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363. Deciphering Tulu-nadu place names

The readers would observe that many of the Tulu Place names may not convey, on the face of it, any specific meaning or apparent meanings...

Thursday, March 30, 2017

382. Gudi Padva

Gudi Padwa was celebrated in Maharashtra on 28th March 2017. It is being celebrated in Karnataka on 29th by those who are following Lunar Calendar (Chandramana Almanac, based on movements of Moon). Our Hearty Greetings on this auspicious day, which is celebrated in different names all over India.

Legendary stories from Puranas are attached to this hoisting of Welcome Flag, to usher in the New Year.  It is called as Brahma Dwaja, raised to  mark the creation of the Universe by Lord Brahma.
Gudi Padva (image courtesy  www.shumee.in)

History about Gudi Padva is clubbed with Karnata-Maratha-Telugu cultures. In Maharashtra, Gudi Padwa means first festival falling on the first day of first  Lunar month of Chaitra Shukla Pratipada according to Hindu Calendar. It is known as Ugadi (Chandramana) in Karnataka.
 Special food offerings are made while worshipping the Gudi.   Gudi = Flag is hoisted by Hindu Householders on this auspicious day. Gudi comprises: a new sari-like cloth with brocades in deep green or yellows colours, decorated with Neem and Mango leaves, garland of sugar crystal (Sakar Gathi) and (red) flowers. It is attached to a Bamboo Pole.  This pole top is covered by inverting a copper or steel Kalash as pinnacle. 

It is raised in commemoration of victory of Vikramaditya over Shakas (Scytians) when a New Era, styled Shalivahana Saka, was started.  There is controversy over the actual King Vikrama or Vikramaditya (Bhoja, Gupta or Chalukya dynasties) or Shalivahana of Satavahana dynasty of Pratisthanapura. 

Every year, mostly all newspapers bring out Special Souvenirs on this day.  Normally, nowadays people know the rituals but not the historical value. At such festival times, people think it is auspicious to buy gold and ornaments.  It has acquired commercial value as these Souvenirs depend on ads from Jewellers. 

-Hosabettu Vishwanath

Saturday, March 25, 2017

381. In search of Babru vāhana

Babru vāhana (or Babhru vāhana) was a son of Arjuna born of Manipur princess Chitrangada in the great epic of Mahabhārata. The heroic character of Babru vāhana has been made ever unforgettable by the superior histrionics of the well known veteran actor Dr Rajkumar in a Kannada movie. In Mahabharata, the valiant son Babru vahana fights against his father Arjuna on the trail of Ashwamedha.

Inspite of popularity of this particular mythological character, the essential meaning of the unusual word “babru” has remained elusive and mysterious. The suffix vāhana in the word Babruvahana represents a vehicle, essentially an animal motif well entrenched in the Indian tradition.
Thus mooshika vāhana means the one riding on a “mooshika” (=rat); mayura vāhana represents the one who travels on a mayura (=peacock), and similarly we have Nandi vāhana (nandi=bull), Simha vāhini (simha= lion)   and so on. Thus the term Babru vāhana   suggests   that the prefix   babru   is an animal. Then what exactly is the animal babru?

Totem Babru,   the mongoose
The Pali-English dictionary throws light on the meaning of the word babru. The entry on “babbu” (in page number 536) explains that babhruka in Sanskrit represent an ichneumon. The ichneomon includes animals such as mangoose, otter or beaver which was considered an enemy of dragons and crocodiles in mythology. 
In Rig Veda the word “babhru” apparently represented   the brown (color). The word “babhru” was also found in Akkadian language but it was without any clear meaning. Liny Srinivasan (2011) has reported that Prof Gordon applied the purported Vedic meaning (brown) to Akkadian word”.  

Totem Mongoose
Obviously, this leads us to a   natural confusion whether we should take babru as an animal or a color. However the name of the character Babru vāhana clearly connotes that it is a live vehicle (animal) like other mythical vahanas described in the epics. Therefore, the babhru should have been an animal most probably the common mongoose.
The serpent (Nāga) is being venerated since antiquity by numerous tribes and the traditional practice continues to date. The Nāga was the totem for many of the ancient tribes. It is possible that mongoose was also a traditional tribal totem though there is paucity of historical documented data on this aspect.
Mongoose (Babru) is a daring animal that fights against the serpent valiantly and this feature should have appealed to some of the ancient tribes to adopt it as totem.

Extention of idea with time
It is   reported   that in Rigveda, the word “babhru” refers to color of deep brown or reddish brown. The deep brown incidentally is also the color of the skin of mongoose and allied creatures.  It not clear whether the connotation of brown color was adapted from the skin color   of the animal babhru.

However, with passage of time the term “babhru” has been applied in different ways such that the original Pali/Prakrit meaning of the word has almost been lost.  Hosabettu Vishwanath has gathered a number of additional meanings implied to the word "babhru". Summarizing his data,  the term “babhru”  found to have been applied apparently in post-Mahabharata  Sanskrit  literature as follows:

1.  A   lover of red flowers, like lotus. ( Alludes to 'the Sun'.)
2.  A   reddish yellow, to red rays of dawn. ( The epithet for Sun who rides on Aruna)
3.  A   thunderbolt. (Thus the one who rides over a thunderbolt' is Indra the God of sky.)
4.  A tolerant, merciful sustainer of Universe (Vishnu).
5.  A reddish brown cow (Alludes to Shiva on a bull)
6.  Babhravi  - is a form of Goddess  Durga.
7.  Babhruka - is a constellation of stars.

These extention of the ideas to the term Babhru/Babhru-vahana, variously attribute the implied meanings to Sun, Vishnu or Shiva or even Durga. However we do not get such extended ideas in Mahabharata,   wherein Arjuna confronts his son Babhru Vahana. In other words Mahabharata does not projects the Arjunas' son Babhru-Vahana as an incarnation or form of Sun, Vishnu or Shiva or else.

Therefore, it would be apt to restrict the original meaning of the word Babhru to an animal like mongoose or a mythical dragon as implied in the Pali dictionary. The implication of a dragon appears logical as Manipur the homeland of Babhru Vahana of Mahabharata has had certain geographic affinity   to China.

The entry of the word “babba” as an accepted synonym for “babru’ (or babhru) in Pali- English Dictionary cited above is quite interesting. Incidentally the term “Babba”   is a common pet name for boys in many regions including the Tulu nadu. Such pet names appear to have been inherited from days of our tribal cultures.

It is interesting to note that one of the habitations (hamlet) within Ankola town near Karwar in Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka, is known as “Babruwada”. Within the colony there is a small shrine devoted to the deity known as Babru!
(I could not verify the exact present form and nature of the deity Babru - especially whether it has been transformed to any of our current Vedic forms).  However, it is clear that the worship of Babru is vestige of an   ancient practice inherited from the history.

Cult of   Akkadian   Origin?
It is possible that the Babru worship cult arrived in the West Coast (such as Ankola) along with ancient tribal immigrants during the ancient history. The existence of the word “Babru” in Akkadian (as cited above) leads me to such a suggestion.
There is another parallel example of ancient worship of exotic deity Kapri near Kadwada near Karwar, Uttara Kannada. The original cult of Kapri can also be traced to the ancient African insect deity Kapri. Traces of the forgotten cult of ancient Kapri worship can also be tracked in the city of Mangaluru, where we find a locality named as Kapri gudda, near Attavara.

