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338. Tulu calendar begins with Pagu month

Even though now in routine most us follow the Western or Gregorian calendar that consist of twelve months commencing with January and en...

Saturday, September 10, 2016

364. ‘Kināra’ origin of ‘Canara’


The coastal districts of Karnataka were popularly known as “Canara districts” during Portuguese and British administrations in the region. The original Canara district was bifurcated into North Canara and South Canara. During the British regime, the North Canara was part of the Bombay Province and South Canara of Madras Province. The term Canara has been quite favourite with many locals as you can still come across name plate like Canara Motor Service, Canara Transport, Canara College, Canara Coffee or Canara Book shop etc.

Some of the people did not appreciate the term, “Canara” beginning with a foreign sounding C. They introduced the term “Kanara” that made “South Kanara” and “North Kanara” which were often abbreviated to “SK” and “DK” respectively. In the due course of time, nativity lovers, preferred to translate the terms “North Kanara” and “South Kanara” into chaste Kannada words such as “Uttara Kannada” and “Dakshina Kannada”respectively. With passage of time some administrators felt that Dakshina Kannada district is too large to handle and they carved out a separate Udupi district out of the former Dakshina Kannada district.
This is all are part of our history and heritage which most of are aware.
Now how the term Canara came into being?

Kināra districts
Many of us tend to believe that the term “Canara” means “Kanara” or “Kannada” because of the transformation of words along the passage of time. The general opinion is that Portuguese and the British because of their faulty pronunciation of Indian words and eventually corrupted the native words by introducing terms like Canara. While this opinion is partly true it has been found that the origin of Canara was not Kannada but less known Kināra.

Perooru Jāru
Tulu language activist and writer,    Perooru Jāru in his   booklet,    “Tulunaadu, notes that while Mysore Tiger Tippu Sultan annexed   the coastal districts to his kingdom, (during later part of 18th Century CE) he referred   to the coastal region as the Kināra. The term Kināra in Hindi and Urdu means the coast.
However, the Portuguese contenders who were vying for capturing the coastal region were not comfortable with the pronunciation of the word Kinara which unfortunately was corrupted to stylish,   “ Canara”! 

Canarese
The Kannada language was printed in the form of a news paper and also as a dictionary for the first time by Basel Mission Press in the 'Canara' region at Mangaluru and accordingly it seems that the Britishers preferred the name of 'Canarese' for the Kannada language !

On the whole, this case should serve as an recent example of how place names and regional names change their original form, content and meaning as a result of cultural transitions as well as unintentional mistakes during the course of time.

** **
Kināra: a word analysis

The word ‘kināra’ is composed of two ancient root word units or morphemes. The prefix ki is an ancient   spatial indicative affix, denoting an area. Nāra is another ancient word which means water. Therefore, kināra is sea beach or river bank; in other words, an area by the side of a water body. The ancient word exists in many of the languages.

R


Friday, September 9, 2016

363. Deciphering Tulu-nadu place names


The readers would observe that many of the Tulu Place names may not convey, on the face of it, any specific meaning or apparent meanings in the current language of the area.  This situation is true to all nations of the World.  Original meanings may either undergo changes or are lost completely. However, there are efforts worldwide to compile data on place names and arrange them in the form of dictionary. “Onomasticon” (fashioned after the word ‘Lexicon’) means a Dictionary of Place names.
Odd sounding names
A visitor to country-side may be fascinated perforce by the odd sounding place names but he may not be aroused to know the exact meanings or the origin of the name, unless the interpreted meanings are readily available.  Only a genuine interest to explore the mystery of such place names could go a long way in deciphering the meanings.  Survey Maps show names of all these geographical regions.  But surveyors or Government revenue officials are least interested in knowing the origin of these place names.  Borders and lines change and also with names, befitting the exigency.  Apparently, their interest is limited to allotting Cadastral Survey Numbers.
Toponymical Processes
Gradual changes taking place in place names are called toponymical processes, which affect the meanings.  The processes, by which place names change, include abbreviation, conflation, i.e. fusing together two things, convergence, development in the parent language (but static in place names) and replacement of the parent language.   The latter can, in particular, result in dramatic shifts in place names since the original meaning (and often sounds) are not conveyed in the new language.  The place name thus shifts to a new form, considered convenient for pronunciation in the new language (Testimony:  Changes in place names effected by colonial rulers of India. One can observe some names, corrupted by Portuguese rulers, are still current in Goa). 
Interpretation Problem
Problems in deciphering meanings of place names are many.  Wikipedia lists following seven problems:
(1) Language (e.g. Periodic change over from old to new and political influence of other languages). (2) Element Order in compound word (i.e. reversing of word elements.)
(3) Translation (e.g. In case of Tulu, rendering words into Kannada – eg: Posodi to Hosabettu, Karyodi to Karkala - or Sanskrit - eg. Odipu to Udupi).
(4) False analogy (e.g. Anglicization of Tulu names for easy pronunciation.  This is very well seen in British and Portuguese colonies).
(5) Lost Region (eg. Kudar  to Malpe, when original locations are lost to sea). 
(6) Confusion between elements (e.g. Pairs of original elements can produce the elements in modern names – Mangala+uru > Mangalore > Mangaluru.
 (7) Multiple meanings (Some word stems or elements may have many meanings – e.g. ‘Kar’ in Tulu).
Identity Marker
Life of settlers of an area is a history - whether recorded or not.  This can be analysed by studying the socio-political situation, conditioned by geography.  Changes - affected by languages, borders, political forces, social order resulting from faith and assimilation - are the handiwork of events and geography.  Genealogy becomes an admixture in the conundrum of social, political and natural upheavals.  Occupations change with human movements and/or climatic conditions.  Religion of one region may thrive in another area, conditioning it to the geography and environment of that area.  Toponym assumes the role of an identity marker, thereby enriching occupational vocabulary of language of that area.

