1.The early Tulu tribes originated in northern Africa, under adverse environmental conditions migrated (c.2000 BC) and settled at Pirak in central Asia (upto c.800 BC) and further migrated to the present Tulunad where they eventually assimilated with the pre-existing early Munda tribes.
The outlined coeval history is also shared by the other early South Dravidian sister tribes like Tamils,Kannadas and Malayalees.
2.The Karavali (and major part of southern India) displays vestiges of an older substratum of early Munda lingual and cultural heritage that eventually merged with the immigrant early Tulu (and early Dravidian) lingual-cultural phase around ca. 400-700BC.
3.The Karavali (and major part of southern India) displays vestiges of an older substratum of early Munda lingual and cultural heritage that eventually merged with the immigrant early Tulu (and early Dravidian) lingual-cultural phase around ca. 400-700BC.
4.Vestiges of Buddhism (ca. 300BC-1100 CE) that eventually fused into Shaiva cults, can be recognised in Karavali/Tulunadu and mainland areas of Karnataka.
The Natha cult, expressive in Kadire, Mangalore, (ca.9 to 10 century CE) possibly initiated the process of fusion of Mahayana - Vajrayana Buddhism with Shaiva philosophies in this part of India.
5. The period of Kadamba rule centered on Banavasi (Uttara Kannada) introduced the Temple culture in Tulunadu with accent on the worship of present mainstream Hindu deities like Subramanya,Shiva, Ganapati, Shakti/Durga Devi and Vishnu/Krishna etc.
6.Many of the older words in Tulu constitute verbal fossils of past history and culture. Analysis of some of the village names throw light on some of the extinct or assimilated tribes that inhabited this region in the past.
7.Alupa kings possibly hailed from the village called Alupe, near Mangalore. They were Pandi cargo boat-owners (Pandia) who amassed wealth and consequently acquired the title 'Shri Pandya Dhananjaya'.
8.Tulu language has preserved numerous ancient words in the place-names that have analogous old words in other parts of India. Detailed study and analyses of these words would help understand the early evolution of languages in India in a better perspective.
Books for Reference
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