Monday, March 19, 2018

403. Kanagod(a) & Mangod, along Udyavara river



Deciphering place names is a daunting job.  Naming of a village takes place on occupying an area.  Such settlement is named after geographical features, original occupiers from distinct group/tribes, occupations, conquerors, natural surroundings, etc.  The queerest part is that such names are coined mostly by outsiders. Barring mythological legends, reliable records are rarely found.  This is the case with Kanagod, Kanagoda, or Kanagode and Mangod – fishing villages on the bank of Udyavara River.  In the past, the Udyavara River used to debauch into Arabian Sea in Udyavara itself and not Malpe, as we see today (Read our old Posts on Kaipunjal, Uliyaragoli to Malpe, Pithrodi and Magic of Malpe).
While at my daughter’s house, the invitation from Shri Pandharinath Bhajana Mandir (Regd), Kanakoda, Udyavara Padukare, Post Mattu (Udupi District) has rekindled our interest on place name decipherment. This is the 80th auspicious yearly (Brahma Kalashotsava) ceremony (from 18th March to 31st March, 2018).     Kanakoda is a coastal hamlet of Udyavara, across Udyavara River.  The village hamlet is one of the constituents of federation of seven fishing villages (Elur Mogaveera Pattana Sangha) along the river. The other six villages are:  Udyavara (with hamlet Pithrodi – see our Post-178 of 14th March 2009), Bolje, Yenade, Kote Mattu (Katapadi), Kuthipadi, and Kadekar (ಕಡೆಕಾರ್).  

Location of Sand-barrier villages
 Our earlier Posts contain maps.  Riverine topography right from coastal Mattu  Koppala village, which is western part of Mattu Kote, which is on eastern bank of Pangal rivulet  (along Kaipunjal and Pangal stream/rivulets, which join Udyavara River – both Mattu Koppala and Kote villages are part of Katapadi) to Malpe Padukare.  The villages along Sand barriers are:  Mattu Koppala >Kanakodi Padukare(on western Bank of Udyavara River from across Pithrodi-Udyavara) > Kuth(i)padi Padukare > Kadekar Padukare > Malpe Padukare (across Kidiyoor and Kalmadi villages).   Mangodu is a hamlet of Kuth(i)padi on East Bank of Udyavara river.  Readers would get a glimpse of this from Google Maps.

Kanakoda
Kanakoda or Kanakode can be dissected as:
Kana + Koda  or Kanak + Oda or Ode.  Koda or Kode is comparable to ‘Kodi’.  Kod/Kodi is narrow and pointed stretch of sand barriers between river and sea, which is a common phenomenon near estuaries of rivers.  Note the confluence of rivers of Netravathi & Phalguni at Ullal-Kudroli-Bengre, Shambhavi & Nandini at Hejamadikodi & Kadike-Sasihitlu, Sita & Swarna at Hangarakatte-Kodi Bengare or Kadike (Tottam), etc. These walls {Kuda (ಕುಡ) = gode (ಗೋಡೆ)} are in the shape of kodu, meaning horn.  Remember Malampu/Malampe (Modern Malpe) was known as Kudaar in ancient time.

Alternative 1 – Landscaped:
Meaning of ‘Kana’ or ‘Kanak’ is not easy to decipher.  We may deduce it as ‘particle’, say sand particles of sand barriers.  So Kanakode is derived from sand barriers, the geographically natural shape.

Alt.2 – Sacred Grove/Forest:
If we take ‘kana’ (ಕನ) as ‘Kaana (ಕಾನ = Garden, Grove or Wooded land), it could be presumed that the village has taken its name from ‘preserved and protected grove/forest’.

Alt. 3 – an Ethnonym:
Kanakod-a/i/e can be split as Kanak+Oda/Odi/Ode.  What is ‘Kanak’?  Does it mean ‘Gold’? Oda/Odi/Ode means ‘raised/elevated land/habitation/settlement. 
Coastal belt is beseted with many place names with Kan, Kanak and Kanka. It is not an eponym.  Could it be an ethnonym, derived from ‘Kan’ people? There are many place names, such as Kanangi, Kannarpadi, Kannangar, Kankanadi and likewise. It is said that Kannada is originated from ‘Kan (= eye)’ tribes, known as Kaniars (= Seers or Sooth-sayers). Kannada is one of the Dravidian languages branched off from Proto-Dravidian language.  Tulu, one of the Pancha Dravida Languages, is more near to Old Kannada and Tamil.

Alt.4 – A Ferry Point
It may sound an absurd exposition. Tulu: Kanak = Dead-wood + Oda = Boat.  It means a boat of deadwoods, i.e. a teppa (ತೆಪ್ಪ), English: Raft.   Wooden rafts were used in earlier days for ferrying in rivers. Ferry boats from Udyavara to Kanakoda are now discontinued.

