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Monday, January 16, 2017

375. Katte & Padma katte

Certain words become ubiquitous, mainly because of their utility or usage in social, cultural and economic activities. ‘Kaţtţe’ is one such word which is seen in many Indian languages.  Word ‘mārukaţţe’, used in Tulu or Kannada, has entered English language as ‘market’ because of marine trade in western coast of South India in the past.
Besides the kaţţe, there is also a word ‘padma-kaţţe’ in Tulu, which is used for specific purpose. This purpose-specific word may engage a young mind, away from his root, for a while to ponder over its significance.

It means a high place or platform, erected or constructed for any specific purpose.  So, we come across many compound words with kaţţe as suffix or rarely as prefix. These kaţţes’   may be permanent or temporary structures suiting to seasons.
In general, the kaţţe means tied, surrounded structures of earth or stones to sit upon, embankment, dam across a river, causeway, bund of tank or platform built under tree on village green. (See DED entry #1147on page 108 and also entries in Tulu Lexicon).
There are shaded shelters under a tree for travellers on road sides.  In olden days, kings, local chieftains, religious-minded or righteous persons used to construct such structure for free use for resting.  Ashoka’s inscriptions give names of places where such ‘Dharma Chhatras’ are built for the convenience of travelers and   passers-by during his reign.  
We shall discuss some of the kaţţe examples around us:

Vasanta Pooja kaţţe, Nāga kaţţe & kaţţe Nema:
Besides kaţţes alongside roads, there are Vasanta-kaţţes (Platforms built around a peepal or banian tree) at different squares and lanes around a temple. The idol of particular deity is taken in procession as a part of seasonal Temple Festivals.  It is kept on such a kaţţe for worship by devotees. 
At some kaţţes,   snake figures carved on stones,  are kept for worship. They are known as ‘Nāga or Nāgara kaţţe’.
Annual celebrations, called as ‘kaţţe nema’, are held at some kaţţe s for Divine Spirits. These deities are believed by a local village or group of villages (māganes).

Sante kaţţe / Māru kaţţe   (ಸಂತೆಕಟ್ಟೆ/ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆ)
This is a fixed trading or market place for a variety of items in a village, town or city at regular intervals.

Sunkada kaţţe /Sāyira kaţţe  (ಸುಂಕದಕಟ್ಟೆ/ಸಾಯಿರಕಟ್ಟೆ):
A toll/ custom/ Tax collecting place. (Post-358 of 2nd April 2016 on ‘Sayer or Sayir’ gives further insight into the topic).

Katte for Office or Post on road side:
Near Police stations, there are check posts at specific junctions.
Anche kaţţe (ಅಂಚೆಕಟ್ಟೆ):
 A Post  Office.  In the past, we have seen the cases of one Post-man from a Post Office serving several villages around.  Before the introduction of cycles, he had to walk fast or run to deliver letters, telegrams, parcels, etc.

Solakada kaţţe (Kannada: Harate- kaţţe):
A regular  place for   meeting or   gossiping.  It is also called ‘adda’ in slang/media terminology where wide spectrum  of social figures – big   or small - are interviewed by media people from time to time. It is not to be confused with ‘adda/adde’ (= den) used for illegal activities, such as bootlegging and gambling (betting, matka, playing cards, etc).

Kattes named after people, trees, etc
Tulasi Katte (A platform or pedestal for basil tree in front of houses), Hampana Katte (Mangaluru), Hangara Katte (A port with ship building facilities at the estuary of Seetha river in Kundapur Taluk of Udupi District) and so on.

Pan (=water)+ ga (= gaman, i.e. moving) = Panga>Hanga:  That which is moving on water, i.e.  boat. Pangara>Hangara = One who is working on boat.  Note: Profession itself becomes a class name (Readers may read Post-300 of 30th April, 2012 on our analytical essay on Hangarakatte).

Padma kaţţe
Padma Katte is same as ‘Aravattige’ (ara = room or shelf.  Aravu (= wide and open room/area) + attige (roof-on).  It is a platform or structure made around a tree (mostly around peepal or banian tree) with the intention of providing a shelter or resting place for a way-farer (TL Page153 & Page 1921).  Pure drinking water (with or without jaggery) or butter-milk was being supplied there free of charge to thirsty passersby. 