Babba, Babra Villages
Coming back to the ancient forgotten totem cult of   Babru/Babba we find villages not less than   18 named as Babra or after Babba (Babrala, Babrana, Babrani, Babrapur, Babbanpur Babbidi, Babbalpur, Babbur Babruliang etc) in various parts of India, such as Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Maharshtra, Rajastan, Uttar Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.

Based on the analysis of the available data, it appears that the ancient tribal name Babru    ( ~ Babba)  possibly represented mongoose which was an animal totem for some of the ancient  tribes of India.  The remnants of tribal cult of   Babru worship (similar to the remnant cult of Kapri) existing sporadically in the West Coast  of Karnataka appears to have prevailed among the ancient immigrant tribes from the African countries.

Liny Srinivasan, Dr. (2011) Desi words speak of the Past. Indo  Aryans in the ancient Near East.  572  p.  (also in Google  books.)
Rhys Davids, T.H   and William Stede [Editors]: (1921-25). The Pali -English Dictionary. The  Pali   Text   Society. 813p.


Tuesday, March 7, 2017

380. Antiquity of iDli

The Idli being a steam cooked dish made of ground and fermented paste of rice and black gram can be considered as one of the healthiest foods discovered and evolved in southern India. A number of steamed cousin dishes of idli are known in coastal India (especially Tulunadu) since times immemorial. The idli has been mentioned in some of the ancient Kannada texts.
Incidentally, now you can find numerous notes in the internet fueling  controversies and disputes that the technology of steaming as well as fermenting were borrowed from abroad.  The common myths floating in the internet are:
Myth 1: The process of fermentation was not known in India.
Myth 2: There were no vessels   for making steam baking in India till 7-8 C CE.
Myth 3: Idli technology was derived after an Indonesian dish called kedli.
Myth 4: Idli was made from the pulse Urudu (black gram) only in 10th Century.

We need to accept that the exchange of ideas and technologies is a common phenomenon in the global village since antiquity. However, let us review the available data for obtaining a better perspective understanding on the antiquity of idli.

Antiquity of  agriculture of Urudu and Rice
It is interesting to note that the pulse urudu (uddu, urad, or ‘black gram’) is an indigenous crop in origin.  The archeo-botanical studies on ancient ash mounds of suggest that urudu (Botanical name: Vigna mungo Linn) was grown in parts of northern Karnataka as early as 2200 BC.  It has been considered to be native crop of South India evolved from the wild varieties like Phaseolus  sublobatus, a wild plant prevalent in the Western Ghats (Fuller,     ).
It has been considered that the rice (Oriza sativa) was said to have been introduced in India during Harappa civilization ca 2500 BC.  Archeo-botanical studies in semi-arid zone of Karnataka suggest that rice was introduced in south India ca 1800 during iron ages. The archeo-botanical data might not be representative, since the rice is a preferred crop in regions of   intensive rainfall, where the ancient seeds either may not have been adequately preserved or available for studies.
The European words for rice (Old French ris; Italian riso; German/Welsh: reis etc) suggest derivation from Dravidian words like ‘arici’ (Tamil) and ‘ari’ (Tulu). The Arab and European countries were engaged in trade with south Indian ports during the early centuries and the along with the exports some of the Indian words also were absorbed in the Europe.

Antiquity of the process of Fermentation
The Myth No 1 is not true.
The knowledge on the process of fermentation is not new to Indians since remote antiquity. The intoxicating drinks were well known in India since Vedic times at least as early as ca.2000BC. Similarly brewing toddy from palms was a profession and tribes specializing in the art were known as idiga or devar since antiquity in India. The ancient art of making of curd (yoghurt) from milk   also involved the understanding the intricacies of fermentation.
Similarly the art of marinating fruits and vegetables (pickling) in saline water was also akin to the process of fermentation. Coastal Indians were adept in marinating vegetables and fruits in saline water and preserving for lean seasons, since saline water was available in the proximity. Traditional pickles of jack fruit or mango in saline water, without chillies, were once popular in rural Tulunadu and are known as “neer uppad “(=watery pickle) in Tulu.
The grains of urudu and rice were both common home grown agricultural products in southern India since antiquity. It is possible that ancestors naturally learnt the art of fermenting the mixtures of ground urudu and rice pastes as a consequence of keeping the mixture overnight. 

Urudu and urugu
Note that the Tulu word for fermentation (“urugu”) is related to the word for the black gram (“urudu”). The modern Kannada word for fermentation “hudugu” has subsequently been modified from the original Old Kannada/Tulu  equivalent of “urugu”. It needs to be pointed out here that Tulu and Old Kannada cultures shared many common words till about 10th Century CE.  With evolution of language, the modern Kannada (Hosa-Kannada) has modified the original old Kannada words, whereas the Tulu has preserved its antique and basic oral characters, probably because of lack of   pervasive and well- spread script for writing the language. In any case, the word clearly suggests that ancient people of Tulu/Kannada regions were versed with the art of fermenting the ground urudu +rice pastes.

Cousins of idli:  mooDe, gunDa,  kottige and tondru
Myth No 2 that there were no steaming vessels in ancient India, attributed to Chinese Buddhist traveler monk  Xuanzang (or Hsuan Tsung , ca 602-662 CE)   may not be correct, in the sense that the art of steam cooking was known in India, even though it is difficult to date the chronological event in the absence of precisely dated texts.
Ancient Greek traveler reports dating back to the beginning of the Common Era (ca.100 CE) mention that Indians were using boiled grains (Post 11; 31 March 2007. It reminds me of the boiled rice was being used as a nourishing food in Tulunadu since ages.
Steam cooking does not any need elaborate designer vessels. In coastal Tulunadu since ages steam cooking is done using simple earthen pots.
There is a number of traditional steam boiled dishes made out of fermented ground mixtures of rice + urudu. These ancient cousins of modern idli are known by Tulu names such as mooDe, gunDa, kottige and tondru adde.

Traditional Steam cooking
The fermented batter is poured into containers fashioned nout of specific leaves and kept systematically in upright vertical position   in a abutting series   inside a large earthen pot. The pot is filled with water to the half full level. Then the pot is closed with a lid and kept over the fire. The water in the pot boils generating steam that boils the contents of the containers kept   inside the pot. The traditional rural cooks can identify the appropriate degree of baking based on the emanation of specific fragrance of the steamed dishes couched within the leafy containers.

mooDe: leafy tubular container
Of these mooDe is steam -baked in tubular structures fashioned out of ribbon like leaves of  the shrub known as “munDevu “ (Indian Screw pine or Pandanus utilis) which grows in coastal areas and preferentially along the river banks. The leaves are shorn of their spines and warmed over fire to make them supple. Thus fire-stoked tender leaves were fashioned into tubes of desirable size, making use of vegetal pins derived from fronds of coconut palm. The tubes are closed at one end so as to contain the fermented mixture of rice+ urudu batter.
In olden days, in rural Tulunadu, mooDe tubes of about 10 to 14 inches long with 3 to 4 inch diameter were being knitted using the tendered munDev leaves, especially on the eve of specific festivals. (Nowadays, the size of the mooDe tubes available commercially in the market or in local hotels have shrunken and it is common to find shorter than six inch long mooDe tubes of less than two inch diameter).