Reference:


-Hosabettu Vishwanath (Pune)

Monday, August 29, 2016

362. Morphemes in Tulu place names

We have seen many a minimum meaningful linguistic units (morphemes) in Tulu place names. As has been explained elsewhere earlier, a place name is a compound word in majority of cases.  It contains specific and generic stems or elements, used either as a suffix or prefix.  Readers might have read such stems analysed in our previous Posts. We give below some of them for ready reference:
Ad, Ade, Adka, Adya, Agal, Al/ala, Ar/are, Ang/angal(a),/Angali/angana/angar, Anje/Anji/inje/unje, Bar/bari, Ban+ja/Ban+je, ba/va/ve, Er, Ja/je/Jar, Ga/gaum/gi, Goli, Had/hadi/pad/padi, Har, Ka/ki, Kanja, Kunja, Kodi/ Kodu/ Godi, Kar, Kuda, Kura, Kula/ Kola/ Kolambe, Kheta/ Kheda, Kal, Kona/Kone, Manja, Mal/Mala, Mad, Mi, Na/Ne, Nanja, Od/odi/oli, Ur/oor, Pally/halli/valli, Pad+pu, Pada+vu, Pu/pur, Sar/se, Ya and so on.

We have noted such place name cognates all over India and so also, abroad.  Apparently, this feature  is not a coincidence. (q.v. Post-209/12.10.2009: Dravidian place name cognates). 
Besides the strange names pointed out in our Post-123 (2nd July 2008), we have come across mysterious place names with morphemes such as ne, ji, nu, yi and ila.  These are found in place names such as: Nooyi, Nuji, Nej/Nejar, Laila and Koila.  Pending a deep study, we may tentatively explore these names briefly.
Nooyi: 
Nu/Noo denotes a place around, above or near water body.  ‘Yi” stands for a ‘place/area’ as is ‘ya’. Nooyi is a hamlet/locality of Gurpura Panchayat in Dakshina Kannada District.  One may recall the name of world famous career woman Indra K. Nooyi, born in Madras (now Chennai).  She is married to Krishnamurthy Nooyi of Karnataka.  We think that the surname ‘Nooyi’ is the birth place of Krishnamurthy.  Both are naturalized citizens of the USA now.

Nuji/Nooji:
Meaning of Nu/Noo is same as given above. “Ji/ja/je’ stands for ‘place/area’. It is a hamlet under Korgi Panchayat in Kundapur Taluka of Udupi District.  There is also a village ‘Nujibalthila in Puttur Taluk.

 Nejar/Nej(a):
Morpheme ‘Ne’means high or above and ‘jar’, a hanging or sloping place on hill side. Nejar is a hamlet, coming under Tonse East Panchayat of Kalianpur of Udupi Dist.  We have come across similar village names in some other places of Karnataka and other States:

Karnataka: Nej (Belgaum), Nejjur (Uttara Kannada) and Nejanthi (Tumkur).
Maharashtra: Nej (Kolhapur)
Gujarat: Neja (Anand)
Rajasthan: Nejpur (Dungarpur)
Uttar Pradesh: Nejabhari (Lucknow), Nejabhar (Bahraich)
West Bengal: Nejani (Birbhum)

'Neji' in Tulu means 'paddy seedlings'.  'Neji kanda' (=field earmarked for raising nursery plants of paddy) is essentially at a corner of field, where water is available for irrigation.  These nursery plants are used for transplantation in tilled farm land at appropriate time.

Laila: 
We can split the word as La+ila.  ‘La’ is universally known as ‘water’ (q.v. our Post on ‘Al/Ala’). ‘Ila’ = House or Settlement. Laila is a village in Belthangadi (See our Post-220 on Vasudeva Laila).

Koila:  Koi+la=Agricultural settlement around water bodies.  It may also mean a settlement of ‘Koi’ people.  However, it may be noted that   Kovil  in Tamil means a temple.

Conclusion
The influence of language and culture of earlier ancient tribes, who made their home in the land, now known as ‘Tulu Nadu’, some time in the past – pre-diluvial or post-diluvial era- is running under-current.  Though their civilization is lost and assimilated, the vestige of their existence is preserved in place names, which are hard to crack now. In this direction we here make an attempt to decipher and understand these odd place names.


Hosabettu Vishwanath (Pune)