References in History
The speciality (Brit.) or specialty (USA) of TuluNadu is that such kaţţe s’ are also erected by kings, chieftains and other nobles (Brahmins, landed gentry, local authorities of kings and feudal chieftains).   To show their pomp and pride, these kattes are built nearby ‘Bākimār’ land (bakillda> bakil > baki = in front of house-door or veranda+ mār = agricultural field), invariably near ‘kendali mara’ (Coconut tree yielding red-husked coconuts) on hedge of veranda.  We get references about it in ‘Tulu PaDdanas’ (Oral Verses,  describing heroic-tales - Veera Gatha = ballads of past heroes of Tulu Nadu, who are deified after death).

Bantera Sandhi
We find one such reference in ‘Bantera Sandhi’, i.e. PaDdana on Koti-Chennaya, the twin-brother heroes, who lived in circa 16th C. There was a conversation between Kinnidaru (eldest sister of the heroes) and Koti-Chennaya. She did not see her brothers right from their birth due to disputes between feudal lords. They fled Padumale Palace, after killing insolent Minister Buddyanta of Padumale, and came to Panja for seeking the help of their brother-in-law Payya Baide to get a job in Panja Rajya of Kemara Ballala. She could not recognize the youths, hence did not come out being alone at home.  She requested them to wait outside and sit at assigned place in the veranda, as is vogue in those days, saying:

“If you are:  Brahmins, sit at ‘Padma Katte’ near the ‘Kendali mara (ಕೆಂದಾಳಿಮರ)’; if Bants, sit in the Pandal (ಚಪ್ಪರ) earmarked for Bants (agriculturist class) and   if are members of her community itself, sit on a swing cradle (ತೂಗುಯ್ಯಾಲೆ) at the porch or portico (ಮೊಗಸಾಲೆ).”
At last, she finds that they are her direct brothers.
[Note: There are books on ‘Koti- Chennaya’, based on the paDdana, written by Panje Mangesha Rao, Bannanje Babu Amin, etc. Panje’s translation was in my 6th Standard Kannada Text Book (1950-51).]

Aravattige in Kannada Literature
There is a beautiful stanza in Poet Lakshmeesha’s Classic Poetry ‘Jaimini Bhārata’, a translation of Sage Jaimini’s Sanskrit work. On the advice of Jaimini and Vyasa, King Yudhishthira decides to perform ‘Ashvamedha Yāga’ to ward off the sins of killing cousin Kauravas in Kurukshetra war.  He sends his brothers to different parts of Bharata to win over the kings.  Bhima goes westward with his army and reaches Bhadravathi (ancient Benki pattana, Benkipura or Venkipura in   present Shimoga District).  The name ‘benki’ must have been given on account of red soil, pregnant with iron ore. Bhima and his warriors are wonder-struck with the beauty of the city, nestled in Male Nadu (Sahyadri Range).  They see the arrangement of Padma Kattes or aravattiges, managed by beautiful damsels. The following stanza gives a lucid explanation of mirthful ladies with lotus-like faces, teasing the thirstywarriors who visit their ‘Aravattiges’:

ಬಟ್ಟೆ ಬಟ್ಟೆಯೊಲಳೆಲ್ಲಿ ಯುಂಕುಳಿರ್ವೆರೆಸಿದರ
ವಟ್ಟಿಗೆಯ ಸದನಂಗಳಿಂದೆ ಬಾಗಿಲ್ಗೆ ಪೊರ
ಮಟ್ಟು ಕಲಶಮನೆತ್ತಿ ನೀರೆರೆವ ಕಾಮಿನಿಯರು ಬಾಹು ಮೂಲದೆಡೆಗೆ|
ದಿಟ್ಟಿವರಿವರಿದು ಮೊಗ ಮೊರ್ಗುಡಿ ಸೆಸರಿಸಕಳ
ವಟ್ಟ ಜಲಧಾರೆ ಪೊರಸೂಸೆ ಬಯಲಿಗೆ ಬಾಯ
ಬಿಟ್ಟು ನಗಿಸುವರಲ್ಲಿ ತೃಷೆಯಿಂದ ಬಂದ ಪಥಿಕರ್ಕಳಾ ಬಾಲೆಯರನು ||ಸಂಧಿ 2,ಪದ್ಯ9 ||

Substance of the stanza:
When the travellers asked for water, these beautiful ladies pour water into their palms.  Though the palms are fulland water is falling on the ground, they goon pouring water but the absent-minded visitors, instead of quenching their thirst, are bent on looking agape the physical beauty of the girls. They lift their faces up again and again to catch sight of the fully blossomed breast right from arm-pit (bāhu moola), forgetting to drink and allowing the water go waste. The girls burst into joyous giggling, seeing the predicament of these way-farers.  This is a mirthful experience to both the beautiful ladies and the thirsty warriors.
Note: Description of nature and beauties may not be an exaggeration, made by the Poet Lakshmeesha (lived around 15th-16th C) from Devanoor/Devapura (in Chikamagalur). Earlier poets had a penchant of describing their place of birth with a sense of belonging.