Incidentally the word mudepini or mudeyuni in Tulu is usually applied to the art of knitting ribbon like leaves into containers or knitting palm frond into mats. Thus moode is a tubular leafy container fashioned out of fire-tendered ribbon like leaves of mundev plant.
The term munDevu (ಮುಂಡೇವು) is quite interesting. The common screw pine plant (Pandanus utilis) apparently was named after Munda tribes, who are Austro-Asiatic tribes considered to have been migrated to India from South East Asian countries early in the history.

gunDa/ kottige
The containers for gunDa or kottige are fashioned out of leaves of jack fruit tree. To make a single gunDa container four jack leaves are selected and placed like a star and using pins made from coconut fronds fashioned into small tumbler shaped containers.  Rest of the steam baking procedure is common as described above.
Another related steamed rice+ urudu dish is known as “tondru adde  which we covered in Post : 227 ( dated 2 February 2010).
These are the ancient pattern of preparing   steamed dishes from the fermented paste mixtures of rice and urudu (normally in the ration of 4:1).

Secrets of Fermentation
The batter (banda in Tulu) for preparing   steamed dishes from the fermented paste mixtures of rice and urudu were traditionally ground separately using manual grinders and mixed subsequently. Our grandmothers preferred   the rice and urudu combination in a ratio of 4:1.  In fact the process of uruguni (=fermenting, Tulu) of the urudu paste overnight holds the key for production of tasty moodes, gundas or idlis   using steam cooking techniques. The fermentation is a secret natural process abetted by microbes. Intelligent observers (specially the biologists with a flair for cooking) have noted that fermentation in some houses (where specific set of fermenting microbes survive in abundance) result in tasteful moodes / idlis, whereas in utterly ‘clean’ (microbe free) the optimum degree of taste and savor can be deficient! Some cooks prefer the ratio of 1:2 for the urudu: rice proportions to enhance the strength of fermentation. And besides, the rice used is, preferentially composed of equal proportions of boiled and raw rice.

In rural Tulunadu, toddy was added to the batter to increase the degree of fermentation. Increased level of fermentation leads to pronounced taste of the steam cooked dishes. Some persons add (chilled) coconut water, and /or green chillies, ginger and/or other spices etc to soften the batter.

The exact version of the coastal dish moode might not have been in usage in Karnataka mainland possibly as the shrub Mundev (Screw pine)  is not found growing in interior regions. However, it seems in northern Karnataka some other leaves were used to make containers for iddali-ge.

Tulu - Old Kannada: lingual affinity
The Tulu language though geographically restricted to coastal Karnataka shared equivalent words with Old Kannada obviously as a consequence of consanguineous evolution and development.  Thus we find many ancient words common to Tulu and Kannada - as we can verify from the text of inscription at Halmidi or works of poet Pampa or even texts like Vaddāradhāne. Consequently, some of the old Kannada words now non-existent in modern Kannada can be traced in Tulu language with regard to clarification of their original meanings.  
Tigale: One interesting example that immediately comes to my mind is a term “tigale” ( ತಿಗಲೆ) which can be found in the text of Vaddāradhāne. Prof. D.L. Narasimhachar, in the notes of Vaddāradhāne has given (probably guessed) the meaning of the word “tigale”   as neck. However, it may be noted that the “tigale “  is a very commonplace word in Tulu and it means the chest.

The Kannada/Tulu term “iDe” means small leaf cup with space inside to hold the batter (There is also another word for leafy cups known as “donne” in Karnataka). 

It can be noted that there are many words “–De” that signify space in Tulu also such as iDe (=gap; here); aDe (= thereto); ode (=whereto); hooDe (=sandy place) etc. There are rice dishes having suffixes of –DDe. :  aDDe =rice dish (usually steam baked);  oDDe (or oDe)= fried donut of urudu (black gram) paste. Therefore,   iDDe+lige  is the word applied to a related steamed dish of rice + urudu mixture. The suffix –lige is also used as in the case of polige or holige.

It is clear that the ancient term  “IDDalige” has been abbreviated to “iDli” with passage of time.  However in the instance of sweet dish ‘polige’ (which has become holige in modern Kannada)  an abbreviated term   ‘poli’ exists in Maharashtra.
Idada: It is interesting to note that “Idada” is an idli equivalent made of rice and urudu  and is popular in Madhya Pradesh.

 Iddalige in Vaddārādhane
In one of the earliest known (Old) Kannada texts discovered, in a descriptive list of dishes in a story, the name of iddalige can also found. The ancient Kannada text is a compilation of Jain religious stories, apparently translated from its Prakrit original is popularly known as Vaddaradhane, even though there are disputes that it is not its original name.
It is necessary to emphasize that only the name iddalige is mentioned within a list of dishes prepared in a feast in a story and that grain composition or method of making has not been explained in the text as assumed by some of the writers in the net.

Age of Vaddārādhane
The earliest  known text in early  Old-Kannada   ‘Vaddārādhane’ attributed to author Shivakotacharya was considered to have been  composed around Kogilu area in western part of present Bellary district, Karnataka.  The precise date of composition of the text has been difficult to decide.  Prof. D.L. Narasimhachar editor of the Vaddārādhane considered the work to have been compiled ca 920 CE.  However, another veteran Manjeshwar   Govinda Pai  based on the style of language used in the text is said to have estimated the date of compilation at not later than ca. 600 CE. The Old Kannada version has been understood to be a translation of 19 stories of Jain tradition originally compiled by Shivakoti-Acharya in Prakrit language known as “Bhagavati Aradhana” of ca. 2nd Century CE. It is not clear whether the iddalige has  also been mentioned in the original Prakrit work. Anyway considering various possibilities and uncertainties of dating the old texts, we may conclude the textual reference to the iddalige to be anytime between ca. 2nd and ca.10th Century CE.
The Prakrit was the administrative language in Karnataka in the early centuries of the Common Era (Shettar, 2007 ). Even in Coastal Karnataka the influence of Prakrit period is also well entrenched in Tulu language also as we find numerous Prakrit words in Tulu. Subsequently probably 4th Century CE onward Kannada came into prominence in Karnataka. With accent on Kannada, it appears the rulers of the land encouraged translating and rewriting older Prakrit texts in to Kannada.

Lokopakara & Manasollasa
Iddalige and Iddarika are further also found in Kannada and Sanskrit works of ca 11 Century known as "Lokopakara" and "Manasollasa" respectively. 
The Lokopakara (Kannada) was complied by Chavundaraya II (ca.1025 CE) .  Chavundaraya II was Sarvadhikari under Kalyana Chalukya king Jayasimha II. He belonged to Mudgal ( now in Raichur district, Karnataka.) Earlier he was a minister at Banavasi.  The 7th Chapter of  Lokopakara deals with cooking. Narasimha Murthy ( 2008 ) mentions only one line about the idli in Lokopakara: “While referring to the popular Indian dish iddali, he mentions mung dal, cumin seeds, coriander and pepper”
Similarly, in “Manasollasa” (ca. 1130th Century CE) a Sanskrit work compiled by Someshwara, the ruler of Kalyana (Bidar district, Karnataka,) the dish has been referred to as “iddarika”.

Dhokla (Dhokra) popular in Gujarat is a related dish.  It was known as Dukkia earlier as mentioned in jain text, 1066 CE.  Flours of rice and chickpea (bengal gram Cicer arietinum or basan) are mixed and fermented and steam boiled to make the dish. A similar steamed dish made exclusively of Bengal gram is known as   Khaman.  There is another Gujarati dish known as Khandvi made of gram flour and yogurt. The latter is known as “Suralichi Vada” or “Patuli” in Maharashtra.

