Friday, April 27, 2012

299. Ata tribes in Tulunadu

We have realized in the older posts herein that many of the ancient place names in Karavali-Tulunadu are paleo-ethnonyms signifying the presence of presently forgotten tribes that made a living in the remote past in this land. To this list of forgotten tribes of Karavali and other parts of India we may add the Ata or Atha tribes. Presently, Ata are one of the Austro-Asiatic tribes living in parts of Phillipines like Mindanao. However, the details of origin and global migration paths of these Ata tribes are not clearly known at present.
Atrādi (Athrādi) is a village in Kundapura taluk of Udupi District. The place name Atrādi can be analysed as Atra+aDi or habitation of the ‘Atra’ people.
A rural hamlet near Kulur Mangalore is known by the name of ‘Atarabailu’ or ‘Atrabail’. The Atrabail can be recognized as a ‘bayal’( =open field )named after the Ata’ tribes in the remote past.
In earlier posts we explained the place name Attāvara in Mangalore as open field (‘avara’) on the other bank (‘atta’ =that side, in Kannada). Probably the correct explanation would be Ata+avara or the open field named after the Ata tribes.
Atur, Attur
Similarly the place names, Ātur ( suburb near Karkal town known for a famous church) and Attur (near Haleangadi, Mangalore Taluk) are places named after the ancient Ata tribes.
Atri is a surname derived from Ata tribes. Similarly the place name Atrijal refers to an open field (‘jāl’) named after the Ata , Atar or Atri tribes.
Atharvana Veda
One of the Vedas based on ancient techniques of sorcery known as ‘Atharvana’ Veda is said to have been composed by a sage known as Atharvan or Atarva. It appears that proper name Atharvan bears relationship with the ethnonym Atar or Atharva. The age of composition of Atharvan Veda ca.1000 BC may help decide the period of existence of these tribes in India.
Attar ( ಅತ್ತರ್)  is one of the clan names of Bunts.  ಅತ್ತಾರ್ರು/ಆತ್ತಾರು is a priest-cum-impersonator in some Bhoota shrines.(p.87-88 of Tulu Lexicon.)
Ada and Adi appear to a subsequent variant of Ata tribe. Adamar, Adavani,  etc place names apparently represent these variations.

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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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