Mystery behind naming
Why this halting and resting place is termed as ‘Padma katte’ in Tulu Nadu? What is the meaning of ‘Padma’, if it is not ‘Water flower/Lotus’?  Could it be ‘Padumara katte’, where ‘padam’ means ‘foot’?  Thus, Padumara > Padma katte means a shelter for passers -by to cool off their heels and refresh with drinking water.
Alternatively, the seat on such a Katte might have been in the shape of a Lotus (Padma) and hence the name ‘Padma katte’. If not, canopy over such a katte was lotus-shaped.

Padma kattehas been a time-honoured practice, which was witnessed by the author during his school days and up to fag end of last Century. Alas, this system has become a thing of the past!  Construction of wide ‘Golden Quadrangular Highways’ with multi-lanes for rapid transport, has uprooted big trees and destroyed roadside ‘kattes’ and houses. Instead, road-side cafes with many facilities are taking care of travellers but with cost.
  Change!  Let us muse over the following wise sayings:
1)   ಕಾಲೋ ಜಗದ್ಭಕ್ಷಕಃ   (Time gulps everything in the world at its will).
2) “Old order changeth   yielding place to new”      (- Lord Tennyson).
3) “Time changes everything except something within us which is always surprised by change “.    (- Thomas Hardy).


-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Saturday, December 24, 2016

374. Banga and Bangera Bari

The Bangera ‘bari ‘( ‘gotra’) is one of the common lineage systems prevalent in Tulunadu  and found in most of the Tulu communities. We shall make an attempt to decipher the origin etymology and distribution of this particular lineage.
 It has been summarized in the older posts in this blog that most of the prevailing ‘ bari’ groups had origin as tribal groups in the antiquity which in the due course merged into different communities and castes formed based on lines of profession adopted by the people. In other words the “bari” system is older in the historical timeline than the caste and community system in our society as we find specific baris’ distributed among different castes.
We can find Bangera lineage in Mogaveera, Billava Bunt and communities. Even Koraga, Mundala and other communities also have Bangera lineage.

Banga and Bangera
The word “Banga” in the context of Tulunadu refers to one of the Jain dynasties that ruled the land. Places like Bangavadi, Bangra Kulur, Bangra Manjeshwar, Bangera-padavu  have remained testimony for the Banga rulers. While the Jain term “Banga” has remained as such, among the ancient tribes the Banga persons were referred to respectably as “Bangera”. The Banger(+a) in Tulu is a plural and honorific form used for respected persons. Thus it can be inferred that the “Banga” and “Bangera” were originally the same tribes in the antiquity.

Banga:  Benga+al
The term “Banga” in the epics, legends and historical documents refers commonly to the “Bengal” region of India. The Bengal is the modification introduced by the British rulers to the ancient word Banga. The spatial suffix –al commonly found in place names in Tulunadu, as well as in rest of India, represents a habitation (village) located on the bank of a river.
Origin of the term “Banga” is not clear among the Indian historians. Some consider it as indicative of the region whereas others consider it to refer to a specific ancient tribe. It has been said that the Banga tribes were mentioned in several ancient texts. Thus, it can be inferred that the term Banga refers both to the region and a specific tribe from that region. 

Banga places in Thailand
It is interesting to note that the Bang place names can be found extensively in Thailand and surrounding South–east Asian countries. The capital of Thailand is Bangkok. According to linguists “bang” in Thai language is a village located on the bank of a stream or river.  (The “kok” is a olive like tree). Some of the bang place names in Thailand .
Bang (Thai) = Village located near a stream   or river;  [Ala= village on river bank]. 
The origin of the term Banga is = ban (=water)+ ga (=village).
 Dispersion of Banga tribes as evident from the distribution of ancient Bang- place names (TR.374.)
Some of the Bang villages in Thailand : Bangkok, Bangna, Bangbo, Bangsare, Bang Rachan,  Bangsak,  Bangsak, Bangtao, Bang Bao,  BangPat, ,Bang Chan etc.
Thailand has a history influenced by India as reflected by evidences of Buddhist and Hindu religious elements that can be seen in their routine life. Similarly ancient Indian archeo-history has evidences of immigration of Austro-Asiatic (inclusive of South East Asians) into India in the past.
Thus it can be visualized that “bang” people migrated to India as a tribe in archeo-history and settled in regions like Bangal. (ie. the original form of Bengal) . We can apply the Thai meaning for ‘bang’ and ‘banga’ for the immigrant tribes and as well as the region where they settled in larger numbers.
It is quite interesting that the word “Bangal” consists of two words ‘banga’ + ’al ‘ having similar meaning but originated from different sources. It is possible that (a) the regional term Banga came into being because of the Banga tribes or (b) the tribes living in the Banga region would have later been known as Banga tribes.
In other words, the   “Bangal” represents the riverside region inhabited by ‘banga’ tribes.