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

361.ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತೊಡು


ತುಳುಟು ಒಂಜಿ ಪಾತೆರ ಉಂಡು: “ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತೊಂದು ಪೊಪೆ.” ಇಂದೆನು ಶಬ್ದ-ಶಬ್ದ  ಅರ್ಥ ಮಾಳ್ಪನಗ: “(ಆಯಿ ಕಂಡ) ದತ್ತೊಂದುಪ್ಪನಗನೆ ಬೀಜಲಾ ಬಿತ್ತಿಯೆ” ಇಂದುದು ಆಪುನು. ಉಂದು ರೈತೆರ್ನ ಬಳಕೆದ ಪಾತೆರ.  ಇಂದೊಂಜಿ ಒಗಟು ಪಾತೆರ. ನೆತ್ತ ಉತ್ತರ: ಬರೆಪಿನಿ.  ಇಂಚಿತ್ತಿನ ಏತೊ ಗಾದೆನುಲಾ, ಒಗಟು ಪಾತೆರಲಾ ತುಳು ನಿಘಂಟುಡು, ಶಬ್ದ ಪ್ರಯೋಗದ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆ ಕೊರುನಗ ಆಯಾಯ ಶಬ್ದದ ಅಡಿಟ್ ಸೇರ್ಸಾದೆರು.
ಬರೆಪಿನಿ ಪನ್ಪಿನ ಉತ್ತರೊಗು ರೈತೆರ್ನ ದಪ್ಪುನ ಕೆಲಸದ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆ ದಾಯೆಗು ಕೊರ್ತೆರು?  ಇಂದೆತ ಪಿರವುದ  ಮಲ್ಲ ಕಾರಣ ದಾನೆ? ನೆಲನು ಮೆದು ಮಾಳ್ಪೆರಾದು ದಪ್ಪುವೆರು, ಪನ್ನಗ ನಾಯೆರ್ಡು ಗೀರು ಪಾಡುವೆರು. ಅದಗ ನೀರು ಬೊಕ್ಕ ಗಾಳಿ ನೆಲತ ಉಳಾಯಿ ಪೋವರೆ ಸುಲಭ ಆಪುನು.  ದತ್ತಿ ಬೊಕ್ಕ ದಿಂಜ ದಿನ ಬುಡುಂಡ ನೆಲ ಗಟ್ಟಿ ಆಪುನು, ಪಜೀರು ಬುಳುವೆನು. ನಡ್ತಿನನೇಜಿ ಸರಿಯಾದು ಬೇರ್ ಪತ್ತಂದು.  ರಡ್ಡ್ ಸರ್ತಿ ದಪ್ಪುನ ಕೆಲಸಲಾ  ಕಷ್ಟದ ಕೆಲಸ.
ನಮ್ಮ ಬೊಂಡು (ಮೆದುಳು) ಕಂಡ ಆಂಡ, ಅವೆನು ದಪ್ಪುನು, ಹದ  ಮಾಳ್ಪುಣು ನಮ ಕಲ್ತಿನ ಬರವು-ಸರವು, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ವಿಚಾರ ಶಕ್ತಿ.  ನಮ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲಾ ಜೀವನೊಡು  ಒಂಜಿ ಉದ್ದೇಶ ದೀವೊಂದುಲ್ಲಾ.  ಈ ಲೋಕೊಡು, ನಮ ನೆನೆತಿನ ಪೂರ್ಣ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿ ವಿಕಸನನೇ ನಮ್ಮ ಬದುಕು.  ದಾಯೆಗು ಬದುಕುವ ಪನ್ಪಿನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗುಲಾ ಉತ್ತರ.
ಈ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆನು  ನಮ ಓದುನೆಕ್ಕುಲಾ ಜೋಡಿಸರಾಪುನು.  ಓದಿನಂಚನೆ ಬರೆದು ದೇತ್ತೋನ್ಡ ನಮಕು ಮದತ್ ಪೋಪುಜಿ.  ಓದುದು ಗೊತ್ತಾಯಿನ ಇಸಯೊಡು ಬೇತ ಬರಾವುಲಾ ಬರೆವೊಲಿ.  ಆಯಕಾತ್ರ, ಶಾಲೆಗು ಪೊಪಿನ ಜೋಕುಲೆಗುಲಾ ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಬರೆಪಿನ  ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ  ಮಾಳ್ಪವೊಡು.  ಅಪಗ ಕಲ್ತಿನ ಪೂರಾ ಮದತು ಪೋವಂದು. 
ಇಂಚೊಡು, ನಮ ಒಂಜ ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್ಡು ಘೋಷ ವಾಕ್ಯೊನ್ ಕೇಣೊದುಲ್ಲಾ. “ಇನ್ಫಾರ್ಮ್ (ತೆರಿ), ಪರ್ಫೊರ್ಮ್ (ಮಾಳ್ಪು), ಅನ್ದ್ (ಬೊಕ್ಕ) ಟ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ಫೊರ್ಮ್ (ಪರಿವರ್ತನೆ ಮಾಳ್ಪು).  ನಮಕು ನಮನೆ ತೆರಿಪಾವೊಣುಡು. ಆಯಿಕ್ ಓದುಡು, ಬೇತೆ ಜನಕುಳೆಡ ಬೆರೆವೊಡು, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ತೆರಿಯೊಡು. ತೆರಿನಂಚನೆ ಅವೆನು ಕಾರ್ಯರೂಪೊಗು ತರೋಡು, ತೋಜಪಾವೊಡು,ಬೊಕ್ಕ ನಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಂತ ಜೀವನೊಡು ಅತ್ತಾವಂದೆ ಸಮಾಜೋಡುಲ ಬದಲಾವಣೆನು ಕನೋಡು.
ಬೂಕುಲೆನ್ ಓದುನೆಟ್ಟು ನಾನಲ ಒಂಜಿ ಎಡ್ಡ ಉಂಡು. ಓದನಗ ತಿಕ್ಕುನ ಒವ್ವೊ ಒಂಜಿ ಸಬುದ ಯಾ ಒಂಜಿ ವಿಷಯ ನಮ್ಮ ಮನಸ್ಗು ತಟ್ಟುನು.  ಆ ಪದ ವಾ ವಿಷಯ ನಮ್ಮ ಚಿಂತನೆಗ್ ಚಾಲನೆ ಕೊರ್ಪುನು.  ಆ ಭಾವ ಸ್ಪಂದನೊಡು ಉಂಡಾಯಿನ ಭಾವನೆನು ಅಪಗಪಗನೆ ಬರೆದು ದೀಂಡ, ಕಾಲ ಕೂಡ್ಡು ಬನ್ನಗ ನಮಲಾ ಒಂಜಿ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಪ್ರಕಾರದ ಬುಲೆ ಮಲ್ಪೆರ ಸಾಧ್ಯ ಆವು.
ಇತ್ತೆತ್ತ, ಮೂಲ್ಕಿ ಬಪ್ಪನಾಡು ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನದ ಎದುರು ಬಯಲಿಡು ರಡ್ಡ್ ದಿನತ ತುಳು ಸಮ್ಮೇಳನ ಮುಗಿದಿನು (ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ 13 ಬೊಕ್ಕ 14).  ತುಳುಟು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಬುಲೆ ದಿಂಜ ಆತಿಜಿ ಪನ್ಪಿ ಕಾರಣ ಕೇಂದ್ರ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಆಕೆಡೆಮಿದಕುಳ್ ತೋಜಾವೆರು. ಅಂಚಾದು ತುಳು ಶಾಸ್ಟ್ರೀಯಭಾಷಾ ವರ್ಗ 8ನೆಡು (ಕ್ಲಾಸಿಕಲ್ ಲ್ಯಾನ್ಗ್ವೇಜಸ್ ಷೆಡ್ಯೂಲ್ 8) ಸೇರ್ಪಡೆ ಆತಿಜಿ.  ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ ಪದಿನೇಳೆಡ್ ಬೊಕ್ಕ  ತುಳು ಪ್ರತಿನಿಧಿ ಮಂಡಳಿನು ನನ್ನೊಂಜಿ ಸರ್ತಿ ದೆಹಲಿಗು ಕಡಪುರ್ನ ಪಾತೆರ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಥಳ ಧರ್ಮಾಧಿಕಾರಿ ಡಾಕ್ಟರ್ ವೀರೇಂದ್ರ ಹೆಗ್ಗೆಡೇರು ಆರೆನ ಭಾಷಣೆಡ್ ಪಣ್ತೇರ್. ತುಳು ಬರವುಡು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯಿಕ  ಬುಳೆಚ್ಚಿಲು ಬುಳೆವೊಡಿಂದು ನಮ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲಾ ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತುಗುನ!
ತುಳುವೆರೆಗಾತ್ರ:
ಬರೆತಿನಾರ್: ಹೊಸಬೆಟ್ಟು ವಿಶ್ವನಾಥ್, ಪುಣೆ.