Achaya  and  Kedli ?
Achaya (2000, 2003) wrote that there is a suggestion that idli originated from an Indonesian dish called Kedli and brought to India by Hindu kings of Indonesia. Note that Achaya mentioned that it is a suggestion only.
However, information on an Indonesian steamed dish called kedli could not be traced.  Where went the mysterious kedli ?  A  little wandering in the jungle of internet revealed an interesting twist to the story of the  elusive kedli !

Kadele to Kadalai
Instead we could find an Indonesian dish popularly known as  Tempeh which was mysteriously based on  “kedalai “or “kadele.”
There were profuse cultural exchanges between South India and South East Asian countries during the first millennia of the Common Era. During the period tenets of Buddhism as well as Hinduism formed lasting impressions in the cultural settings of the South East Asian countries like Java, Indonesia, Cambodia and Thailand.

Under these events we find evidences for the export of south Indian words to those cultures. The “kaDale(Botanical name: Cicer arietinum) is a common (Tamil- Kannada - Tulu) Dravidian word for the pulse alternately known as Chick-pea or Garbanzo bean or the Bengal gram or Chana.
The term kaDale travelled to Java. However, it was applied to Soy bean there. The word kadele  means Soybean in Javanese.

In Indonesian it was modified to kedalai. The kedalai is Soybean in Indonesia. Whole grains of soy bean are fermented and used in the making of the dish called tempeh.
It is reported that the term kadele” has been mentioned in the Javanese manuscript called “Serat Sri Tanjung “  considered to have been composed in  12th or 13th Century CE.  The manuscript also contains a reference to a species of sugarcane known by the Indian name of “chintamani “  variety of sugarcane. Thus, the case of Indian influence in adoption of the word “kadele” is supported by another Indian word Chintamani.

The main object of this review is to discuss the available data and to refute some of the confusing myths floating in the internet. The process of fermentation was known in India, as suggested by the existence of fermented ancient products like somras, toddy and watery pickle (neeruppad). Ancient Indians probably made use of simple earthen pots for steam cooking, samples of which were existed in rural kitchens of Tulunadu till modern times, till some five to six decades ago. There is an overwhelming evidence to suggest that idli was invented in parts of ancient Karnataka, probably as early as ca.2nd Century CE, as referred to in ancient Kannada/Prakrit texts and further complemented by  data on steam cooked rice-urudu dishes akin to idli such as moode and gunda  from  the rural coastal Karnataka.

The term idli  or iddalige  is essentially an Early Kannada word and as such there is no proof to suggest that the technique of idli making was copied from an Indonesian dish supposed to have been called kedli.  The origin of the mysterious word kedli happens to be the Dravidian (Kannada/Tamil/Tulu) term kaDale. The Javanese term kadele or the Indonesian term kedalai  though derived from the Dravidian kadale refer to Soybean and not urudu.

Similarly, there is no staunch evidence to conclude that the ancient idli (Iddalige) was made exclusively of urudu and without rice.

 (Note: Copies of these two works -Lokopakara  and  Manasollasa - were not available to me so far for perusal hence would not be able to verify the details discussed by other fellow contributors in the net)


Achaya, K.T . (2000) The  story   of our food. Universities Press. p.140.
Achaya, K.T. (1993) Indian Food: A historical companion.
Achaya, K.T. (2003) Indian food;
Narasimha Murthy, A.V. (2008) Some aspects of agriculture as described in Lokopakara, Chapter 14. in Lalanji Gopal & Vinod Chandra Srivastava (ed): History of agriculture in India, upto c.1200 AD.

William Shurtleff, H.T. Huang, Akiko Aoyagi. (2014).History of Soybeans and Soy foods in China and Taiwan, and in Chinese  cookbooks, restaurants, and Chinese work with soy foods outside China (1024 BCE to 2014):.

ನರಸಿಂಹಾಚಾರ್,‍ ಡಿ. ಎಲ್. ,ಡಾ: (೧೯೪೯; ೨೦೦೩) (ಸಂ) ಶಿವಕೋಟ್ಯಾಚಾರ್ಯ ವಿರಚಿತ ವಡ್ಡಾರಾಧನೆ. ಡಿವಿಕೆ ಮೂರ್ತಿ,ಮೈಸೂರು-೪, ೩೪೪ ಪುಟಗಳು.
ಷೆಟ್ಟರ್‍,‍.ಷ.(೨೦೦೭; ೨೦೧೦) ಶಂಗಂ ತಮಿಳಗಂ ಮತ್ತು ಕನ್ನಡ ನಾಡು –ನುಡಿ: ಆರಂಭ ಕಾಲದ ದ್ರಾವಿಡ ಸಂಬಂಧದ ಚಿಂತನೆ. ಅಭಿನವ,ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು.೩೨೦,ಪುಟಗಳು.


Thursday, February 16, 2017

Budhananda Shivalli

Budhananda K Shivalli 
( Alias K Booda,  )

Born: 16 -2-1923  Udupi- Expired: 26-12-1982 Mysore.
Education: MA (English) Mysore University
Former  Assistant Accounts Officer (Soil Conservation), Mysore.

Author of  
 A philology and Grammar of Tulu Language.
Written in Tulu Language (1980) using Kannada script.
Published in 2005 at Mangaluru,575008: Karnataka.

The unicode and pdf versions the book are under preparation.

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

379. Tulu -Tamil mutual influence: kanDani

The study of evolution of Tulu language during the past history without doubt shall make an absolutely interesting. Conventional Tulunadu or the West Coast of India /Karnataka being a dynamic cultural zone that has attracted  multitudes of immigrants speaking diverse languages over a long drawn period of time during the evolution of human tribes and their languages. As a consequence, the Tulu languages has borrowed and absorbed several words from each of the ambient languages during the past history.

Many influences
The Tulu language has preserved signatures of imprints of many languages such as Koraga, Munda, Prakrit, Tamil and Kannada. In some of the older Posts in this blog we have tried to present the signature surviving words from languages like Koraga and Munda  in the Tulu language.
The preservation of the words from the respective languages has been possible probably due to the lack of written literature in Tulu languages. All languages acquire such influences during the course of their history but in the case of languages with scripts and written documents, homogenization takes place because of conscious corrections imposed by the writers. Wherever such homogenization has taken place original stages of lingual evolution are subject to editing and lost forever.