Banga: earthen pot

Villages named Banga, Banga-an etc can be found in Philippines also. However, in Philippines the term “banga” also means earthen or clay pot. In a sense, the “banga“(=village) and the “banga”(=pot) are connected, since the clay required for  making pots is normally available in river side areas.
In Philippines a native dance form involving a series of earthen pots serially placed on the head is also known as “banga” dance.

Banga -place names in India
The census of India data for 2011 reveals that there are more than 717 villages (excluding hamlets) in India carrying the signature tag of Banga tribes. These are distributed in Uttar Pradesh (100), Assam (95), Bihar (92), Orissa (71), West Bengal (58), Madhya Pradesh (44), Jharkhand (41), Uttara Khand (36), Chattisgarh (31), Andhra Pradesh (30), Meghalaya (23), Maharashtra (19), Punjab (19), Rajasthan (19), Himachal Pradesh (12), Karnataka (11), Arunachal Pradesh (4), Tripura (3), Haryana (3), Tamilnadu (2), Gujarat(2), J&K (1), Andaman (1), Kerala (1), Sikkim(1), Lakshadweep (1) in the decreasing order of abundance given in brackets. (Note that in official village names the names of hamlets and settlements are not included.)

Some of the common banga village names in India are Banga, Bangi, Bangal, Bangla, Bangaon, Bangram, Bangoli, Bangori, Bangte, Banggo, Bangkong, Bangar, Bangera, Bangra, Bangapalli, angarpalle, Bangalbari, Bangawadi, Bangar wadi, Bangari-gada, Bangaru chelka, Bangaruvalasa, Bangaliguda, Bangapal, Banglera, Bangran, Bangranj, Bangergund, Bangre, Bangra, Bangoda, Bangaljhor etc.


 The etymology of 'Bangra' as in place names Bangra Kulur and Bangra Manjeshwar is  Bang+ra , (or Banga+ra), where suffix -ra represents English 'of' and thus bangra means area related to the Banga people.

The conventional explanation attached to the city of Bengaluru is village of boiled beans/pulse or “benda kāluru” to be specific. It is rather odd that a name like ‘benda-kāluru’ should become Bengaluru with passage of time.
How about finding an alternate explanation for this place name naturally as “Bang+al+ur”?
If you accept the explanation of   bang+al+uru for Bengaluru, then   it suggests that (a) the Banga tribes had settled in the place known now as Bengaluru and (b) the original location of Bengaluru was on the bank of a river.
The western side of Bengaluru city represents a linear river valley (presently dried up) trending along more or less N-S direction. Even the existence of numerous lakes in Bengaluru  (now unfortunately encroached upon by the greedy land mafia) also indicate remnants of former stream system. Thus the geographic and geological data suggests that Bengaluru was on the bank of streams in the antiquity.

Banga: Panga
During early historical days many languages lacked differentiation between the consonants p and b. Even today, Tamil uses a common consonant for p and b. Thus “banga” was pronounced as “panga” in several areas during early history. Thus,  for example, we have “Pangala” a riverside village near Udupi instead of  Bangala. Similarly there are a large number of ethnonyms of ancient villages and hamlets having a prefix of ‘panga’ instead of ‘banga’.

Further it is interesting to note that place names like “Pangala” (pan+ga+ala) [similar to the word ‘Bangala’] contain repetition of word units with same meaning, since both “panga “ (or “banga”) and “ala” mean  village/habitation beside water. An ancient case of pleonasm or tautology in the  formation of words.

Further note that similar to pāni (=water), the word “pani” (ie with short a) means a drop of water,  in Tulu, Kannada and other sister languages. Also compare the Kannada word ”ibbani” (= dew drops) derived from ir+pani or two drops.