16.08.2016

Saturday, August 13, 2016

360. Origin of words: Bari and Kepulo

Ancient words in any language are like fossils and can be useful in understanding the mysteries of antiquity. Ancient words in Tulu language similarly provide us useful hints that enlighten factors relating to the origin and evolution.
Linguists have traced dual features of south central and southern Dravidian trends of evolution in Tulu language ( ref:) though there has not been clear explanation of this duality. Earlier posts in this blog have identified and explored explicit evidences of an Austro-Asiatic base of Munda group of language under the Dravidian linguistic heritage in the evolution of Tulu language.
Ancient words like paggu (=first month in Tulu calendar), tude (=river), tāri (=toddy palm), urdu(=black gram)……. etc apart from numerous place names in Tulunadu that still carry  a prefix of Munda- or manki or related words –are all suggestive of an explicit undercurrent of an older layer of Adi-Dravida or pre-Dravida traditions in this land, before the onset of  Dravidian phase of socio-cultural and linguistic evolution.
Relicts of ancient Austro-Asiatic Munda culture and language still exist in Eastern and North eastern India. Bengalis and Odiyas sport such ancient words as Desi in their languages.
Let us discuss two of such ancient desi words, surviving in Bengali language, struck me because of their significance in the evolution of Tulu language and culture here below:
Bari
Bari is a very common word in Tulu language representing genetic lineage of person. It was used traditionally to identify a person and distinguish him or her from persons of other lineages especially in matrimonial proposals.  Persons from the same bari were considered traditionally to be blood relatives among whom marriage was a taboo. Bari is alternately known as bali, gotra, bedagu or illam in other socio-cultural groups. The origin of bari or gotra system predates the introduction of caste based communities as we discussed in an older post.
The analogy between the words bari (Tulu) and bali (Kannada) earlier led us to suggest that bari was an alternate form of the word bali (balli) which usually meant a plant creeper. The Tulu word bari at present means a side or margin. The meaning was adopted by some since it approximately conveys the connotation of a lineage.
However, the understanding that bari is a desi word of Austro-Asiatic origin existing in Bengali suggests fresh dimension of origin and meaning to the Tulu word bari.  The word bari of Austro-Asiatic origin means home in Bengali.
 Thus it is possible that the heritage word bari in existing in Tulu language means the name of the home or the original house of person. In ancient cultures a person was identified by the name of his home. In this way it appears synonymous with the term illam (=home) used by Malayalis or gotra (name of cowshed) used by cowherds in northern India during the ancient history   for lineage.
Pulo
In the same vein we can see that the word pulo means a flower in Bengali. We can compare pulo with phool in Hindi.
Kepulo
A red colored wild flower (usually occurring as a bunch of flowers or inflorescence) commonly seen in rural settings is known as kepulo or kepula.  We can understand the origin of the name of this wild red flower as it is ke+pulo,  where ke represents red and pulo means  flower.
We also may understand that with passage of time, the original pulo has been reduced to poo (= flower) and the original ke has become kempu (=red).


Significance

Tulu language has absorbed words from Austro-Asiatic and other pre-existing   languages during the prolonged course of evolution.  Many of these words are pre-Dravidian in nature, and the presence of such ancient words in contemporary Tulu suggests partial or selective socio-cultural assimilation of ancient tribes with Dravidians during the history. This explains the basic reason for the exposition of dual South-central and Southern Dravidian   linguistic trends in the evolution of Tulu language.

R

Sunday, May 1, 2016

359. Āyana, Nema & Kola – II


The pattern of different rituals offered for different Divine Spirits as a part of Spirit worship (Daivaradhane) are distinct from one deity to another. The essential differences are  brought out below.
We summarized the general comments, made by Narayana A. Bangera (NAB) during our conversations on our Post-350: Kāle & Kāle Kola, in our Post-352/31.10.2015: Kola & Nema: The Distinction.
Subsequently, we received a brief Note in Kannada in November. Though this writer wanted bringing it to the knowledge of our readers, he lost himself in a stupor on being engrossed on subject of ‘Dhoomavati’. We now give a gist of the written note of NAB as a dilation of the earlier Post-352.
Manifested God-forms
Annual celebrations of God- manifestations are called as Jaatre or Aayana.  They are performed on specific days as pre-fixed.  Designated performers are from Parava caste. 
Aayana Highlights: Flag hoisting (kodi mara eruni). Pulling of cart (bandi)  with deity on board. No circumambulation with ‘badikara (an earthen pot containing auspicious things) and ‘bolgode/bolkode’ (white umbrella). There was a custom of circumambulating of the deity in a palanquin, on āne (elephant) or Nandi (bullock) around temple.

Wearing:  Spades of   arecanut to legs, girders for the waist, crown or head-dress to head.
Wearing not included: Gaggara (Jingling anklets). Siri (coconut palm fronds) and muga (mask).
Offerings: No animal sacrifice. Sacrificial food is vegetarian in the form of broiled or puffed up paddy/rice with jaggery, along with tender coconuts.  This offering is accepted by impersonator of the divine spirit. So these things are the ‘Barne’ (food for eating) for the impersonators as a token of offering to respective deities.