Tamil-Tulu early relationship
Common words shared in two geographically apart languages like Tulu and Tamil clearly suggest mutual influences during the course of evolution. We find references to Tulu in Tamil Sangam literature in suggestive phrases like “Tulunatta Tamil”. In the older Posts you can find suggestion that “Siri PaDdana” the famed Tulu oral literature has been composed in Tulu under the inspiration of Tamil Sangam literature. In other words, it was suggested that the Siri PaDdana is a signature oral poetry of Tulu Sangam period.
Budhananda Shivalli (1980, 2005) provided a list of some 50 common shared words in current Tulu and correspondingly found in ancient Tamil literature (Tulu Pātero; Appendix 2).  His list includes the following examples:

Old Tamil/Tulu(=English)
ill/ill (=house)
illaval/illadāl (=housewife)
unangal/nungel (=dried up)
ooDe/ooDe (=inside/place)
eri/eri; uri (=flame/heat/burning)
oDukam/oDka (=end).
okkal/okkel (=farming)
oli/oli (=speak/call out)
kooval/goovel (=dug well)
kolam/kola (=make up)
tingal/tingal (=moon)
tirai/tirey (=waves)
teri/teri (=to know)
pugar/pugar (=praise)
vai/bai (=straw/hay/dried grass)
toovi/tuyi (=plume/feather)
vanka/banka (=ship) etc

Further he has provided a comparative list of 192 shared words in the four predominant Dravidian languages of Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam apart from Tulu.(Tulu Pātero; Appendix 3). We shall not go into those details now.
However I shall discuss a few key shared words that suggest their frozen status in Tulu language and their possible significance.

kanDani – buDedi
The words kanDāni and buDeti (or buDedi) are the commonly used Tulu words that stand for husband and wife respectively. The Tulu word kanDāni shares history with or was derived from the equivalent of Tamil kanDan. The Tulu word has two variants such as kanDane   and   kanDanye. The equivalent word for husband is   ganDa in Kannada as well as Telugu. Basically, the Dravidian word kanD/kanDan means male person. The –an suffix in kanDan is quite interesting, as –āN in general represents a young man or a boy.
Essentially, the case involves the evolution and adoption of the velar consonants k’ and g’. The Tamil is an ancient literary language and is managing with a frugal set of primary alphabets since antiquity wherein, velars k and g are represented by a single consonant.  Probably it was a similar case with ancient Tulu (and probably ancient Kannada also) in the antiquity. However, it appears that after the adoption and introduction of Brahmi script by King Asoka (ca.250 BC), detailed and clear cut consonants such as k-g; c-j; T-D; t-d and p-b etc were delineated and the then existing words were further refined phonetically. Thus Kannada and Telugu after ca.400 CE,   modified the original proto-Dravidian kanDan into ganDan and further simplified to ganDa.

The Tulu was in contact with Kannada all along the evolution and also absorbed the evolution of consonants also like Kannada, as evident by the prevalence of words with g’ , but it retained the original form of some specific period antique words like kanDāni  without alteration. Probably, the delay in the adoption of script, in the case of Tulu, was responsible for retention of ancient word formats like kanDāni.

In the Kadamba (post-400 CE) period, with immigration of Brahmins and introduction of Brahmin format of Tulu (obviously influenced by Kadamba Kannada) the k-g transition in Tulu is evident. In the Tulu usage ganTa pucche (= male cat) wherein clear k-g transition (kanDa became ganTa) can be identified.

Later in 15 century CE the Portuguese introduced papaya which was translated as ganDukāyi (=male fruit) in Tulu. Note the usage of g for ganDu. However, even then the original antique Tulu word for husband kanDani was frozen in its original state and was not modified with passage of timeThe suffix –an/-ani   has also been frozen and preserved in this particular word, even though in Tulu, it has been dropped or mitigated in many other words with passage of time.

Note on buDedi
 Compared with kanDani the common Tulu word for wife buDedi seems quite unique compared with other Dravidian neighbors. The etymology of the word buDedi is booD’+ ti,   which means the woman of the house or precisely, the house wife. Apparently analogous phonetic words do not exist in neighboring languages. It is different from the henDati/ maneyavalu (Kannada) and manaivi (Tamil) and penDlamu/bhārya/ardhāngi (Telugu). However, note that meaning-wise buDedi, manaivi and maneyavalu are the same


Friday, February 3, 2017

378. Koraga words in Tulu

The study of Koraga language and culture is significant from the point of understanding the overall evolution of the Tulu language with which it is closely associated. The Koraga at present contains a large number of Tulu equivalent words, which has tempted some of the Dravidian linguists to infer that Koraga is a branch of Tulu. Interestingly, it also has words that remind possible historical connections with other Dravidan languages like Kannada, Malayalam and Telugu.
Following H.A. Stuart in the year 1891(cited in Bhat 1971), some of the linguists, have considered the Koraga as a dialect of Tulu.  However, others like Brodie (1886) have considered the Koraga language as an independent Dravidian language, and not a dialect of Tulu.  

Antiquity of Koraga   tribes
The tribes are known Koraga in Tulu and Kannada. However they call themselves as Korru. For example, Pangala Babu Koraga (2016) in his introductory book let on Koragas used the term ‘Kor’ or ‘Korru’.
1. The antiquity of the Kor/Koraga tribes is evident from the nature of bari system prevailing among them. The primitive nature of bari lineage system currently prevailing among the Koraga (Post. 368).
Basically, the Koraga have basically two baris namely: (a) Tappu (or Soppu) and (b) Kuntu (or Kapada).  The “tappu” in Tulu or “soppu” in Kannada means leaves; (This group of tribes used bunch of large leaves tied around their waist to cover their private parts, in the form of attire). The “kunTu” in Tulu and “kapaDa” in Prakrit language means cloths. Thus the two basic bari groups correspond to ancient tribes (a) those Koraga tribes wearing leaves only (around their loins) and (b) those Koraga tribes wearing cloths.

Thus the primitive type of ‘bari’ classification of Koraga tribes suggests a remote point in the ancient history where the primitive tribes (a) wore leaves to cover their modesty and (b) those evolved to wear cloths. Probably, no other tribes in coastal Karnataka/India have preserved this sort of primitive lineage classifications, which suggests that the Koraga are one of the earliest among the surviving human tribes in the West Coast before and during the time of invention and evolution of wearing cloths.

2. The Koraga tribes apparently were the witness to the evolution of castes and communities in Tulunadu. It is reported that the Koraga folklores describe Billava-Bunt-Mogaveera communities   as   children of elder and younger sisters- which means that from the similar source groups these communities have evolved over the time. Even the nature of the shared common bari groups among Tulu communities suggest that the communities have come into existence during a later period.

3. At present, the Koraga tribes are distributed mainly in the southern States of Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. However, probably related tribes known as Kora and   Korwa are found mainly within West Bengal and Orissa.

There are numerous villages in India that have been named after the Kor tribes during the past history. A general survey of statistical data on distribution of villages named after Kor tribes would give us an understanding of the wide distribution of these tribes during the antiquity.

Kor villages in India
There are not less than 1023 villages in India named after Kor tribes and those begin with the prefix of Kor.  Uttar Pradesh 156; Andhra Pradesh 109; Jharkhand 109; Maharshtra 99; Bihar 96; Chattisgarh 83; Karnataka 80; Orissa 76;  Madhya Pradesh 39;  Tamilnadu 32. West Bengal 23; Assam 21; Rajasthan 20; Arunachal Pradesh 16; Uttara Khand 14; Jammu & Kashmir 13; Meghalaya 13; Punjab 8;  Gujarat 8; Other states each less than 2.

Some of the examples of Kor place names include: Kora, Koru, Korai, Korna, Korakoppa, Korti, Koratagere, Korahalli, Korvi, Korvihal, Kortoor, Koryal, Korkunte, Koramangala, Koralur, Korda, Korakuriya, Korbi, Korla,  Korche, Korabar, Korasi, Korekera, Korma, Korea, Korgo,  Korpal, Koragam, Korapa, Korem, Korraguda, Korukonda, Korabandi, Koraibari, Koranga, Korapalli, Koripunja, Korapur, Korkodu etc.
Additionally, there are about 1983 villages in India that begin with the prefix of Kur.

