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363. Deciphering Tulu-nadu place names

The readers would observe that many of the Tulu Place names may not convey, on the face of it, any specific meaning or apparent meanings...

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

37. Early Human migrations



Earliest known human beings originated in the eastern Africa some 165,000 years ago as understood by the anthropological studies based on the occurrence of oldest known human fossils found in the Ethiopia. Genetic studies of mtDNA and Y chromosomes coupled with paleontology, paleo-climate and archeology point out that early human beings originated in East Africa and migrated to different continents as hunters and gatherers wandered in the ensuing period.
The broad trends of global migration in the earliest human history are outlined below based on the compilations of Bradshaw foundation based on the data from Prof. Stephen Oppenheimer. The data are limited to the period 160,000 and 10,000 years before past. Migrations after the prominent ice age (10,000 years before present), introduction of agriculture (8000 years before present) and the development of civilizations, therefore, are grossly missing in the studies done so far.

Years ago. Broad Human Migration events and climate
160,000. Origin of homo sapiens in East Africa
160,000-135,000. Hunters and gatherers. Migration along four divergent paths from Ethiopia. First generation mtDNA gene type L1
135,000-115,000. Migrations: Sahara> Nile>Levant
115,000-90,000. Levant branch died out. Desertification of North Africa. Reoccupied by Neanderthal man
90,000-85,000. Migrations: Red Sea> Arabian Coast> India. All non-African races evolved from this branch.
85,000-74,000. Migrations:Srilanka>IndianOcean>W.Indonesia>Borneo>S.China
74,000. Volcanic eruption at Mt.Toba, Sumatra. Indian subcontinent covered by Volcanic fly ash deposits almost depopulated.
74,000-65,000. Migrations: Timor> Australia>New Guinea. Repopulation of Indian subcontinent
65,000-52,000. Warming of climate around 52,000 years
52,000-45,000. Mini -ice age. Paleolithic culture.
45,000-40,000. Migrations: 1.East Asia coast >Central Asia >Steppe >NE Asia.2.Pakistan>Central Asia.3.Indochina>Tibet
40,000-25,000. Migrations: Central Asia>East Europe. Cave arts in France
25,000-22,000. Migrations: Siberia>Alaska through Bering land bridge. Native Americans
22,000-19,000. North Europe Asia, North America almost depopulated.
19,000-15,000.Last Glacial Maximum, 18,000 years ago. Bradshaw rock paintings, Australia.
15,000-12,500. Amelioration of global climate. Simple stone tools, flaxes, cobbles
12,500-10,000. Reoccupation of West America. Ice Age 10,000 years
10,000-8,000. End of Ice Age. Heralded agriculture. Sahara was grassland. Recolonization of Britain and Scandinavia.
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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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