·       Ullaya:  He is the manifestation of Lord Eeshwara.  Fixed days are: Beshada (May-June) Sankranti (Vrishabha Sankramana).  It falls on either 14th or 15th of May.  This year it falls on 14th May.  (See our Post-292/30.12.2011: Fishing Rituals at Kandevu).
·       Nalkaitaya: Manifestation of Vishnu.  Annual celebration is on Mayida Punname (Full moon day of  Feb-March).
·       Bermer:  Manifestation of Brahma.  Annual celebration is on ‘Bontyoluda pattu popinani’, i.e. on 10th day of Tulu month of ‘Bontyolu’ (Oct.-Nov).   The Brahma temple at Palli, near Udupi, Karnataka is very famous.  It was renovated and consecrated on 14th May, 2009.
Nemas for Rajan Daivas
Nemas are performed on specific days, prefixed. It may be noted that divine spirit impersonators are from ‘Pambada’ class of dancers. Annual celebration is with all customary rituals, siri shringara, wearing gaggara, and Muga/Moga (= mask of the deity). ‘Badikara’ and ‘Bolgode’ Balis (= circumambulations) are very much part of the celebration. Animal sacrifice is allowed.
1. Jarandaya & Kodamandaya: They are deified souls of  Jain Kings. Eru Kodi (Flag-hoisting) and ‘Oipu Bandi’ (Circumambulation on carts pulled by devotees) are highlights of the Annual Nema.
2. Jimaadi: She manifested herself as a boon bestowed upon Jaabaali Rishi on his rigorous penance.NAB says that ‘Jumaadi’ and ‘Dhoomavati’ are wrong nomenclatures. It should be ‘Jimaadi’, a shortened version of Jeeva (rashi’s) Aadi, i.e. the Supreme Soul of Divine Mother and the lord of individual (egoistic) souls of all creatures of this world (supposed to be 84 lacs Jivikotis of various categories or classes).  She has a male’s face with woman’s body.  She is known by different names after her famous devotees.  She is known as ‘Sarala Jimaadi’ in the household of Saralantaya, Kanteri Jimaadi in Kantu Rai’s House and Maarla Jimaadi at Aithu Maarla.
Sometimes, Kola celebration is performed at Gadupadu or Gaduvadu places on fixing a day with all rituals (of wearing deity’s mask, siri shringra, gaggara, etc)but without Kodi (Flag-hoisting) and Bandi (Cart-circumambulating) rituals.
Note: As a popular belief, Jimaadi or Dhoomavati is equated to Parvati.  Our preconception was that She is ‘Ardhanarishwara’.  We may come out with a new Post on Dhoomavati after further study.
3. Babbarya
It is not ‘Bobbarya’.  The correct name is ‘Babbarya (Bappa+Aarya). Supposed to be the reincarnation of Ayyappa Shastara, he comes to the rescue of women under distress as Vishwadeva Shastara protected Sachi, the Spouse of Lord Indra, from the cluches of Ajamukhi, sister of Mahishasura. He is not Byari (Muslim) as is believed in Kasaragod side (For better understanding readers may read NAB’s article ‘Babbana Babbarya’, published in Mogaveera Monthly, Mumbai, of January to March 2009). Non-vegetarian food is not offered to the Deity. Vegetarian food is made of rice flour, sweetened by jaggery, and baked on-the-spot on cinders at the place of worship.  Offering is called as ‘Dāne’ or ‘Dhanya’ (Read our Post-198/11.07.2009: Bridge on mud-crack). 
Please note: ‘Nema’ is observed on pre-fixed days at the Babbarya Temple (= Gunda, a round-shaped rock structure).  No flag-hoisting, no circumambulation on a ‘bandi’ (wooden cart).  The divine spirit impersonator does not wear ‘Siri’ (Split coconut leaf fronds).  He wears silken cloth around loin but does not wear muga/moga (mask) nor   ‘sirimudi (= head gear).
4.Other Divine Spirits
There is no pre-decided day for celebration in the form of Kola to other divine spirits, including Panjurli (NAB opines that, ‘Panjirli’ is the correct version), Kalkude, Kordabbu, Gulle, Raavu, Koragajja, Mayandal, etc.  There is no Kodi or Bandi.  The stages of invocation, like Siri ecchi,  gaggarada ecchi, etc. are there.

Glossary
Bārane leppuni (ಬಾರನೆ ಲೆಪ್ಪುನಿ) = Seeking permission to accept food offered. It is a ritual of addressing the organizers of the Bhūta festival and blessing them by Bhūta impersonator before accepting the food offered.
For other related words, please see our Posts:
No.250/20.08.2010: From Ola Savari, Olasari to Varasari.
No.233/20.03.2010: Panjurli
No.306/13.12.2012: Mayandal and other Posts on Divine Spirits

Acknowledgement:
This post is based on the information provided by Vidwan Shri. Narayana  A. Bangera, for which  we are immensely thankful.
*****

Narayana A Bangera:  A profile
A Commerce Graduate and retired as Manager in Air-India, NAB is a prolific writer, poet, kirtankar, discourser on Shani Mahatmya, Shri Satya Narayana Vrita Katha, and Puranas. Besides, he was a teacher in Night High Schools, Kannada Professor in College and is a well-known celebrity   in Mumbai.  On completion of 75 years of his fruitful life, he was felicitated by a group of admirers and Associations of Tulu-Kannada diaspora of Mumbai on 2nd April, 2016 at Karnataka Sangha’s Dr. Vishwesharayya Smaraka Sabhagriha, Matunga (West), Mumbai-400016. To mark the occasion, an Abhinandana Grantha entitled “Krishnarpana”.has been brought out. 


-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Saturday, April 2, 2016

358. Sayer or Sayir– a lingual relic of commerce of yore


Words travel with people and reach different shores and often strangely enter into world lexicons, as a result of their common usage in daily activities by concerned class of people.  Travelogues and trade communications spread their usage.  A layman may fail to understand their meaning and importance.  Sometimes, their meanings – once traceable in their origins – are mixed up to such an extent that they are far moved away from their source.  Confusion leads to a lot of discussions for finding out what that expression really means.

Sayer(a) or Sayir(a)
We have discussed some antiquarian words, say Al, Amara, Bhandashale or Bankshal (in European corrupted parlance), Bankarakatte, Chakan, Gadang, Jambal, Jangar or Jangal, Kāle, etc.
Sayer(a) or Sayir(a) is one more addition to the array of such antiquarian words. It was a word, pestering Europeans in land and marine trade during pre-colonial and colonial era. Advent of this word in European languages created confusion to young European officers serving in India on their new postings. It has been found to be a common surname world over with highest incidence in Turkey.