Koraga/ Korru: Regional equivalents                          
The tribes are called Koraga at present in southern states of Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and Kerala, whereas in West Bengal and Orissa region, we find analogous tribes elsewhere in India known as Kora or Korwa, which possibly could be the regional equivalents of the Koragas. The Koragas call themselves as Korru or Korre (from example, Babu Koraga describes the Koraga language as “Korrena bhāshe” in his book cited at reference below.) Thus it appears that the tribes and their language in question were known as Kor or Korru earlier and the suffix –ga was added subsequently, especially in parts of southern India.

The “Korr” has   also been preserved in place names such as “Kordel”, ( kor+da+el ) which  represented  the habitation of the Korr(u) people.
The meaning of the   term “Korru” has been explained variously sometimes emotionally but it appears that the actual original meaning would simply be “the people” or “the human beings”. Note that a man or husband is known as “Korrayi” and a woman or wife is known as “Korati” or “Korti”, where the suffixes –ayi And –ati being gender indicators and the common prefix “korr “  as a logical deduction  would have a meaning equivalent to a person or a human being.

Koraga Linguistics
According to Shankar Bhat (1971) the Koraga is a distinct member of Dravidian family and is only remotely connected to Tulu. Shankar Bhat (1971) has recognized three distinct dialects of Koraga language, such as   Onti, Tappu and Mudu versions based on the data obtained from informants in  Udupi, Hebri and Kundapur, Respectively. However, the dialectical variations in the Koraga, appear to have developed over the time span under the influence of regionally dominant languages like Tulu (Udupi, Hebri) and Kannada (Kundapur). Because of the dominating influence of regional languages like Kannada and Tulu we shall not be able to decipher the original state of the Koraga language that might have existed in the antiquity.

Koraga lingual versions
As far as the study of dialectical variations within the Koraga are concerned, it would be easy to understand the dialectical variation in Koraga if we recognize the variations by locations/places like Udupi, Hebri and Kundapur rather than the arbitrary Onti, Tappu or Mudu etc respectively. In Tappu Koraga of Hebri region, the p in  Koraga words become h (Kannadization) as in  the case of words like:  portu- ≥hortu; pudar-≥hudar;puge-≥huge; pu:ji-≥hu:ji ..etc

Shankara Bhat (1971) considers close affinity of Koraga language with Northern Dravidian languages like Kudux, Malto and Brahui, based on following linguistic features:
(i) The past tense k---g---kk   in Koraga is   feature analogous to North Dravidian languages.
(ii) Non-past/present suffix   is n in Udupi (Onti) - Kundapur (Mudu) versions and n---nn—n in   Hebri (Tappu). In North Dravidian Kudux has n in third person present plural and in verbal nouns.
(iii) In Udupi (Onti), has a suffix o similar to North Dravidian Kudux future suffix o.
(iv) The gender-number distinction found in third person finite verb forms in Koraga are similar to that of Kudux.
(v) The plural suffix in irrational nouns Hebri (Tappu) Koraga similar to those of Kudux.
(vi) Other characteristic features of Koraga are (a) perfect suffix a-a (b) locative suffix t (c) relative past participle (d) root tar with restricted sense of to give to I or II person and (e) simplicity of its past stem derivation.

Koraga Words
Shankar Bhat (1971) and Babu Koraga (2016) have provided lists of Koraga words. Here below we shall classify the available Koraga words broadly into (apparent) (i) exclusive Koraga words and (ii) Shared Words in Koraga and Tulu languages.

(i) Koraga Vocabulary
(=with English meaning)

a:tri =to throw
Aadu—Aavu= agreed
Aakude—AanDa= but
AayinTa—AyaD=by him
Aba—ade= that side
Aba—anchi=that side
Abanta—anchiDdu=from that side.
Acchakude—anchanda=in that case
Acchi—(anchane =like that)
Achara- - (anchi= there)
Adavu-              ( - flesh/mutton)
Addu=avu=that one
Adeg=adeg=to there
Adeg—adeg= to there.
Adenta—ayiddu, aleDdu= by it/by her
Agad—Avodu = Has to be
Agaku—Atundu = Has been
Agar =to stand
Akalaga- -adaga = then
Akkal—(adaga= then ; (Kan: aagal)
AmanTa—enkaleDdu=from us
Amarega—enkaleg =to us
AnDa—anda= Is it?
Anga—enk= to me.
Ankodi-- ……………-waist band
AnTa—altDdu= from there
AnTa—enaDdu= by me
Asinta—anchina= that type
A:tri -----(=to throw)
Auru—(u)nuppu= rice(cooked)
Ayig—Ayag= to him
BaDanji—bodchi=does not want
Banji—barpuji=(shall ) not come.
BaraDu—barODu=let come
Bu:di =to carry on shoulder
Burpi—bulp(uni)= to cry
Butar =to fall
Buttar—boor(uni)= to fall down
ChaaDu---toovoDu= have to see
Chainji—saitiji= has not died
ChaipiDi—keru=to kill
Chaiyad—saiyaD=let die
Chankyaak--tooyineTTaanD=(saved) by seeing
Charalge—kombatel= scorpion
Chatikure—kuDupu=to brush off
Chavala—taala= cymbals
Chojji— kirumbu= to scratch (skin)
Chone—sune= latex
Chumal--tummonu=to carry (load)
Chumpi—chellu=to dispose (liquid)
Chu—too(pini)=to see
Doover—ujjer=long wooden pestle (rice beating post);” Onake”
Eccha—eccha= more, excess
Ecchi—encha= how?
Ekala--Epa= when?
Ekkunad—geruni = to winnow
ErenTa—EreDa= from/by whom?
Eru—koDe= yesterday
GanDlu—aanjovulu=men (Kan: ganDu)
Gille=leaf cup
GoranTi—maNe=small seating/stool
Icche, pokkade=inchane pokkaDe= haage summane, like this simply
Icchi—inchene=like this
Ichara—inchi = this side
ikke=imbe=he(this man)
ikkel=mokul=thses people.
Ikkel—imber=this person/these people.
Ikyag—imbeg= to this man.
ikyanTa—imbeDdu=from him
Inteka=enchinekk= why?
isinta—inchina= this kind.
jaavu—jaa(pini)= to unload
jnegaDi--                  ,  golle=sphlegm
Jnegaru--?   Suli= whirlpool
jo:ku =to wash
kaDDu--kaDpu=to cut; severe
kala—kana= to bring
kalekal—getoNu= to fetch; collect
kalepo—getondu po= fetch and go
kappu-- kOmpu    =to bury
ke:l=rice pot
killi =small
konDaldayi—ucchu/mari   =serpent, cobra
konke—nalke= dance
kooje—Aan mage/mage =boy
kooji---Ponnu magal/magal=girl
kOraga--koriya=have given
korru—korager=Koraga (tribe)
kOru—ker= to kill
KoTakOri --              = grass hopper
ma:ti=to do
mede =afterwards, bokka/matte
mide—bokka= next
na:ke=I have told
naDa-- ?  =like (“anta”)
namrega—enkaleg= for us
ne:ki =fear
nekal-- ? = fear
Nikulu—nikulu=you people
Nimareg= nikaleg=to you people
ninga—nikku= to you.
Nooner--panper=(they) tell
Nooni—panpe=(he) tells
Noo—paN= tell
Nu=to say/
Oba=oba*= which way? (for cattle)
oba—oba= which way? (As addresses to domesticated cattle)
Oddu=ovvu=Which one?
Oker—itter=(they) existed.
ollagu=it barked. (Kan: ooliDu)
ollu=to bark
Oodaa—(uppaa= Shall it be?)
Oodu---(uppu= may exist.)
Ooji--ijjer=did not exist; were absent.
Ooker—uller= (they) existed
Ooku—ullolu=it /she existed
Oonaga—uppunaga=when (they) existed
OonDaa?—uppaa?= will it be?
OonDu—uppunDu= (it/she) shall exist
Orabar—giDapu= to drive/send away
pa:ki=he has gone
pakala=going oneself
paranTe-koranTu=cashew kernel
pared—pali=elder sister
pile—pile= sootaka
puDDu—patt(uni)=to hold
pullapo—paondu po=hold and go
ranD—unDu=(it/she) exists
ranner--uller=(they) exist.
ranni--ulle= (he) exists
sakala=seeing oneself
silp =whirl
sollu=to say (Malayalam)
tale--koDi=endpiece (Kan:tale)
tanji—korpuji=would not give
tar =to give(I, II person)
tarjer--kortujer=has not given
tirgala—tirgavu(nu)=to rotate
tojir—tojavu(ni)=to show
tOnji—tojuji= does not show
tOru--.. charma   =skin
Upa--inchi= this side
upanTa--inchiDdu= from this side
uppud--uppu=may be
urmal—barchuni= combing (hair)
urmu--barchu=to comb
Utek—undek=for this; for her.
utenTa—by this /by her
uttu=molu=she(this woman)
valli =to bark
Yeni=Yepa= when?