Panga- Pangal place names
There are some 310 villages having the prefix of “Panga” in India. These are distributed in  Maharastra (107),  Jharkhand (85), Orissa (44), Madhya Pradesh (24), Arunachal Pradesh (17),  Andhra Pradesh (14), Chattisgarh (12), Uttara Khand (11), Manipur (9), Assam (9), Jammu & Kashmir( 8), Tamilnadu (7), Himachal Pradesh (7), Uttar Pradesh (6), Nagaland (5), Mizoram (4), Karnataka (4), Gujarat(2), Kerala (2), Bihar (2), Punjab (2), West Bengal (2), Haryana (1), Rajasthan (1), Meghalaya(1), Sikkim (1) in the decreasing order of abundance.
Some of the Panga village names are: Panga, Pangi, Pangala, Pangola, Pangeri,  Pangarga, Pangna, Pangaon, Pangri, Pangara, Pangam, Pangarbari, Pangalthur, Pangali, Pangudi,  Pangode,  Pangar, Pangur,Pangra, Panglar, Pangdo, Pangna,  etc.

Differences in the levels of abundance of distribution of Banga vs. Panga place names in various regions represented by different states of India, possibly suggests the influence of different languages and chronological episode  in the background.

Banga: Vanga
Refinement of the Prakrit group of languages (Sanskritization ) resulted in changes in place names.  Thus under this scheme Banga became Vanga. For example, our epics describe Bengal as “Vanga” desha.

Vanga -place names
There  are some 58 official Vanga villages in India, distributed in Andhra Pradesh (23), Gujarat  (9),  Maharashtra (8), Tamilnadu (7), Karnataka (4), Uttar Pradesh (4),  Mizoram (2) and Manipur (1).

Tracing the Bangera bari from Banga tribes
In conclusion, the name of Bangera bari (lineage) has been derived from the Banga tribes. In Jains of Tulunadu the name ‘Banga’ has remained as a name of the minor dynasty as such, whereas in the case of other Tulu tribes the Banga were designated respectfully by other fellow tribes as seen by the usage the plural form of Bangera. The term Bangera (literally means the Bangas’) is the plural form of Banga. 

There is a suggestion that the etymology of  Bangera   could be ban + kera >Bangera. This leads to the interpretation of Bangera as one who winnows in water ie. Boatman or fisherman, fishing being one of the basic profession next to hunting of early humans.  However, I prefer the banga+er,  ie  the Bangas as a tribe which is reflected in Banga/Vanga region (Bengal apart from numerous villages of Banga and their modified variants Panga and Vanga) in India as well as the existence of Banga as a dynasty of Jains.

Thus we can trace the historical migration of the Banga (tribes of Bangera bari ) from the immigrants of South East Asia (probably Thailand region)   through Bengal region to Tulunadu. There are also other evidences for migration of tribes from Banga/Bengal to Tulunadu in place names. For example, check the place names in Tulunadu like "Shibaroor" and "Shibrikere", where "Shiba" is used in typical Bengali style instead of "Shiva".

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

373. On the trail of morpheme ‘Nu/ Noo’

“Words are a pretext. It is the inner bond that draws one person to another, not words”. These are words of Sufi mystic Jal-al-Uddin Rumi of Istanbul (erstwhile Anatolia ) [Post-348], the famous philosopher.
Words are merely a symbol or shorthand to understand things – natural and mental.  Some are onomotopic, associated with objects or actions to be named by natural sounds.  Each tribal group develops its own language, assigning meanings to such words.  Hence human languages are many. Hidden meaning of one tongue is notunderstood by another tongue, lest they should live in close proximity for a long time.
It is assumed that whole Earth had one language, according to Genesis. Coded meanings of words and names can be decoded but it cannot be substantiated with original meanings attached to such ancient words (The Theories of Language Origin- Edo Nyland).
It is now firmly thought by linguists that there was one proto language, which was originated from Africa,and to be more specific from Saharan Nile Valley and Ethiopia.
“…. all existing human speech is one in the essential characteristics which we have thus far noted or shall hereafter have to consider, even as humanity is one in its distinction from lower animals – the differences are in non-essentials”. [Encyclopedia Britannica]

It spread toMediterraneanregion and from thence to other Eurasian countries, thanks to migrations on account of many sudden and wide-spread disasters, misfortunes, mishaps or failures. Exodus of mankind is a continuing phenomenon from pre-historic days to the present for various reasons. Boat people of yore (Eg. Manu and Noah’s stories during Great Deluge and also similar stories in Inca, Mayan and other civilizations) and the Boat people of recent history are striking examples of migration (Eg. Hapless refugees of war-torn areas of Mediterranean region or of stateless people elsewhere).

