Archeo-botanical evidences suggest the existence of agricultural practices in the major river basins of southern India since ca.3000 BC. Before the well developed farming cultures, early tribes resorted to hunting operations on a community scale as a means of earning food for the tribes.
After the hunting expeditions involving the able bodied hunters from the community, the ancient tribes apparently devised procedures of sharing the bounties among the beneficiaries to overcome unwarranted disputes and hassles.
Apparently, the Divine forces were invoked to oversee such arbitrations of sharing the bounties collected during hunting or fishing expeditions.
Panjikall is a village in Bantval Taluk on Bantval- Mudabidri road. There several are other hamlets in the Karavali carrying this place name besides this village. Writer Ravi Anchan describes in one of his essays the significance of Panjikall. The Panji-kall (=boar+stone), according to him, is a large stone named after Panjurli, the Boar Spirit, where the ancient tribes shared their bounties collectively after an hunting or fishing expedition. The Boar Spirit of Panjurli is one of the oldest Spirit deities believed by the ancient tribes of Karavali.
It seems the original significance of the Panjikall or the boar stone has been forgotten in some areas and replaced by an alternate legend conceived later .in many areas. In some areas for example near Vitla, Bantval Taluk, there is another hamlet known by the same name of Panjikall. Here the local people ascribe the said ‘boar stone’ as vestige of the site where the Boar Spirit vanished.
Another place- name and word known as ‘Ajakall’ is also associated with the above described custom of sharing the hunting/ fishing bounties. Tulu Lexicon states that the origin and meaning of the word ‘aja’ in ‘Ajakal’ is not clearly known. However under the word entry in the same lexicon ‘aja’ we find that Aja=Brahma. Brahma or the Bermer is one of the earliest Gods worshipped by Tulu and other Dravidians. Evidences of Brahma worship may have been lost in other parts of southern India, but is still live in the Tulunadu. Even today the main deity in Garodies (ancient Gymnasia) of Tulunadu is the God Bermer or the ancient form of Brahma I, a warrior seated on horse.
(Brahma I, represents the original concept of Brahma (Bermer) prevalent among ancient Indians. It was derived from the legend of Abraham that prevailed in the northwestern India during ca. 2000 BC. The Indian ‘Brahma’ was modeled after the legendary hero ‘Abraham’. Abraham was also considered or revered as forefather of Jews and Moslems in Arab countries. Later in the history probably after 500 BC the concept of Brahma II was evolved to represent four headed creator God seated on giant lotus emanating from the navel of Lord Vishnu.)
Thus we can conclude that in southern India ‘Ajakal’s devoted to Lord Brahma. The hunting or fishing bounties were shared among the members of the community invoking the name of popular God of that time period.
Ajakal concept was not exclusive to Tulunadu or Karavali. It was prevailing in other parts of southern India also. For example, Azhikkal is a coastal port and fishing harbor near Kannur in Kerala. The name Ajakal has been slightly modified to ‘Azhikkal’ in Malayalam.
There may be similar place-names all over India, whose original meaning and significance has been long forgotten!