Etymology
Note the situation, described in Para one: it is aptly applicable to the word: ‘Sayer’ (ಸಾಯರ್), Sayira (ಸಾಯಿರ) or syre (ಸೈರ್).  It is supposed to have originated from the Arabic word saa’ir : but it has the primary meaning of ‘remainder’ in Arabic.  By and large, we have reason to believe that it is an Indian word since it was widely used in India during ancient marine trade as well as inland trade. We infer that the word has bearing on the origin of related words like savari, sarthavaha, sanchara, pravasa; saraku, saramjambu and sarabarayi.
This was a commercial term, known in the trade world of yore.  It means a tax or customs imposed on imports and exports by competent authority at territorial borders.

Saysira & Sayira in Tulu:
The phrase ‘Aruve Saysira’ during the history used to mean marine department and sea customs.  ‘Aruve Sayira Katte’ stands for ‘Customs House’ (Tulu Lexicon, p.162;  Post-334: Secret of Ambagilu). In Tulu, it is also known as ‘Sunkada Katte’. Katte is a place at regional borders or market area to collect passage tax or toll (sunka= seema shulka, akin to present day ‘octroi duty’) for goods and services.   ‘Sukka’ means Customs in Pali/Prakrit. We presume, Place names ‘Saukuru’ near Basrur in Kundapura (Udupi District) and Sukkur in Sindh (now in Pakistan) suggest existence of custom houses there in ancient time.
We know, ‘ira’ means ‘water or river’. Naturally, such tax collection centres are found at river estuaries or sea ports (pattanas), hinter-land cities (Nagire>Nagara and Puras).  Mark the word element ‘Naga’, which means both boat and ornaments of precious metals and gems, besides ‘high place like mountain’.
Mark the behavioral pattern (barring exceptions) of yester year-tax/duty collectors! There is a wise saying in Tulu about such Kattes. ಸುಂಕದಾಯ ಕೈತಲ್ ಸುಖ-ದುಃಖದಾನೆ? (Sunkadaaya kaital sukha dukkha daane?.  It means:  What is the use of discussing about our weal or woe before a tax collector?).  He goes by the rules and may not bend it after hearing the plight of goods-carrier or passenger.  Forget not, this saying was coined when people were generally truthful and faithful!

Sair (सैर) in Hindi:
It means: Outing, trip or pleasure trip, excursion, tour, jaunt, spin, run, ramble, sortie.   So ‘Sair Karna’ (सैर करना) means visiting. (Source: Pustak.org or dict.hinkhoj).
Sairandhri (सैरंध्रि) = Visiting Maid servant.
It also means voyager or traveler.  Sairgaha(सैरगहा) means a resort.

Sarthavaha
It has many shades of meaning, viz.: (1) A group of pilgrims on pilgrimages. (2) A group of merchants or traders moving together with their valuable produce or goods (Sarth) to deal in far-away markets.  The journey is undertaken with protection of a leader or conductor, who is called as ‘Sarthavaha’, being himself a merchant in a particular trade or profession. He is assisted by well-coordinated team of specialists, as described elsewhere in this article.

Meanings in European Vocabulary
Quoting several sources, Hobson-Jobson Dictionary offers explanations. The word Sayer/Syre, is used for taxation and imposts except land revenue on several items of taxation.  It is a Hindi word derived from Arabic word saa’ir.  With the help of Sir H. Waterfield of India Office, the authors tried to find out ‘transitions’ of meaning in Arabic words. They say, “The obscurity attached to the word ‘sayer’ in this sense was especially great.”
It quotes again Wislon s.v.: “In its original purport the word signifies moving, waking, or the whole, the remainder; from the latter it came to denote the remaining, or all other, sources of revenue accruing to the Government in addition to the land-tax”.
Sir C. Trevelyan says in one passage of his book (not reproduced by us) that the Arabic word has “the same meaning as ‘miscellaneous’.  During rule of East India Company, this was an Accounting Head, signifying revenue collection by means of duties, license fees, services, etc. other than Excise, Land Revenue.
Both the explanations for ‘remainder’ and ‘miscellaneous’ were not considered correct by the compilers. 
The term Sayer in the 18th Century was applied to a variety of inland imposts, but especially to local and arbitrary charges levied by zamindars and other individuals, with a show of authority, on all goods passing through their estates by land or water, or sold at markets (Bazar, haut, gunge) established by them, charges which formed in the aggregate an enormous burden upon the trade of the country.
The Dictionary brings home the fact that in “saa’ir two old semitic terms have coalesced in sound though coming from different roots, viz. (in Arabic) sair, producing sa’ir, walking, current’, and saa’r, producing saa’ir, ‘remainder’, the latter being a form of the same word that we have in the Biblical Shear-jashub, ‘the remnant shall remain’ (Isaiah, vii.3).  The authors conceived that the true sense of the Indian term was ‘current or customary charges’; an idea that lies at the root of sundry terms of the same kind in various languages, including our own (British) customs, as well as the ‘dustoory’ which is so familiar in India”. 
The Indian Vocabulary (1788) describes: Sairjat as “All kinds of taxation besides the land-rent” and Sair as “any place or office appointed for the collection of duties or customs.” Such Sayer or Sayir centres were functioning in Presidencies of Bengal, Madras and Bombay under the British before superseding the East India Company by Queen of England Victoria. After the 1857 rising of Indian natives, India came under the yoke of British Empire and present day custom houses came into being.