A genetic relationship is observed among diverse family of world languages. As a language branches-out, base meanings of words in the original (proto) language remains under-current in the branched-out language but difference widens eventually along with the evolutionary trend. Thus, each speech-group becomes stranger to one another as the time passes. This stranger-ship is assigned,in scriptures, to esoteric design of the God.  These scriptures are in classic and refined languages (Eg. Sanskrit, Pali, Latin, etc.), developed  from various preexisting contiguous languages.

Morpheme Nu/Noo in Tulu
There are many common heritage words, invariably found in world languages.  We have pointed out some of them in our earlier Posts.  We have explained that ‘Nu/Noo’ denotes a place around, above or near water body in our recent Post-362(29.08.2016) on Morphemes in Tulu Place names. 
Further ‘Na or Ni’ refers to ‘water’ as evidenced in Naravi, Narve, Nārayana, Naga (ship), Nāga (serpent, denizen of water capable of moving in water swiftly), Nanja, etc. In Tulu, ‘Nanja’ means ‘a wet soil, fit for cultivation’.
The Na also has a connection, nay relation, with ancient India vis-à-vis with European countries.
What is then the inner bond that word unit ‘Nu/Noo’ that prevails in Euro-Asian languages?

Danu, an aquatic Goddess
It is said that the Europeans originated from Vedic woman called Danu.   It is also said that she is mother of Vritra, a Danava. Vritra was killed by his brother Indra, a Sudanava.    Vritra is a serpent, who is capable of taking any form. 
Danu means:  Da (to flow, flowing) + Nu (water) = River. ‘Da’ (= Dra)also means ‘water’ in most of the old dialects (as in words: Bandar, Dharavi, Dadar, Dariya, Bhayandar, etc).

In Rigveda, ‘Danu’ is the mother of Danavas, both Su-danavas and Ku-danavas.  She is the daughter of Daksha Brahma and the wife of Sage Kashyapa.  According to legends, Daksha marries off his thirteen daughters (out of 62) to Rishi   Kashyapa. From Aditi, Kashyapa begot Indra, Lord of Heaven and other Devas, who are collectively called ‘Suras’. Daityas, Danavas and Nagas, born to Diti Danu and Kadru, are collectively called as Asuras. Birds Aruna and Garuda are born to Vinata. Mythical species, such as Yakshas, Gandharvas, Kinnars, Kimpurushas, are born from other wives. (Note: According to legends Moon, the Lord of Night, married 27 daughters of Daksha, who are known by 27 star names of a month).
In Balinese scripture, she is a Hindu Goddess.
Irish Goddess ‘Dānu’, a cognate of Danu of Indo-European legends, is an aquatic Goddess.  The Goddess, mother of mystic warriors linked to Danu, is known as Ana, Anu or Annan in Wales.  In Avestian language, it denotes ‘river’.
Acharya David Frawley (Pandit Vamadeva Shastri) of American Institute of Vedic Studies, tells: “In fact, the term Danu or Danava (Plural of Danu) appears to form the substratum of Indo-European identity at the base of the Hellenic, Illyro-Venetic, Italo-Celtic, Germanic and Balto-Slavic elements.  The Northern Greeks were also called Danuni.  Therefore, the European Aryans could probably all be called Dānavas”.
Charles Squire says in his book “Celtic Myth & Legend” (page 31): “Danu herself probably represented the Earth and its fruitfulness. Other Gods are her children.  She is comparable to Greek Demeter.  She is source of essentials, like water, milk and corn”.
So, Danu is considered to stand for fertility, a Progenitor – a mother.  

Celtic Origin of Ireland
The cult of Danu reached Ireland with the Celtic people during Iron Age. The Celtic is the first language, having a bearing on Indo-European languages.  The Inhabitants are known as ‘Tuatha De Danann’, which means ‘People of the Goddess Danu’.
In Celtic religion, the Anu or Danu is Earth Mother goddess or the female principle, who was honoured under many names from Eastern Europe to Ireland.  She is also considered as the Goddess of Death.
In Celtic Society, priestly caste is known as ‘Druids’ (Dru+vid = one who is immersed in knowledge).

Matrilineal System
It is not a wonder why matriarchal custom prevailed in Mediterranean region and other Aquatic Mother concept practicing regions. The system thrived in Sindhu civilization and western coasts, especially in Tulu Nadu and other Eastern and Southern States.