Alt.5 – A Golden Land:
The place name Kankavli in Sindhudurg (one of the Konkan Districts) is dissected as Kanak + avli (= Gold+land, i.e Golden land).  We feel that this explanation is given by Sanskrit-loving people and that it does not reveal the correct meaning of the olden place, inhabited by several migratory people of different tongues from benighted ages.

Bridge for rapid movement:
Malpe-Padukare Villages, in narrow coastal belt, are now connected by a bridge near Kalmadi.  So the coastal motorable road journey from Kaup-Malpe to Udupi is now easy and it has reduced the distance and time. Earlier, residents from Padukare were taking ferry service route on Udyavara River to reach Malpe and from thence to Udupi.  By road residents were reaching Udupi through circuitous coastal feeder road that goes through Mattu and Katapadi.

Mangod(u)
It is a hamlet in Kuthipadi, famous for Subramanya Temple and Vasuki Nagabana.  Mangodu is made of two elements:  Man + Kodu (on joining of the parts, ‘k’ changes to ‘g’).  ‘Man’ means raised soil, say a mound, ‘Kod’ means ‘a pointed stretch or side like a horn’, as explained above.
Mangodu can also be analysed as Mang+odu.  Mang is supposed to be a tribe migrated from Africa. Odu means settlement or habitation.  So, place name is originated from settlement of Mang people.
Mangodu falls on the eastern bank of River Udyavara in Kuth(i)padi between Pithrodi and Kadekar. Padi, i.e. vast vegetated area or   village full of ‘Kuthi’, meaning dwarf bushes and trees, i.e. trees of short trunk and stunted-trunk.  Kuthipadi may also be explained as ‘a place where cutting action took place, i.e. where a man is slained, as we learn from a para hereunder.
The place Mangodu is locally famous for its two temples - one for Subramanya, son of Lord Shiva, and the other for Vasuki, the Serpent king, adorned by Shiva as His garland (Or else, a bed of Lord Vishnu, as understood by ‘Vasukishayana’ in some devotional songs).  In Kuthipadi, there is one more temple known as Kanangi Mahabrahma Lingeshwar Temple, dedicated to Trinity Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara.
Now it has become a tourist spot owing to the recent find and decipherment of an old Kannada inscription at Subramanya Temple.  It is a 9th Century 8-line inscription (7th line found effaced) on a round stone, types of which are normally found in Kudar, now submerged area of Malpe, known as St. Mary’s Island.  According to history, Tulu Nadu was ruled by Alupa Dynasty, who ruled the kingdom for more than thousand years, changing their capital from Mangalore, Udyavara and Barkur.  Glimpses of this dynasty are touched in some of our articles.
The epigraph on a naturally round stone says:
Pala Achiya, servant of Navre, stabbed Svetavahana, while forcibly entering Udayapura (now Udyavara) and killed him.  Pala then died fighting the soldiers of Svetavahana.
Svetavahana, who ruled Tulu Nadu around 9th Century, is a scion of Alupa Dynasty.  It is understood that there were in-fighting among royal stakeholders.  This incident is one of the episodes of infighting. Navre is a Chieftain of Alupas in Udyavara.  He is cited in Greek-Tulu Farce (Prahashan), which tells how Greek sailors freed a Greek lady, held captive by Navre, by intoxicating his soldiers.  
The decipherment is made by T. Murgeshi in 2015.  He is the Associate Professor of Ancient History and Archaeology at Mulki Sundaram Shetty College, Shirva.
Mangodu, as place name, is found even in Kerala (Palakkad) and Tamil Nadu (Ponneri, Tiruvalluru). At some places, it is mentioned as Mankadu.  It may be ‘kavu’, preserved and protected sacred groves or forests, as we described in our Post-282/29.06.2011 on Kavradi.

Coastal erosion
Kanakoda faces sea erosion problem year after year, as is Ullal, Hejamadikodi, etc.  It is more severe during rainy season or at the time of tidal waves. 
Coastal erosion is one of the significant coastal hazards, turning into loss of precious lives and valuable properties and lands alongside coastal zone.  The inter-faced land and sea is a zone of active and fragile ecosystem. Rock-boulders are put along shore-line as stop-gap measure.  These boulders are washed away by tidal waves. As a permanent solution, construction of break-water walls is contemplated by Central and State Governments for permanent protection of shore-line instead of temporary measure.  Readers would do well if they read ‘Shoreline change atlas of the Indian Coast (Vol.3 – Karnataka to Kerala).
Conclusion
We have tried to make a logical analysis.  We pass on this challenge to readers to say their version and share the factual information on places under study.

Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune 

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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