Trading History
Marine trade in India has a hoary past, say from Sindhu Civilization or earlier, in which Sarthavahas played an important part. There is some mention of it in Vedas. Later on, we find mention of it in Jain and Buddhist literature. Examples of contacts with Western and Eastern coasts are available in Indian Classics. Researched materials are documented in modern books on subjects like social, geographical, political, religious and trade and travel. Foreign travelers and geographers’ books also throw light on contacts with continents. We have proof of earliest explorers and travelers as cited in Bible and Rigveda.  King Soloman (c. 900 BC) got built boats with the help of his friend Hiran, King of Phoenix, who loaned his seamen to run the fleet of Soloman.  There were marine trades between Red Sea Ports and Port at Mediterranean.  He also traded with Tharsish (South Eastern Spain) and Ophr at western coast of Africa.  Carthage was a sea power in the Western mediterrean upto its downfall after the disastrous war with Rome.
Pharoah Necho II of Egypt (around c. 700 BC) was the initiator of cutting a navigable canal from Nile to Red Sea, which was intended to facilitate trade between Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.  He stopped work on the fear of attack from Babylonians and other nations around Mediterranean sea.
Navigable rivers helped international trade. Internal trade was by road and through rivers. Nau or yanapatra (boat/ship) patha (route) is known  as nadi patha (river route), kulya patha (artificial waterway or canal route) and vari patha (sea route).   Sea route, in turn, is known as coastal route (kula patha) and overseas route (samyana patha).
Nishkas (necklace of coins, not necessarily a numistic money), hiranya pindas (buttons of gold, i.e. bullion beaten, roundish) and manas were considered weight and value but not gold coins.  Panis were boat people, hated by Vedic people for their miserliness. They used to steal cattle of Aryans.  Cattle or cattle horn were considered as wealth (dhan). It was a means of exchange on a barter system of that age when symbol of money, i.e. currency coin (Roopa), was not in vogue.
The Rigveda mentions ninety navigable rivers.  Important routes are: (1) Ganges-Mahodhadhi (Bay of Bengal), (2) Brahmaputra-Bay of Bengal), (3) Mahanadi-Bay of Bengal, (4) Godavari-Bay of Bengal, (5) Krishnā-Bay of Bengal, (6) Kaveri-Bay of Bengal, (7) Indus (Sindhu)-Ratnakara (Arabian Sea), (8) Narmada-Ratnakara (Arabian Sea), (9) Euphrates-Persian Gulf river route, (10) Nile-Mediterrean river route, and (11) Huang Ho-Pacific Ocean route.  River and sea routes provided facilities to people of Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and other important commercial cities of the region in circa 3000 BC.
Traditional routes paved way to well-laid out roads, connecting Uttarapatha (Northern India) to Dakshinapatha (Southern India) and Poorvanta (Eastern end) to Aparanta (Western end) and came to be known as silk route.  These roads have lanes catering to pedestrians, bullock carts, horse, camel or elephant riders and horse-driven cars (Raths).

System of Sarthavahas:
Caravan of merchants or the leader of caravan traders, is guided by a sthalaniyamaka (land guide/pilot). Head merchant or transit corporation head (Sarthavaha) has had to provide for food supplies required more than sufficient for the long journey.  He engages ‘Bharavahas’, i.e. menial labourers for manual loading and unloading and traffic section staff. These labourers, mostly slaves as is vogue in those days, settled down at various places with their masters.     Head traffic staff is called ‘Odariya’. They work under the supervision of Sthalaniyamaka, who lies on mattress on the open wagon on the vanguard of the caravan and keeps watchful eye on the direction, without batting his eyelids.  If he sleeps and if animals turn back, the journey would take longer time before correcting course, resulting in depletion of food supplies (Such eventualities were narrated in Jataka stories).  Next, he is assisted by vehicle engineering staff, headed by a ‘Bhandi (Nayak)’, who is the supervisor-in-charge of carts and wagons, pack of animals, litters, horses, elephants, buffaloes, bullocks, etc. Security branch of Sartha had a roadways engineering department which ensured road safety by sending engineering staff in advance to checkup road conditions and to have knowledge of other dangers from men and beast while crossing the forest areas.
Shreni’ is the general term for guild of traders.  It is customary to form guilds for each professionalized trades in those days. Epigraphic-evidence shows that guilds not only minted and issued coins and seals but also maintained their own militia, which was known as ‘Shrenibala’ according to Kalachurya inscription.
Indus valley civilization (of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa people) was ruled by cosmopolitan merchant class of Meluha – both Avaidik and Vaidik. They had trade with Mesopotamia, Egypt, Byzantine/Rome empire, Persia, Africa, China, etc.
Scripts in Indus seals and tablets have remained a challenge to Indologists to decipher.  Though many have professed decoding them, it is not fully deciphered satisfactorily still.  In Post-316 (: Jangal…Jangad) we have quoted Dr. S. Kalyanaraman of Saraswati Centre on Indus script corpora & business transactions. German Indologist Egbert Richter Ushanas claimed to have decoded 1000-odd seals ( Indian Express, 16th February, 2007).  His path-breaking decoding is based on the Sumerian and Brahmi script. He quotes Sanskrit from Rigveda. Similar claims were made by a several other scholars.
Custom laws and procedure were crystallized during the Mauryan rule and hence the system prevailed then is considered as the basis for the present day customs.  Arthashastra of Kautilya (c. 300 BC) imposed strict adherence of rules and regulations. It recommended harsh punishments for false declaration of goods, quantity, weight, etc.  General rate was 20% for all goods except sea customs and land customs.  Foreign traders were treated well.  Gupta rule was considered as golden era with their encouragement for international marine trade.  Besides land rent, they imposed duty on agricultural produce and other services. Vijayanagara Empire held sway over ports on western and eastern coasts, then followed by Ikkeri Nayaks and Mysore Sultans. Moguls followed the same rule.
Prior to colonization, sayer or sunkadakattes (collection chowkeys) collected transit duties.  Incoming and outgoing goods used to bear seal of authorities for ensuring legitimacy and preventing threat from pilferage or substitution.  Modern type of custom houses established at Fort Williams during the rule of Nawaz of Bengal.  Military and Naval force from Madras was requisitioned by him against the threat of Burdwan landlord.  After Battle of Plassey, Robbert Clive,Governor of Fort Williams, built a new Fort in 1781.  British established themselves in Bengal, Madras, Delhi, Mumbai, Mysore and slowly whole of India, barring some pockets of Dutch, French and Portuguese trading posts.
Guilds were at liberty to act in whatever manner but at times kings could interfere, as we see during the era of Gupta Empire. A mention of this is made in Kautilya’s Arthashastra too. There was no fixed price and measurement and hence varied from place to place, even during Gupta period when marine trade was in its peak. 
We have come across persons with surname ‘Shreni’   in Mangalore-Kasaragod region of Tulu Nadu (For example, Gopala Krishna Shreni was a well-known Yakshagana artist).  This indicates how erstwhile Tulu Nadu was well-entrenched in sea and inland trade.
It would be interesting to note that Shetties were addressed at Nemas (annual festivals) of Divine Spirits as ‘Bāle or Bāler’ by Bootha impersonators at some places of Tulu Nadu.  From this, it could be concluded that those Shrenibalas, accompanying the Sarthavahas, settled down in Tulu Nadu. 
Note the saying, “Bele daanti achari baleda pukuli or pinkanu kettiye” (Idling carpenter, without work, chiseled the buttock of a child).  Artisans, like carpenters (Acharis), were part of the caravans.  Here ‘bāle’ has more than one meaning: child, keel of a boat or a Shetty. As against the popular meaning as said above, the correct meaning of the saying, most probably, is “The jobless carpenter passed his time by chiseling the keel of a boat, thereby putting lives and properties of voyagers at risk of drowning”.

