Thursday, January 10, 2008
69.Kaipunjal and Kapu
Friend Vish recently visited his relatives at Kaipunjal near Kapu. His poser on the word ‘Kaipunjal’, prompted me to analyse the meaning of the word.
Tulu people evidently loved the geography of their land since ancient times. This is amply illustrated by the fact that most of the habitations have been named after the salient geographical/ geomorphological features of the area.
An explanation of the basic geomorphology of the Kaipunjal area, may help better appreciation of the word. The Kaipunjal habitation is north of Kapu village, located about 10 kilometers southwest of Udupi town. Udyavara river flows westerly towards the coast and further takes a long northward turn parallel to the coastline upto Malpe town, where it joins the Arabian Sea. There is a small southward blind tributary to River Udyavara that flows (or rather fills up) mainly during the rainy season. The name ‘Kaipunjal’ evidently refers to the seasonal inflated stream-limb.
The word Kai+punja+al therefore means tributary/branch (=‘kai’) of swollen/surged (=‘punja’) river (=‘Aal’). The word ‘punj/panj’, apparently derived from our ancient Munda heritage, is the root of Tulu words ‘panji’ (=swollen animal) as well as ‘panja’ and ‘punja’ (=raised/ inflated land).The word 'panja' still exists in Kui (Gondwana)langauage.
The word ‘Kapu’ means a reserved or protected area, possibly derived from the protected status of area during the period of regal armies. Possibly, an army of soldiers was kept at Kapu area during historical period when Udyavara was under the rule of Kings/Chieftains.
A ‘kapi-kad’ represented reserved forest of earlier days. A community of ancient guards is called ‘Kapu’ in Andhra Pradesh. The verb ‘kapu’(<.kapuni) in Tulu also means to wait.
Books for Reference
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- Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
- Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
- Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
- Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
- Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
- Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
- Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
- Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
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- TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
- Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
- TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
- Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999
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