Rivers named after Danu
As we know, water is the primeval matter, a flowing one.  From this meaning of ‘flowing one’, we can compare it to other rivers of the world:
Nepal: Danu, Bangla Desh: Dhanu, Wales: Don, Germany, etc: Danube. Russia & Ukraine: Dnieper, which finally debauches into Black Sea.
Eastern Europe: Dniester, passing first through Ukraine, then Moldova and finally heading to Black Sea., The name is based on Proto-Indo-European root ‘dnh’, meaning to run, to flow.
Danube is the longest river originating in Germany and passing through ten countries in Central and Eastern Europe – first through Ukraine, then Moldova and finally, heading to Black Sea. So, water mode of transport is very famous in these countries. It has been a major route for trade and tourismfrom Middle Ages.

Worship as Holy water
Our interpretation is confirmed by this study that ‘Nu/Noo’ has the root meaning of ‘water’ (i.e. a life force, a sustainer). Water is the medium of purification in most of the world cultures, especially in India, irrespective of primitive, tribal or civilized society.  In India, presence of seven major rivers is invokedby Sacred Mantra as under:
“Om Gange cha Jamune, chaiva Godavari, Saraswati, Narmada, Sindhu, Kaveri Jale’asmin sannidihim kuru”
(Let the Deities of Seven Rivers be present in the water inside Kalasha)
Celestial water is called Nnu or Nun (Goddess of water) in Egypt, comparable to Neera, Niharika (= Akashaganga) in Indian context. Also, the Egyptian meaning of ‘Nun’ is ‘flood’.  In adoration of Nile, it is the Deity of Heavenly water that is invoked as mythical source of life and not simply as the ‘flowing of water’.

We have traced an etymological connection. There must be some ethnical similarity owing to migrations out and in since ages.  Racial differences must have occurred on account of distance and ecological conditions.  Consider the vanishing of Nile Valley civilizations, Sumerian civilizations, Sindhu Valley civilizations and the so-called Dravidian and Aryan Divide, standing distinct compared to Western culture. In spite of this, certain ancient terminologies and customs are understood universally. This speaks volume of Universal oneness.

* * * *
Terms and their meanings
Mantra =Sacred Seed Syllables or Words, to be uttered to draw energy by repetition.  (There are different Mantras for different Gods)
Kalasha =Small Pot/vessel to keep water during Pooja, i.e. Worship of Gods.Earlier it was made of mud and later on,preferably Copper, as it can destroy virus and bacteria in water, which are detrimental to health.Immediately on getting up, drinkingof cold water, stored at bed-time in a copper mug/cup, is recommended by Ayurveda.
Wives of Kashyapa: Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arishta, Surasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavsha, Ira, Kadru, Vishwa, and Muni.
Suggested Reading:
·         Vedic  Origins of the Europeans:  The Children of Danu, David Frawley  (Pandit  Vamadeva Shastri)
·         The Sacred Isle – Belief & Religion in Pre-Christian Ireland, Daithi O’ Hogain (1999).
·         Gerald Massy:  (1) The Ark, the Deluge, & the World’s Great Year, (2) Ancient Egypt, Light of the World,  2nd Vol  set