(ii) Koraga – Tulu :Shared Vocabulary
Koraga (Udupi)-----(Equivalent Tulu  with=English meaning)

Aani—(Aani = that day)
Aayi---(aaye =he(that man)
AayinTa—(AyaD/AayanTa =by him)
Aba—anchi = that side
Abanta—(anchiDdu=from that side.)
Adangayi—(uppad=pickle) [Tu. & Ka.]
Adavu----(aDavu ?= flesh/mutton)
Addu---(avu=it; adu (Kan).
Addu----(avu=that one)
Adeg----(adeg=to there)
Adeka—(ayik =for it /for her)
Adenta—(ayiddu, aleDdu= by it/by her)
Agar ---(agar=to stand; hedge)
Ajal---(ajal =sacrificial food)
Ame—(ame= naming ceremony)
Ammavu—(enkalena=ours; Yemmavu; Nammavu (Kan)*
AmmaDe----( ammer=father)
Anda—(anda= Is it?)
Ankodi—(……?………-waist band)
AnTa—(enaDdu= by me)
Arantal- -(beedu =House)
Auru—(u)nuppu= rice(cooked).; Autana (Kan)
Ayig—(Ayag = to him)
baDanji—(bodchi=does not want)
banji—(barpuji=(shall ) not come).
baraDu—(barODu=let come)
birdu—birdu*/madime=marriage celebration.  * “birdavoli”
birkiri—birk(uni)=to spill/spread randomly
boDu—buDu=to leave; discard
boor—booru=creeper; wild twigs
booru—booru(ni)= to fall ;to sleep
bu:di=to carry on shoulder
bu:ri= to fall/bu:rgi=he fell.
butar--- (booru =to fall)
buttar—boor(uni)= to fall down
chaaDu-toovoDu= have to see
Chainji—saitiji= has not died
ChaipiDi—keru=to kill
chaiyad—saiyaD=let die
Chankyaak--tooyineTTaanD=(saved) by seeing
charalge—kombatel= scorpion
chatikure—kuDupu=to brush off
chavala—taala= cymbals
chay----( sai = to die )
chaypi= to kill
chinape—kinnyappe= aunt; mothers sister
chojji— kirumbu= to scratch (skin)
chone—sune= latex
chumal—(tummonu=to carry (load)
Chumpi—chellu=to dispose (liquid)
Chu—too(pini)=to see
dakk---(dakk= to throw)
dakkaddi--- (dakkije=has not thrown)
doo—goo(ppuni)=to spill
doover—ujjer=long wooden pestle(rice beating post);” Onake”
dorpu            -----(dorpu=to pour,solids)
du:  (gu=overflow)
Ecchi—encha= how?
Ekala—(Epa= when?)
Ekku—(ekku=reach -by hand)
Erdu—(eru=male buffaloe/bull)
ErenTa—EreDa= from/by whom?
gaDavu—kaDaga= bangle
gaddavu—gaddavu=eating plate
gerpu            ---- (derpu=to lift)
gErpu—derpu=to lift up
gODipu—goDipu=to join
goranTi—maNe=small seating/stool
Icche, pokkade=inchane pokkaDe= haage summane, like this simply
Icchi—inchene=like this
Ichara—(inchi = this side)
IDeg—(iDeg =to here)
ikkel=mokul=thses people.
Inteka=enchinekk= why?
jaavu—jaa(pini)= to unload
Jinji ----(jinja/ dinja =to be full )
jnegaDi--                  , golle=sphlegm
Jnegaru--?   Suli= whirlpool
Jnegaru—negar(uni)= to creep
Jnimpu—kinku=to nip or pinch.
jo:ku ----( dekk,dekkuni=to wash)
joo—dee(pini)= to keep
ju:  =to keep
kaavu—kaapu= to wait
kaDapu--kaDapu*= boat/ ferry*
kaDDayi--dolu=drum; kaDayi=vessel (Kan)
kaDDu--kaDpu=to cut; severe
kala—kana= to bring
kalepo—getondu po= fetch and go
kappu-- kOmpu    =to bury
karamedakulu—Mundala =Mundala tribe
katte—katti= sickle, sword
kilepu—kilepu= to cry (fowls, birds)
koiper—kulupe =ant
koitar—kuttar(uni)=to boil
konDaldayi—ucchu/mari   =serpent, cobra
koni—nalipu=to dance
konke—nalke= dance
kooje—Aan mage/mage =boy
kooji---Ponnu magal/magal=girl
kOraga--koriya=have given
korru—korager=Koraga (tribe)
kOru—ker= to kill
korke—(koriye=I gave)
koTakOri --              = grass hopper
kure—kurve=basket(made from wild creepers)
Laaku—lakku= get up
Laayik—layik= good,nice (urdu/Arabic)
lammayi ---( Olamayi=inside)
ma:ti---(malt=to do)
maDar—maDe-ire=left over meals
marani—morani=day before yesterday
mare---(mare=rain; latex)
mey----( mey-pini =to graze;)
mide—bokka= next
mo:rpi –(murepu =to churn )
naDa-- ?  =like (“anta”)
namrega—enkaleg= for us
naTT= to stand:  (naTTi=implanting saplings)
naTTine=I stand (≥ naTane/ na:Taka= standing show)
neeche—neecha?= darkness*
nekal-- ? = fear
Nikulu—nikulu=you people
Nimareg= nikaleg=to you people
Nimareg—nikaleg=for you
ninga—(nikku= to you.)
Nooner--panper=(they) tell
Nooni—panpe=(he) tells
Noo—paN= tell
nu=to say/na:ke=I have told
nunu(=swallow)/nunke(=I swallowed)--- (nungu =swallow.(Tu./Ka)
Oba—(oba= which way? (As addresses to domesticated cattle)
Oddu----ovvu=Which one?
Odeg----Odeg=to where/
Oker—(itter=(they) existed.)
Ol---(Olu= where?)
oli—(lepu/oleppu= to invite)
olippel--- (Leppel.=welcome)
ollu----(=to bark/ollagu=it barked. (Kan: ooliDu)
Ongir—(Ongir=to listen/show extra interest)
Oodaa—(uppaa= Shall it be?)
Oodu----(uppu= may exist.)
Ooji—(ijjer=did not exist; were absent.)
Ooker—(uller= (they) existed)
Ooku—(ullolu=it /she existed)
Oonaga—uppunaga=when (they) existed
OonDaa?—uppaa?= will it be?
OonDu—uppunDu= (it/she) shall exist
Oo—uppu=to be; to exist
OriyanTa---(oriyaDa= by one man)
OrtinTa—(ortiDa= by one woman)
paaDu—povaD=let go.
paaTu—paaT= song.
paranTe-koranTu=cashew kernel
pared—pali=elder sister
paru—par(pini)=to drink
peddug—(peddolu=(she) gave birth to)
pedmayi----.(pidayi mey=outside)
pi: ----( maypu=to pour)
pijje—pejj(uni)=to pick up
pile—pile= sootaka
po: ---(po=to go)
poDayi—(puDayi=basket (made of creepers)
puDa:l*----(puDayi = to carry on arms*; basket).
puDDu—patt(uni)=to hold
pullapo—paondu po=hold and go
ranD—unDu=(it/she) exists
ranner--uller=(they) exist.
ranni--ulle= (he) exists
su: ---(soopini/toopini= to see ).
tar =to give(I, II person)
tarjer--kortujer=has not given
taTal—taToNu=to grab and carry on waist(the child)
tekkiri—tekkavu(nu)=to turn off (fire, light)
teli—telipu(ni)= to laugh
terunji--teriyuji= cannot understand.
tippi----(teypu= to sweep.)
tirgala—tirgavu(nu)=to rotate
tojir—tojavu(ni)=to show
toji—toju(ni)=to appear
tOnji—tojuji= does not show
tOrpu—(torpu=to kick)
torpu=to kick; torpu(Tu).
ubir—(ubbinir=spit; saliva)
uppud—(uppu=may be)
ur= to spit (ubbivuni)
urmal—barchuni= combing (hair)
urmu—(barchu=to comb)
Utek—(undek=for this; for her.)
utenTa—(by this /by her)
yaan----(yaan= I)
Yeni----(Yepa= when?)
Yereg---(Yereg=To whom?)

