Thursday, October 4, 2007
40.Early evolution of words and languages
The concept of the African origin and migration of mankind worldwide suggests that languages also might have originated and migrated in the similar way. Prehistoric According to the mother tongue theory of origin of languages, the human migrations appear to have led to the present diverse distribution of worlds languages.
The languages appear to have originated as primitive sounds in the beginning that eventually evolved into morphemes and words. Words were combined to form sentences to supplement the gestures and to facilitate accuracy of expression. Migration of people to different locations around the globe introduced umpteen variations in the words, adoption of the new words, pattern and style of combing words into sentences, usages and grammars depending on the environment of the settlement and the association of pre-existing, resident people. Thus evolution and migrations and diverse environments have produced different and complex languages.
The primitive oral /spoken languages evolved some 130,000 years ago with development of the gene FOXP2 associated with speech. Most of the communications, including the literature and education in the early days were in oral format. Subsequently the necessity of keeping business accounts and preservation and documentation of literature led to the evolution of writing about 5000 years ago.
Linguists like Meritt Ruhlen (1994) consider that all extant languages share a common origin and similar words in different languages are usually the result of divergent evolution from a single earlier language.
Most of the basic morphemes (parts of the word) and words originated among the early civilizations and spread around the globe along with trends and patterns of human migration and habitation.
Sumerian civilization in the Mediterranean valleys of Euphrates and Tigris (now parts of Iraq and Iran) is considered to be one of the early civilizations that developed and flourished during the period 6000 to 2000 BC. There could have been contemporaneous or older civilizations in other parts of the world like India, but these have not been sufficiently documented.
In the light of basic theory of evolution of words and the languages outlined above, we can expect to find some of the basic Tulu morphemes and words in the earliest civilizations, like those developed in the vicinity of the place of origin of the mankind, the northern Africa.
Books for Reference
- A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
- Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
- Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
- Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
- Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
- Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
- Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
- Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
- Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
- TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
- TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
- Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
- TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
- Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999
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