-  Hosabettu   Vishwanath, Pune

Saturday, December 10, 2016

372. The Pickle in Tulu: UppaD

Making pickles has been considered as one of the oldest methods of preservation of essential foods in the world designed especially for seasons of scarcity. Pickles of different types are quite popular all over the world since ancient days.  Archeologists have suggested that the ancient Mesopotamians pickled as early as 2400 BC. It has been considered that around the year 2030 BC, cucumbers were brought from India and were pickled in the Tigris Valley. The event fostered   a tradition and technique of pickling in Mid-East which gradually spread to Europe and eventually to the West.
There are reports that United States of America alone consumes some 5.2 million pounds (about 235 Tonnes) of pickle per year. Pickles of cucumber are quite popular now in Europe and the West. Marinated pickles of gherkin (a variety of dwarf cucumber) are popular in the list of exports from India.
However in India pickles of raw Mango are most popular followed by lemon, chilly and many other varieties of vegetables and greens. Pickled raw mango with chilly-mustard-spice paste is quite popular in India. The pickle is known as “Achar” in Hindi areas. We find similar and related word “Achat” in South East Asian countries. In India currently, spicy pickles made of chilly, spices, mustard and oil are quite popular. In Karnataka the pickle is known as Uppinakāyi and in coastal Tulu areas it is known as Uppad (‘d’ pronounced as in dog). Other varieties like Avakai in Andhra Pradesh, Tokku in Tamilnadu,
Incidentally, the English word “pickle” was derived from the Dutch word ‘pekel ‘ or northern German “pókel,” meaning salt (or brine). The salt or the brine (salt solution) is an important component   in the pickling process. Hence, the pickling or the process of preserving perishable items (vegetables, fish etc) appear to have been invented in coastal areas that are proximity with sea which contains rich repository of  the brine solution. Further popularity of pickles also led to the use of vinegar (Acetic acid) and other sour solutions for the preservation instead of plain brine (Sodium chloride) solution.
Origin   and evolution of  UppaD
It can be visualized that in the ancient days in Tulunadu, the pickles were originally made in a solution of sea water (brine) and as the time progressed the common salt dissolved in water was used as a medium of pickling. It was and is known as UppaD ( D pronounced as in English word dog).
In ancient India, only the pepper was a common ingredient to make dishes ‘hot’ (“khara” as we call in native languages) in taste.  (It is unfortunate that the English language does not have an equivalent word exactly to convey the “khara” taste !) It is an interesting to note that the green and red chillies which are quite ubiquitous in our Indian dishes were introduced and imported into India only after 15th Century CE after the advent of Portuguese. Thus the “khara” version of Uppad which we are familiar now is among us only since last five centuries.
Ancient versions of Uppad
 The Tulu language has preserved specific ancient words for older version of pickles without chilly. The traditional words existing in rural Tulunadu such as “UppaD-(p)acchir” and “NeeruppaD” clearly identifies the ancient varieties of pickles in Tulunadu and other regions in the country.
Uppad-achhir (normally marinated pickle of jack fruit avrils/lobes) and Neer-uppad (watery pickle) of raw mango and a  variety of vegetables were quite popular in rural areas. The Jack fruit   (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) considered to be the worlds’ largest edible compound fruit, was a favorite ancient fruit in India.
The “Uppadacchir” is a pickle of unripe or moderately ripe jack fruits in brine solution (normally without the addition of   chilly and spices). The suffix “acchir” in this usage   is the short form of   “pacchir” which stands for the avrils (individual fruity lobes) inside the of jack fruit.
Etymology of Tulu Uppad
In Tulu language “Uppađ” (đ as in English word ‘dog’) is the equivalent world for the pickle. It would be interesting to explore the possible origin of the word Uppad especially for the sake of linguistic entertainment. The term Uppad can be analysed in two ways: (1) Uppu + ad (2) Uppu + pad.
In the first case ‘ad’ is a known morpheme of Dravidian heritage, which essentially means to cook or a dish. In the second case ‘pad’ is clearly a word of South East Asian origin or usage which again means a kind of dish. Since in Southern India (including coastal Karnataka) there are tangible evidences for imprints of ancient influence of both Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic cultures it is difficult to conclude at the outset whether it was Upp-ad or Upp-pad.
Morphemes ad and pād
The word   upp+ad   signifies a dish (‘ađ’) made of salt (‘uppu’). The Dravidian morpheme “ad” means to cook, as we find   ”adpini” (Tulu) for to cook ; adpil for kitchen; “ad-til” ( atil)  for cooking; adya or adde for cooked dish.  Similarly,  in Kannada “aduge” or “adige” for cookery etc. On the basis of sheer preponderance of words containing ad as a component, we can conclude that the etymology of Uppad is : Upp(u)+ad.
However there is another possible take in this word: Upp+pad. The ‘d’ again means a dish in South East Asian languages.  For example Pad Thai is a popular dish of Thailand which is a sort of stir fried rice with eggs shrimp etc. Similarly, “Nasi padang” is a rice dish of Western Sumatra, wherein the native word   “nasi “means the rice and “padang” a dish.
In Tulu Nighantu (Tulu Lexicon) we can find at least five shades of meaning for the word d. Such as (1)to keep or put (2) to sing or song (3) a state or condition (4) equality or impartiality and (5) the time interval between the arrival of two successive  waves in the beach.
Tulu being an ancient language it has absorbed words from different tribal languages during the course of its evolution. As a result of this absorption process phonetically similar sounding words but with different meanings, originally from different languages have survived and remained in Tulu.
Incidentally, there is a Tulu word known as da which means an oil bearing vessel. This particular usage apparently has some relation to the Thai word pad which means a stir fried dish. The process of stir frying basically needs oil.
 There is special word possibly connected with this discussion. The Padya refers to the first day of the lunar fortnight or the day following   a new moon or a full moon day. However, the etymology or origin of this particular word is not clear.
The day of Padya is normally associated with celebration or festivity as can be seen in the idiom padya parba. (For example: Bali-padya). Thus we can assume that pādya traditionally has been a designated day for preparing special dishes on account of recurring festivities.


Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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