ca.250 BC) the southern Indians were not mixing with each other, but at the time of erecting the edicts Ashoka found that then devas and south Indians were widely mixing.
Thus epigraphs of Ashoka document a major period of genetic assimilation of white immigrants with dark skinned aborigines in southern India.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

263. Forgotten words in Tulu language.2

One and a half years ago, in this blog (post No. 123), we discussed about some of the strange words existing in Tulu language whose meaning is difficult to comprehend at present. Two of the words enlisted in the post were: Mijar and Miyar.
Miyar, Miyapadavu.
There are atleast two Tulu place names that contain the prefix ‘miya’.(There may be more,readers, kindly enlighten me!).Therefore the analysis of these words would be:
In these words above, ‘ar’ means an open ground and ‘padavu’ means an elevated area.Miyar is a sylvan and rocky rural area close to the Karkal town. Miyapadavu happens to be a sylvan plateau area in the interior of Kasargodu district, Kerala.
The other word in the group is Mij ār, a village located between Mangalore and Mudabidri on NH13. If we analyse this word independently,we may feel that it is: Mi+jar, wherein j ār represents a sloping ground(ja+ar).
However, the analogy of words Miy ār and Miyapadavu suggest that Mij ār was originally, miy+j ār which became Mijar in pronunciation in the due course.
Many of the green, sylvan Tulu rural areas are similar to forests even now. It can be visualized that these rain-fed Tulu regions were dense forests some four six millennia ago. Miya is a word of African origin, existing even now in Somali and other areas of Africa. It means forest.
Miya (Somali) =forest.
Therefore, the word ‘miya’ (=forest) appears to have been brought to Tulunadu by African immigrants in the antiquity. With the passage of time, the original meaning of the word ‘miya’ has been forgotten and lost in Tulu language, even though some of the ancient Tulu place names have preserved these heritage words, as invaluable trophies of history and heritage!

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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