Other neighbors: Tribes & people
The words used by the Koraga   that refer to other tribes and community of people coexisting in the region have some interesting points for noting.

kanchaldayi –(kiristan)= Christian people.
Karamedakulu—(Mundala) =Mundala tribe
Kare  = Christian man
karEdi= Christian woman
nāker—(“naager”)=billawa people
nākudi—(“naagedi)= billawa woman
nooltakulu —(nooludakulu)= (those with sacred thread) ie Upper caste; Brahmins etc
Okkale /  okkati =okkelakulu man/female.
paTner/paTnadakulu =fisherfolk. (paTna=fisher colony)
tapaler —(sapaler?)=  Sapalya people.

For example, the Mundala people are referred to as Karame-dakulu ie those of Karma: Apparently the concept of Karma and Dharma were introduced by Munda/Mundala tribes. There are also connected stories of Karma and Dhrama in Bastar region which are well known belts of Munda people.
Another interesting point is Billava members are referred to as Nāger ie Nāga people. This probably provides information with respect to immigration of Naga tribes into Tulunadu and their eventual assimilation with the Billavas.

Parts of (Human /Animal) Body
Specifc words for defining various parts of the human/animal body were also existing in Tulu language, which are being forgotten because of disuse or the influence of other languages like Kannada or Englishor Hindi.
Check some of the following Koraga words for specific parts of the body.

abaD= hoof
chanku= heart
kaipe =liver
kannu kotle= kidney
kolampu-  (korampu/morampu.  (Tu. )    = knee bone)
koyi=   ribs
paTTu—udal =termite (varale)
pootoTTe--= lungs
tor—(Charma  = skin)
valayi =    pancreas


Koraga to Tulu or Vice Versa
Deciding whether Koraga language borrowed words from Tulu or the vice versa is a bit tricky as it has confused the inferences and decisions of some of our linguists and analysts. When two or more languages exist in a region we can expect healthy two way exchange of words. Due to temporal changes in domination of the communities, eventually the Tulu has been a dominant language in the the past history of Karavali/Tulunadu.

Period words
It may not be proper to classify a specific word as either exclusive Koraga or exclusive Tulu word. The words have been repeatedly borrowed and utilized as   communicable entities and it would be difficult to trace their origin in a situation where some of the languages that evidently existed in the past have become extinct during the course of the history. That’s why it would be more appropriate if we classify languages as products of a specific period rather than exclusive property of a specific language.  

Koraga period words in Tulu
If we look beyond the obscure curtain of assimilation and homogenization of cultures in the Karvali coast, the bari pattern existing in Koraga community, suggests that the Koraga culture may be aboriginal and primitive in nature being earlier in time span than the essential Tulu language and culture. It is interesting to note that Tulu language has preserved some antique period words of compound nature probably derived from Koraga language. One such classic example is the commonplace compound Tulu word: mariyāla.

Budhananda Shivalli (1980, 2004) has also discussed the interesting Tulu word mariyāla in the context of discussion of Tulu philology and grammar. But let me introduce another interesting facet of this word.
The commonplace Tulu word “mariyāla “(mare+yāla; =rainy season) is of Koraga language origin. The word mare for rain still exists in Koraga language. It either could be a Koraga exclusive word or a period word borrowed or adapted from any of the contemporaneous language of the period. The base word “mare” (=rain)   still exists in Koraga, whereas the Tulu has forgotten that word and the meaning because of disuse. Instead the Tulu language has adopted and perpetuated the word “barsa” (=rain) of Prakrit origin as a commonplace word for rain,  even though “mariyāla” still finds place in daily Tulu. Note that the old word “mare” still exists in Tulu as a substitute for the latex liquid oozing from plants, but not for rain!

Histrorical context
At this point, we can consider certain aspects of historical context with regard to words like, mariyāla as an example.  
The Prakrit language was the regal /administrative language in Karnataka region (including the coastal tract) approximately between the period ca. 400 BC to ca 400 CE (as we can gather from the known King Ashokas rock records and various period literary reseraches). Thus the Tulu language appear to have adopted the “barsa” of Prakrit origin   in place of preexisting “mare” during this Prakrit domination period in the West Coast.  Note that our neighbouring Kannada adapted “maLe”(=rain) as a regional version of the same antique word “mare”.
In any case, the age of Koraga period words in Tulu language shall be taken back beyond (ie older than) say ca. 400 BC.
It may be further noted that while Tulu language adopted the Prakrit version of barsa as its own, the Koraga retained its “mare” and has not preferred   the Prakrit word!
However, it also should be recorded that the Koraga has not remained totally closed to temporal changes. It has also absorbed exotic Arab/Urdu words like “lāyak” (= nice or appropriate) like the ambient Tulu language.

Budhananda K. Shivalli (1980, 2004) .Tulu Patero: A   philology and grammar of Tulu Language. Mangalore,  (first printing: 2004),   .317. p. ( in Tulu language).  
Shankar Bhat, DN. (1971). The Koraga Language. Linguistic  Survey of India.  Deccan College, Poona, 130 p

Pangala Babu Koraga (2016). Korrena base polabu: Koragara bhashe parichaya. Mangaluru,    52.p


Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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