Important Ports
Tamralipta was an important port at Bengal Delta. Karachapa (Karachi) in Sindh, Bharuch (during Mauryan era), and small and big river estuaries were important sea ports along the West coast. Basrur (near Kundapura), Bhatkal, Barkur and Kalyanpura (at the estuary of Seeta and Suvarna rivers) Pangara(>Hangara) Katte (port with boat building facilities), Udyavara, Mulki, Mangaluru, Manjeshwara, Bekal and Kasaragod were important sea ports of yester year Tulu Nadu.
Goods traded: Rice, coconuts, sugarcane, spices, tamarind, timber, betel leaves, silk, cotton, wool, sea products (pearls, cowries, conches (shank), sea shells, fish, etc.),precious gems, like lapis lazuli, gold and silver ornaments, base metals, camphor, pottery and so on.

Trade Terminology
Apanika: shop-keeper, retailer
Naigama: A trader belonging to a professional body of merchants.
Pānis were important merchant class when cattle were traded or they are treated as units of money in barter trade system.  Mark the evolution of Panis: Panis>Panikas>Vanikas>Vaishyas. Later on Vaishyas were considered as third rung of society in class system.
Panya:  General commodities
Shreshti/Setti/Chetti: Immensely rich merchant, often as financier and investor in business and usurer.
Vaidehakas: Petty traders, mostly peddlers.
Hatta:  Market place (Mark the place name ‘Hattiangadi’ in Tulu Nadu).
Large market centres: Pura, Pattana and Nagara/Nakhara (Nakre) and Velakula (port). It should be understood that they are riverine places.
Amil : Land revenue.  (Amaldar used to mean assistant revenue collector or Assistant Commissioner).  Amil is also a popular surname in Gujarat   and among Muslim.
Amaram: Territory allocated to the military chiefs .  

Banjara:  Banjara merchant, specializing in carrying (caravan) trade, particularly in grains, salt, cattle . (The surnames Banjan, Bunnu or Bunnan among Billavas might be a reflection of 'Banjara')

Place Names
Mark the evolution of Pan to Ban, Van, Banija>Vanija.  Settlement of marine traders were known by place names in Tulu Nadu, such as Pangarakatte > Hangarakatte, Padu Panambur (Near Haleyangadi), Panambur (on the northern bank of River Phalguni, Pandeshwar in Mangalore and Kundapur.  

Gods of Ocean
Presence of Lord Pashupati (Mahadeva) and Lord Krishna as Protectors is legendary in western coastline.  We can also visualize overlord-ship of Bhrigu and his clan, known as Bhargavas.  Legend of Bhargava Rama, i.e Lord Parashurama, is still remembered in Dwaraka-Konkan-Canara-Malabar Coast.  He is worshipped in temples in Gujarat, Tulu Nadu and Kerala. 
“Ocean, from whom the Gods are sprung”.  This is a quotation from the ‘Iliad’ by Homer, an 8th Century BC Greek Epic Poet.  It is story of war between Spartan and Trojans in Mediterrean region.  The Sparta was a powerful military city in ancient Greece.  The king having a formidable marine power is considered as a God of the Sea.  Such Titles were assumed by Indian Kings of yore, Eg. Skanda Gupta, Samudra Gupta, etc. of Gupta Dynasty.  Darious-I [Daayav(h)us in old Persian], the Great, was the 3rd King of Persian Achaemenid Empire (c.550-486 BCE.  During his rule, the empire included much of West Asia, the Caucasus, parts of Balkan.  Dominance over sea, as we notice, played a great role in marine navigation and trade in ancient world.
 Turkish Ottoman Empire (Post-348: Rumi),  ruled the sea trade for 600 years, controlling South East Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa and Horn of Africa, and  the major land and marine trade routes  between Europe and Asia were controlled by the Turks  till the middle of 20th Century.

Conclusion
 We presume that our penchant for unraveling the original meanings of certain words (as opposed to the meanings understood in course of time) may be of certain interest to curious readers in search of obscure trails in our history.
Sayer, syre or sair is a duty or tax for goods in transit.  It means a customary charge or duty imposed on imports and exports at destinations.  Marine trade made people wealthy and brought riches to kings then and now to Governments – democratic or dictatorial.
In Tulunadu when a person sits gloomily with face downcast, relatives and friends used ask him rather comically: “Daane ninna kappal murkuduna? (=Why you are sitting disappointed?  Whether your ship sunk?)
Old generation people, still living, may remember the jingling bells of bullocks moving in a line, traversing dusty roads from highlands to ports of Tulu Nadu.  Those were the bullock caravan with produce from hinterland.  They can even hear singing by and see jovial faces of cart drivers.
-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

REFERENCES
( along with suggested readings)
 
Post Nos. in this blog: 158: Pandyas & Cargo boats, 296/01.03.2012: Ancient Port of Basarur, 297: Weavers of civilization, 316: Jangal, Jangar or Jangad- A classic usage in Trade and Travel, 334: Secret of Ambagilu, 348/29.07.2015: Rumi, etc
Hobson-Jobson Dictionary, pp.798-801
Tulu Nadavaru (Kannada) by: B. Sachchidanada Hegde, pp. 238-242
Pages in the internet:
Ancient Navigators
Indian History, Krishna Reddy, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.
Foreign Trade & Commerce in Ancient India, Prakash Charan Prasad

A Social History of Early India, Brajadulal Chattopadhya

Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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