The pattern of different rituals offered for different Divine Spirits as a part of Spirit worship (Daivaradhane) are distinct from one deity to another. The essential differences are brought out below.
We summarized the general comments, made by Narayana A. Bangera (NAB) during our conversations on our Post-350: Kāle & Kāle Kola, in our Post-352/31.10.2015: Kola & Nema: The Distinction.
Subsequently, we received a brief Note in Kannada in November. Though this writer wanted bringing it to the knowledge of our readers, he lost himself in a stupor on being engrossed on subject of ‘Dhoomavati’. We now give a gist of the written note of NAB as a dilation of the earlier Post-352.
Annual celebrations of God- manifestations are called as Jaatre or Aayana. They are performed on specific days as pre-fixed. Designated performers are from Parava caste.
Aayana Highlights: Flag hoisting (kodi mara eruni). Pulling of cart (bandi) with deity on board. No circumambulation with ‘badikara (an earthen pot containing auspicious things) and ‘bolgode/bolkode’ (white umbrella). There was a custom of circumambulating of the deity in a palanquin, on āne (elephant) or Nandi (bullock) around temple.
Wearing: Spades of arecanut to legs, girders for the waist, crown or head-dress to head.
Wearing not included: Gaggara (Jingling anklets). Siri (coconut palm fronds) and muga (mask).
Offerings: No animal sacrifice. Sacrificial food is vegetarian in the form of broiled or puffed up paddy/rice with jaggery, along with tender coconuts. This offering is accepted by impersonator of the divine spirit. So these things are the ‘Barne’ (food for eating) for the impersonators as a token of offering to respective deities.
· Ullaya: He is the manifestation of Lord Eeshwara. Fixed days are: Beshada (May-June) Sankranti (Vrishabha Sankramana). It falls on either 14th or 15th of May. This year it falls on 14th May. (See our Post-292/30.12.2011: Fishing Rituals at Kandevu).
· Nalkaitaya: Manifestation of Vishnu. Annual celebration is on Mayida Punname (Full moon day of Feb-March).
· Bermer: Manifestation of Brahma. Annual celebration is on ‘Bontyoluda pattu popinani’, i.e. on 10th day of Tulu month of ‘Bontyolu’ (Oct.-Nov). The Brahma temple at Palli, near Udupi, Karnataka is very famous. It was renovated and consecrated on 14th May, 2009.
Nemas for Rajan Daivas
Nemas are performed on specific days, prefixed. It may be noted that divine spirit impersonators are from ‘Pambada’ class of dancers. Annual celebration is with all customary rituals, siri shringara, wearing gaggara, and Muga/Moga (= mask of the deity). ‘Badikara’ and ‘Bolgode’ Balis (= circumambulations) are very much part of the celebration. Animal sacrifice is allowed.
1. Jarandaya & Kodamandaya: They are deified souls of Jain Kings. Eru Kodi (Flag-hoisting) and ‘Oipu Bandi’ (Circumambulation on carts pulled by devotees) are highlights of the Annual Nema.
2. Jimaadi: She manifested herself as a boon bestowed upon Jaabaali Rishi on his rigorous penance.NAB says that ‘Jumaadi’ and ‘Dhoomavati’ are wrong nomenclatures. It should be ‘Jimaadi’, a shortened version of Jeeva (rashi’s) Aadi, i.e. the Supreme Soul of Divine Mother and the lord of individual (egoistic) souls of all creatures of this world (supposed to be 84 lacs Jivikotis of various categories or classes). She has a male’s face with woman’s body. She is known by different names after her famous devotees. She is known as ‘Sarala Jimaadi’ in the household of Saralantaya, Kanteri Jimaadi in Kantu Rai’s House and Maarla Jimaadi at Aithu Maarla.
Sometimes, Kola celebration is performed at Gadupadu or Gaduvadu places on fixing a day with all rituals (of wearing deity’s mask, siri shringra, gaggara, etc)but without Kodi (Flag-hoisting) and Bandi (Cart-circumambulating) rituals.
Note: As a popular belief, Jimaadi or Dhoomavati is equated to Parvati. Our preconception was that She is ‘Ardhanarishwara’. We may come out with a new Post on Dhoomavati after further study.
It is not ‘Bobbarya’. The correct name is ‘Babbarya (Bappa+Aarya). Supposed to be the reincarnation of Ayyappa Shastara, he comes to the rescue of women under distress as Vishwadeva Shastara protected Sachi, the Spouse of Lord Indra, from the cluches of Ajamukhi, sister of Mahishasura. He is not Byari (Muslim) as is believed in Kasaragod side (For better understanding readers may read NAB’s article ‘Babbana Babbarya’, published in Mogaveera Monthly, Mumbai, of January to March 2009). Non-vegetarian food is not offered to the Deity. Vegetarian food is made of rice flour, sweetened by jaggery, and baked on-the-spot on cinders at the place of worship. Offering is called as ‘Dāne’ or ‘Dhanya’ (Read our Post-198/11.07.2009: Bridge on mud-crack).
Please note: ‘Nema’ is observed on pre-fixed days at the Babbarya Temple (= Gunda, a round-shaped rock structure). No flag-hoisting, no circumambulation on a ‘bandi’ (wooden cart). The divine spirit impersonator does not wear ‘Siri’ (Split coconut leaf fronds). He wears silken cloth around loin but does not wear muga/moga (mask) nor ‘sirimudi (= head gear).
4.Other Divine Spirits
There is no pre-decided day for celebration in the form of Kola to other divine spirits, including Panjurli (NAB opines that, ‘Panjirli’ is the correct version), Kalkude, Kordabbu, Gulle, Raavu, Koragajja, Mayandal, etc. There is no Kodi or Bandi. The stages of invocation, like Siri ecchi, gaggarada ecchi, etc. are there.
Bārane leppuni (ಬಾರನೆ ಲೆಪ್ಪುನಿ) = Seeking permission to accept food offered. It is a ritual of addressing the organizers of the Bhūta festival and blessing them by Bhūta impersonator before accepting the food offered.
For other related words, please see our Posts:
No.250/20.08.2010: From Ola Savari, Olasari to Varasari.
No.306/13.12.2012: Mayandal and other Posts on Divine Spirits
This post is based on the information provided by Vidwan Shri. Narayana A. Bangera, for which we are immensely thankful.
Narayana A Bangera: A profile
A Commerce Graduate and retired as Manager in Air-India, NAB is a prolific writer, poet, kirtankar, discourser on Shani Mahatmya, Shri Satya Narayana Vrita Katha, and Puranas. Besides, he was a teacher in Night High Schools, Kannada Professor in College and is a well-known celebrity in Mumbai. On completion of 75 years of his fruitful life, he was felicitated by a group of admirers and Associations of Tulu-Kannada diaspora of Mumbai on 2nd April, 2016 at Karnataka Sangha’s Dr. Vishwesharayya Smaraka Sabhagriha, Matunga (West), Mumbai-400016. To mark the occasion, an Abhinandana Grantha entitled “Krishnarpana”.has been brought out.
-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune