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354. Bhuta cult of Bermeru or Bommaiah

Our concept of the world as a global village is not new. It was a global village even in the historical past, in spite of then being handi...

Thursday, February 16, 2017

Budhananda Shivalli

Budhananda K Shivalli 
( Alias K Booda,  )

Born: 16 -2-1923  Udupi- Expired: 26-12-1982 Mysore.
Education: MA (English) Mysore University
Former  Assistant Accounts Officer (Soil Conservation), Mysore.

Author of  
 A philology and Grammar of Tulu Language.
Written in Tulu Language (1980) using Kannada script.
Published in 2005 at Mangaluru,575008: Karnataka.

The unicode and pdf versions the book are under preparation.

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

379. Tulu -Tamil mutual influence: kanDani

The study of evolution of Tulu language during the past history without doubt shall make an absolutely interesting. Conventional Tulunadu or the West Coast of India /Karnataka being a dynamic cultural zone that has attracted  multitudes of immigrants speaking diverse languages over a long drawn period of time during the evolution of human tribes and their languages. As a consequence, the Tulu languages has borrowed and absorbed several words from each of the ambient languages during the past history.

Many influences
The Tulu language has preserved signatures of imprints of many languages such as Koraga, Munda, Prakrit, Tamil and Kannada. In some of the older Posts in this blog we have tried to present the signature surviving words from languages like Koraga and Munda  in the Tulu language.
The preservation of the words from the respective languages has been possible probably due to the lack of written literature in Tulu languages. All languages acquire such influences during the course of their history but in the case of languages with scripts and written documents, homogenization takes place because of conscious corrections imposed by the writers. Wherever such homogenization has taken place original stages of lingual evolution are subject to editing and lost forever.

Tamil-Tulu early relationship
Common words shared in two geographically apart languages like Tulu and Tamil clearly suggest mutual influences during the course of evolution. We find references to Tulu in Tamil Sangam literature in suggestive phrases like “Tulunatta Tamil”. In the older Posts you can find suggestion that “Siri PaDdana” the famed Tulu oral literature has been composed in Tulu under the inspiration of Tamil Sangam literature. In other words, it was suggested that the Siri PaDdana is a signature oral poetry of Tulu Sangam period.
Budhananda Shivalli (1980, 2005) provided a list of some 50 common shared words in current Tulu and correspondingly found in ancient Tamil literature (Tulu Pātero; Appendix 2).  His list includes the following examples:

Old Tamil/Tulu(=English)
ill/ill (=house)
illaval/illadāl (=housewife)
unangal/nungel (=dried up)
ooDe/ooDe (=inside/place)
eri/eri; uri (=flame/heat/burning)
oDukam/oDka (=end).
okkal/okkel (=farming)
oli/oli (=speak/call out)
kooval/goovel (=dug well)
kolam/kola (=make up)
tingal/tingal (=moon)
tirai/tirey (=waves)
teri/teri (=to know)
pugar/pugar (=praise)
vai/bai (=straw/hay/dried grass)
toovi/tuyi (=plume/feather)
vanka/banka (=ship) etc

Further he has provided a comparative list of 192 shared words in the four predominant Dravidian languages of Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam apart from Tulu.(Tulu Pātero; Appendix 3). We shall not go into those details now.
However I shall discuss a few key shared words that suggest their frozen status in Tulu language and their possible significance.

kanDani – buDedi
The words kanDāni and buDeti (or buDedi) are the commonly used Tulu words that stand for husband and wife respectively. The Tulu word kanDāni shares history with or was derived from the equivalent of Tamil kanDan. The Tulu word has two variants such as kanDane   and   kanDanye. The equivalent word for husband is   ganDa in Kannada as well as Telugu. Basically, the Dravidian word kanD/kanDan means male person. The –an suffix in kanDan is quite interesting, as –āN in general represents a young man or a boy.
Essentially, the case involves the evolution and adoption of the velar consonants k’ and g’. The Tamil is an ancient literary language and is managing with a frugal set of primary alphabets since antiquity wherein, velars k and g are represented by a single consonant.  Probably it was a similar case with ancient Tulu (and probably ancient Kannada also) in the antiquity. However, it appears that after the adoption and introduction of Brahmi script by King Asoka (ca.250 BC), detailed and clear cut consonants such as k-g; c-j; T-D; t-d and p-b etc were delineated and the then existing words were further refined phonetically. Thus Kannada and Telugu after ca.400 CE,   modified the original proto-Dravidian kanDan into ganDan and further simplified to ganDa.

The Tulu was in contact with Kannada all along the evolution and also absorbed the evolution of consonants also like Kannada, as evident by the prevalence of words with g’ , but it retained the original form of some specific period antique words like kanDāni  without alteration. Probably, the delay in the adoption of script, in the case of Tulu, was responsible for retention of ancient word formats like kanDāni.

In the Kadamba (post-400 CE) period, with immigration of Brahmins and introduction of Brahmin format of Tulu (obviously influenced by Kadamba Kannada) the k-g transition in Tulu is evident. In the Tulu usage ganTa pucche (= male cat) wherein clear k-g transition (kanDa became ganTa) can be identified.

Later in 15 century CE the Portuguese introduced papaya which was translated as ganDukāyi (=male fruit) in Tulu. Note the usage of g for ganDu. However, even then the original antique Tulu word for husband kanDani was frozen in its original state and was not modified with passage of timeThe suffix –an/-ani   has also been frozen and preserved in this particular word, even though in Tulu, it has been dropped or mitigated in many other words with passage of time.

Note on buDedi
 Compared with kanDani the common Tulu word for wife buDedi seems quite unique compared with other Dravidian neighbors. The etymology of the word buDedi is booD’+ ti,   which means the woman of the house or precisely, the house wife. Apparently analogous phonetic words do not exist in neighboring languages. It is different from the henDati/ maneyavalu (Kannada) and manaivi (Tamil) and penDlamu/bhārya/ardhāngi (Telugu). However, note that meaning-wise buDedi, manaivi and maneyavalu are the same


Friday, February 3, 2017

378. Koraga words in Tulu

The study of Koraga language and culture is significant from the point of understanding the overall evolution of the Tulu language with which it is closely associated. The Koraga at present contains a large number of Tulu equivalent words, which has tempted some of the Dravidian linguists to infer that Koraga is a branch of Tulu. Interestingly, it also has words that remind possible historical connections with other Dravidan languages like Kannada, Malayalam and Telugu.
Following H.A. Stuart in the year 1891(cited in Bhat 1971), some of the linguists, have considered the Koraga as a dialect of Tulu.  However, others like Brodie (1886) have considered the Koraga language as an independent Dravidian language, and not a dialect of Tulu.  

Antiquity of Koraga   tribes
The tribes are known Koraga in Tulu and Kannada. However they call themselves as Korru. For example, Pangala Babu Koraga (2016) in his introductory book let on Koragas used the term ‘Kor’ or ‘Korru’.
1. The antiquity of the Kor/Koraga tribes is evident from the nature of bari system prevailing among them. The primitive nature of bari lineage system currently prevailing among the Koraga (Post. 368).
Basically, the Koraga have basically two baris namely: (a) Tappu (or Soppu) and (b) Kuntu (or Kapada).  The “tappu” in Tulu or “soppu” in Kannada means leaves; (This group of tribes used bunch of large leaves tied around their waist to cover their private parts, in the form of attire). The “kunTu” in Tulu and “kapaDa” in Prakrit language means cloths. Thus the two basic bari groups correspond to ancient tribes (a) those Koraga tribes wearing leaves only (around their loins) and (b) those Koraga tribes wearing cloths.

Thus the primitive type of ‘bari’ classification of Koraga tribes suggests a remote point in the ancient history where the primitive tribes (a) wore leaves to cover their modesty and (b) those evolved to wear cloths. Probably, no other tribes in coastal Karnataka/India have preserved this sort of primitive lineage classifications, which suggests that the Koraga are one of the earliest among the surviving human tribes in the West Coast before and during the time of invention and evolution of wearing cloths.

2. The Koraga tribes apparently were the witness to the evolution of castes and communities in Tulunadu. It is reported that the Koraga folklores describe Billava-Bunt-Mogaveera communities   as   children of elder and younger sisters- which means that from the similar source groups these communities have evolved over the time. Even the nature of the shared common bari groups among Tulu communities suggest that the communities have come into existence during a later period.

3. At present, the Koraga tribes are distributed mainly in the southern States of Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. However, probably related tribes known as Kora and   Korwa are found mainly within West Bengal and Orissa.

There are numerous villages in India that have been named after the Kor tribes during the past history. A general survey of statistical data on distribution of villages named after Kor tribes would give us an understanding of the wide distribution of these tribes during the antiquity.

Kor villages in India
There are not less than 1023 villages in India named after Kor tribes and those begin with the prefix of Kor.  Uttar Pradesh 156; Andhra Pradesh 109; Jharkhand 109; Maharshtra 99; Bihar 96; Chattisgarh 83; Karnataka 80; Orissa 76;  Madhya Pradesh 39;  Tamilnadu 32. West Bengal 23; Assam 21; Rajasthan 20; Arunachal Pradesh 16; Uttara Khand 14; Jammu & Kashmir 13; Meghalaya 13; Punjab 8;  Gujarat 8; Other states each less than 2.

Some of the examples of Kor place names include: Kora, Koru, Korai, Korna, Korakoppa, Korti, Koratagere, Korahalli, Korvi, Korvihal, Kortoor, Koryal, Korkunte, Koramangala, Koralur, Korda, Korakuriya, Korbi, Korla,  Korche, Korabar, Korasi, Korekera, Korma, Korea, Korgo,  Korpal, Koragam, Korapa, Korem, Korraguda, Korukonda, Korabandi, Koraibari, Koranga, Korapalli, Koripunja, Korapur, Korkodu etc.
Additionally, there are about 1983 villages in India that begin with the prefix of Kur.

Koraga/ Korru: Regional equivalents                          
The tribes are called Koraga at present in southern states of Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and Kerala, whereas in West Bengal and Orissa region, we find analogous tribes elsewhere in India known as Kora or Korwa, which possibly could be the regional equivalents of the Koragas. The Koragas call themselves as Korru or Korre (from example, Babu Koraga describes the Koraga language as “Korrena bhāshe” in his book cited at reference below.) Thus it appears that the tribes and their language in question were known as Kor or Korru earlier and the suffix –ga was added subsequently, especially in parts of southern India.

The “Korr” has   also been preserved in place names such as “Kordel”, ( kor+da+el ) which  represented  the habitation of the Korr(u) people.
The meaning of the   term “Korru” has been explained variously sometimes emotionally but it appears that the actual original meaning would simply be “the people” or “the human beings”. Note that a man or husband is known as “Korrayi” and a woman or wife is known as “Korati” or “Korti”, where the suffixes –ayi And –ati being gender indicators and the common prefix “korr “  as a logical deduction  would have a meaning equivalent to a person or a human being.

Koraga Linguistics
According to Shankar Bhat (1971) the Koraga is a distinct member of Dravidian family and is only remotely connected to Tulu. Shankar Bhat (1971) has recognized three distinct dialects of Koraga language, such as   Onti, Tappu and Mudu versions based on the data obtained from informants in  Udupi, Hebri and Kundapur, Respectively. However, the dialectical variations in the Koraga, appear to have developed over the time span under the influence of regionally dominant languages like Tulu (Udupi, Hebri) and Kannada (Kundapur). Because of the dominating influence of regional languages like Kannada and Tulu we shall not be able to decipher the original state of the Koraga language that might have existed in the antiquity.

Koraga lingual versions
As far as the study of dialectical variations within the Koraga are concerned, it would be easy to understand the dialectical variation in Koraga if we recognize the variations by locations/places like Udupi, Hebri and Kundapur rather than the arbitrary Onti, Tappu or Mudu etc respectively. In Tappu Koraga of Hebri region, the p in  Koraga words become h (Kannadization) as in  the case of words like:  portu- ≥hortu; pudar-≥hudar;puge-≥huge; pu:ji-≥hu:ji ..etc

Shankara Bhat (1971) considers close affinity of Koraga language with Northern Dravidian languages like Kudux, Malto and Brahui, based on following linguistic features:
(i) The past tense k---g---kk   in Koraga is   feature analogous to North Dravidian languages.
(ii) Non-past/present suffix   is n in Udupi (Onti) - Kundapur (Mudu) versions and n---nn—n in   Hebri (Tappu). In North Dravidian Kudux has n in third person present plural and in verbal nouns.
(iii) In Udupi (Onti), has a suffix o similar to North Dravidian Kudux future suffix o.
(iv) The gender-number distinction found in third person finite verb forms in Koraga are similar to that of Kudux.
(v) The plural suffix in irrational nouns Hebri (Tappu) Koraga similar to those of Kudux.
(vi) Other characteristic features of Koraga are (a) perfect suffix a-a (b) locative suffix t (c) relative past participle (d) root tar with restricted sense of to give to I or II person and (e) simplicity of its past stem derivation.

Koraga Words
Shankar Bhat (1971) and Babu Koraga (2016) have provided lists of Koraga words. Here below we shall classify the available Koraga words broadly into (apparent) (i) exclusive Koraga words and (ii) Shared Words in Koraga and Tulu languages.

(i) Koraga Vocabulary
(=with English meaning)

a:tri =to throw
Aadu—Aavu= agreed
Aakude—AanDa= but
AayinTa—AyaD=by him
Aba—ade= that side
Aba—anchi=that side
Abanta—anchiDdu=from that side.
Acchakude—anchanda=in that case
Acchi—(anchane =like that)
Achara- - (anchi= there)
Adavu-              ( - flesh/mutton)
Addu=avu=that one
Adeg=adeg=to there
Adeg—adeg= to there.
Adenta—ayiddu, aleDdu= by it/by her
Agad—Avodu = Has to be
Agaku—Atundu = Has been
Agar =to stand
Akalaga- -adaga = then
Akkal—(adaga= then ; (Kan: aagal)
AmanTa—enkaleDdu=from us
Amarega—enkaleg =to us
AnDa—anda= Is it?
Anga—enk= to me.
Ankodi-- ……………-waist band
AnTa—altDdu= from there
AnTa—enaDdu= by me
Asinta—anchina= that type
A:tri -----(=to throw)
Auru—(u)nuppu= rice(cooked)
Ayig—Ayag= to him
BaDanji—bodchi=does not want
Banji—barpuji=(shall ) not come.
BaraDu—barODu=let come
Bu:di =to carry on shoulder
Burpi—bulp(uni)= to cry
Butar =to fall
Buttar—boor(uni)= to fall down
ChaaDu---toovoDu= have to see
Chainji—saitiji= has not died
ChaipiDi—keru=to kill
Chaiyad—saiyaD=let die
Chankyaak--tooyineTTaanD=(saved) by seeing
Charalge—kombatel= scorpion
Chatikure—kuDupu=to brush off
Chavala—taala= cymbals
Chojji— kirumbu= to scratch (skin)
Chone—sune= latex
Chumal--tummonu=to carry (load)
Chumpi—chellu=to dispose (liquid)
Chu—too(pini)=to see
Doover—ujjer=long wooden pestle (rice beating post);” Onake”
Eccha—eccha= more, excess
Ecchi—encha= how?
Ekala--Epa= when?
Ekkunad—geruni = to winnow
ErenTa—EreDa= from/by whom?
Eru—koDe= yesterday
GanDlu—aanjovulu=men (Kan: ganDu)
Gille=leaf cup
GoranTi—maNe=small seating/stool
Icche, pokkade=inchane pokkaDe= haage summane, like this simply
Icchi—inchene=like this
Ichara—inchi = this side
ikke=imbe=he(this man)
ikkel=mokul=thses people.
Ikkel—imber=this person/these people.
Ikyag—imbeg= to this man.
ikyanTa—imbeDdu=from him
Inteka=enchinekk= why?
isinta—inchina= this kind.
jaavu—jaa(pini)= to unload
jnegaDi--                  ,  golle=sphlegm
Jnegaru--?   Suli= whirlpool
jo:ku =to wash
kaDDu--kaDpu=to cut; severe
kala—kana= to bring
kalekal—getoNu= to fetch; collect
kalepo—getondu po= fetch and go
kappu-- kOmpu    =to bury
ke:l=rice pot
killi =small
konDaldayi—ucchu/mari   =serpent, cobra
konke—nalke= dance
kooje—Aan mage/mage =boy
kooji---Ponnu magal/magal=girl
kOraga--koriya=have given
korru—korager=Koraga (tribe)
kOru—ker= to kill
KoTakOri --              = grass hopper
ma:ti=to do
mede =afterwards, bokka/matte
mide—bokka= next
na:ke=I have told
naDa-- ?  =like (“anta”)
namrega—enkaleg= for us
ne:ki =fear
nekal-- ? = fear
Nikulu—nikulu=you people
Nimareg= nikaleg=to you people
ninga—nikku= to you.
Nooner--panper=(they) tell
Nooni—panpe=(he) tells
Noo—paN= tell
Nu=to say/
Oba=oba*= which way? (for cattle)
oba—oba= which way? (As addresses to domesticated cattle)
Oddu=ovvu=Which one?
Oker—itter=(they) existed.
ollagu=it barked. (Kan: ooliDu)
ollu=to bark
Oodaa—(uppaa= Shall it be?)
Oodu---(uppu= may exist.)
Ooji--ijjer=did not exist; were absent.
Ooker—uller= (they) existed
Ooku—ullolu=it /she existed
Oonaga—uppunaga=when (they) existed
OonDaa?—uppaa?= will it be?
OonDu—uppunDu= (it/she) shall exist
Orabar—giDapu= to drive/send away
pa:ki=he has gone
pakala=going oneself
paranTe-koranTu=cashew kernel
pared—pali=elder sister
pile—pile= sootaka
puDDu—patt(uni)=to hold
pullapo—paondu po=hold and go
ranD—unDu=(it/she) exists
ranner--uller=(they) exist.
ranni--ulle= (he) exists
sakala=seeing oneself
silp =whirl
sollu=to say (Malayalam)
tale--koDi=endpiece (Kan:tale)
tanji—korpuji=would not give
tar =to give(I, II person)
tarjer--kortujer=has not given
tirgala—tirgavu(nu)=to rotate
tojir—tojavu(ni)=to show
tOnji—tojuji= does not show
tOru--.. charma   =skin
Upa--inchi= this side
upanTa--inchiDdu= from this side
uppud--uppu=may be
urmal—barchuni= combing (hair)
urmu--barchu=to comb
Utek—undek=for this; for her.
utenTa—by this /by her
uttu=molu=she(this woman)
valli =to bark
Yeni=Yepa= when?

(ii) Koraga – Tulu :Shared Vocabulary
Koraga (Udupi)-----(Equivalent Tulu  with=English meaning)

Aani—(Aani = that day)
Aayi---(aaye =he(that man)
AayinTa—(AyaD/AayanTa =by him)
Aba—anchi = that side
Abanta—(anchiDdu=from that side.)
Adangayi—(uppad=pickle) [Tu. & Ka.]
Adavu----(aDavu ?= flesh/mutton)
Addu---(avu=it; adu (Kan).
Addu----(avu=that one)
Adeg----(adeg=to there)
Adeka—(ayik =for it /for her)
Adenta—(ayiddu, aleDdu= by it/by her)
Agar ---(agar=to stand; hedge)
Ajal---(ajal =sacrificial food)
Ame—(ame= naming ceremony)
Ammavu—(enkalena=ours; Yemmavu; Nammavu (Kan)*
AmmaDe----( ammer=father)
Anda—(anda= Is it?)
Ankodi—(……?………-waist band)
AnTa—(enaDdu= by me)
Arantal- -(beedu =House)
Auru—(u)nuppu= rice(cooked).; Autana (Kan)
Ayig—(Ayag = to him)
baDanji—(bodchi=does not want)
banji—(barpuji=(shall ) not come).
baraDu—(barODu=let come)
birdu—birdu*/madime=marriage celebration.  * “birdavoli”
birkiri—birk(uni)=to spill/spread randomly
boDu—buDu=to leave; discard
boor—booru=creeper; wild twigs
booru—booru(ni)= to fall ;to sleep
bu:di=to carry on shoulder
bu:ri= to fall/bu:rgi=he fell.
butar--- (booru =to fall)
buttar—boor(uni)= to fall down
chaaDu-toovoDu= have to see
Chainji—saitiji= has not died
ChaipiDi—keru=to kill
chaiyad—saiyaD=let die
Chankyaak--tooyineTTaanD=(saved) by seeing
charalge—kombatel= scorpion
chatikure—kuDupu=to brush off
chavala—taala= cymbals
chay----( sai = to die )
chaypi= to kill
chinape—kinnyappe= aunt; mothers sister
chojji— kirumbu= to scratch (skin)
chone—sune= latex
chumal—(tummonu=to carry (load)
Chumpi—chellu=to dispose (liquid)
Chu—too(pini)=to see
dakk---(dakk= to throw)
dakkaddi--- (dakkije=has not thrown)
doo—goo(ppuni)=to spill
doover—ujjer=long wooden pestle(rice beating post);” Onake”
dorpu            -----(dorpu=to pour,solids)
du:  (gu=overflow)
Ecchi—encha= how?
Ekala—(Epa= when?)
Ekku—(ekku=reach -by hand)
Erdu—(eru=male buffaloe/bull)
ErenTa—EreDa= from/by whom?
gaDavu—kaDaga= bangle
gaddavu—gaddavu=eating plate
gerpu            ---- (derpu=to lift)
gErpu—derpu=to lift up
gODipu—goDipu=to join
goranTi—maNe=small seating/stool
Icche, pokkade=inchane pokkaDe= haage summane, like this simply
Icchi—inchene=like this
Ichara—(inchi = this side)
IDeg—(iDeg =to here)
ikkel=mokul=thses people.
Inteka=enchinekk= why?
jaavu—jaa(pini)= to unload
Jinji ----(jinja/ dinja =to be full )
jnegaDi--                  , golle=sphlegm
Jnegaru--?   Suli= whirlpool
Jnegaru—negar(uni)= to creep
Jnimpu—kinku=to nip or pinch.
jo:ku ----( dekk,dekkuni=to wash)
joo—dee(pini)= to keep
ju:  =to keep
kaavu—kaapu= to wait
kaDapu--kaDapu*= boat/ ferry*
kaDDayi--dolu=drum; kaDayi=vessel (Kan)
kaDDu--kaDpu=to cut; severe
kala—kana= to bring
kalepo—getondu po= fetch and go
kappu-- kOmpu    =to bury
karamedakulu—Mundala =Mundala tribe
katte—katti= sickle, sword
kilepu—kilepu= to cry (fowls, birds)
koiper—kulupe =ant
koitar—kuttar(uni)=to boil
konDaldayi—ucchu/mari   =serpent, cobra
koni—nalipu=to dance
konke—nalke= dance
kooje—Aan mage/mage =boy
kooji---Ponnu magal/magal=girl
kOraga--koriya=have given
korru—korager=Koraga (tribe)
kOru—ker= to kill
korke—(koriye=I gave)
koTakOri --              = grass hopper
kure—kurve=basket(made from wild creepers)
Laaku—lakku= get up
Laayik—layik= good,nice (urdu/Arabic)
lammayi ---( Olamayi=inside)
ma:ti---(malt=to do)
maDar—maDe-ire=left over meals
marani—morani=day before yesterday
mare---(mare=rain; latex)
mey----( mey-pini =to graze;)
mide—bokka= next
mo:rpi –(murepu =to churn )
naDa-- ?  =like (“anta”)
namrega—enkaleg= for us
naTT= to stand:  (naTTi=implanting saplings)
naTTine=I stand (≥ naTane/ na:Taka= standing show)
neeche—neecha?= darkness*
nekal-- ? = fear
Nikulu—nikulu=you people
Nimareg= nikaleg=to you people
Nimareg—nikaleg=for you
ninga—(nikku= to you.)
Nooner--panper=(they) tell
Nooni—panpe=(he) tells
Noo—paN= tell
nu=to say/na:ke=I have told
nunu(=swallow)/nunke(=I swallowed)--- (nungu =swallow.(Tu./Ka)
Oba—(oba= which way? (As addresses to domesticated cattle)
Oddu----ovvu=Which one?
Odeg----Odeg=to where/
Oker—(itter=(they) existed.)
Ol---(Olu= where?)
oli—(lepu/oleppu= to invite)
olippel--- (Leppel.=welcome)
ollu----(=to bark/ollagu=it barked. (Kan: ooliDu)
Ongir—(Ongir=to listen/show extra interest)
Oodaa—(uppaa= Shall it be?)
Oodu----(uppu= may exist.)
Ooji—(ijjer=did not exist; were absent.)
Ooker—(uller= (they) existed)
Ooku—(ullolu=it /she existed)
Oonaga—uppunaga=when (they) existed
OonDaa?—uppaa?= will it be?
OonDu—uppunDu= (it/she) shall exist
Oo—uppu=to be; to exist
OriyanTa---(oriyaDa= by one man)
OrtinTa—(ortiDa= by one woman)
paaDu—povaD=let go.
paaTu—paaT= song.
paranTe-koranTu=cashew kernel
pared—pali=elder sister
paru—par(pini)=to drink
peddug—(peddolu=(she) gave birth to)
pedmayi----.(pidayi mey=outside)
pi: ----( maypu=to pour)
pijje—pejj(uni)=to pick up
pile—pile= sootaka
po: ---(po=to go)
poDayi—(puDayi=basket (made of creepers)
puDa:l*----(puDayi = to carry on arms*; basket).
puDDu—patt(uni)=to hold
pullapo—paondu po=hold and go
ranD—unDu=(it/she) exists
ranner--uller=(they) exist.
ranni--ulle= (he) exists
su: ---(soopini/toopini= to see ).
tar =to give(I, II person)
tarjer--kortujer=has not given
taTal—taToNu=to grab and carry on waist(the child)
tekkiri—tekkavu(nu)=to turn off (fire, light)
teli—telipu(ni)= to laugh
terunji--teriyuji= cannot understand.
tippi----(teypu= to sweep.)
tirgala—tirgavu(nu)=to rotate
tojir—tojavu(ni)=to show
toji—toju(ni)=to appear
tOnji—tojuji= does not show
tOrpu—(torpu=to kick)
torpu=to kick; torpu(Tu).
ubir—(ubbinir=spit; saliva)
uppud—(uppu=may be)
ur= to spit (ubbivuni)
urmal—barchuni= combing (hair)
urmu—(barchu=to comb)
Utek—(undek=for this; for her.)
utenTa—(by this /by her)
yaan----(yaan= I)
Yeni----(Yepa= when?)
Yereg---(Yereg=To whom?)

Other neighbors: Tribes & people
The words used by the Koraga   that refer to other tribes and community of people coexisting in the region have some interesting points for noting.

kanchaldayi –(kiristan)= Christian people.
Karamedakulu—(Mundala) =Mundala tribe
Kare  = Christian man
karEdi= Christian woman
nāker—(“naager”)=billawa people
nākudi—(“naagedi)= billawa woman
nooltakulu —(nooludakulu)= (those with sacred thread) ie Upper caste; Brahmins etc
Okkale /  okkati =okkelakulu man/female.
paTner/paTnadakulu =fisherfolk. (paTna=fisher colony)
tapaler —(sapaler?)=  Sapalya people.

For example, the Mundala people are referred to as Karame-dakulu ie those of Karma: Apparently the concept of Karma and Dharma were introduced by Munda/Mundala tribes. There are also connected stories of Karma and Dhrama in Bastar region which are well known belts of Munda people.
Another interesting point is Billava members are referred to as Nāger ie Nāga people. This probably provides information with respect to immigration of Naga tribes into Tulunadu and their eventual assimilation with the Billavas.

Parts of (Human /Animal) Body
Specifc words for defining various parts of the human/animal body were also existing in Tulu language, which are being forgotten because of disuse or the influence of other languages like Kannada or Englishor Hindi.
Check some of the following Koraga words for specific parts of the body.

abaD= hoof
chanku= heart
kaipe =liver
kannu kotle= kidney
kolampu-  (korampu/morampu.  (Tu. )    = knee bone)
koyi=   ribs
paTTu—udal =termite (varale)
pootoTTe--= lungs
tor—(Charma  = skin)
valayi =    pancreas


Koraga to Tulu or Vice Versa
Deciding whether Koraga language borrowed words from Tulu or the vice versa is a bit tricky as it has confused the inferences and decisions of some of our linguists and analysts. When two or more languages exist in a region we can expect healthy two way exchange of words. Due to temporal changes in domination of the communities, eventually the Tulu has been a dominant language in the the past history of Karavali/Tulunadu.

Period words
It may not be proper to classify a specific word as either exclusive Koraga or exclusive Tulu word. The words have been repeatedly borrowed and utilized as   communicable entities and it would be difficult to trace their origin in a situation where some of the languages that evidently existed in the past have become extinct during the course of the history. That’s why it would be more appropriate if we classify languages as products of a specific period rather than exclusive property of a specific language.  

Koraga period words in Tulu
If we look beyond the obscure curtain of assimilation and homogenization of cultures in the Karvali coast, the bari pattern existing in Koraga community, suggests that the Koraga culture may be aboriginal and primitive in nature being earlier in time span than the essential Tulu language and culture. It is interesting to note that Tulu language has preserved some antique period words of compound nature probably derived from Koraga language. One such classic example is the commonplace compound Tulu word: mariyāla.

Budhananda Shivalli (1980, 2004) has also discussed the interesting Tulu word mariyāla in the context of discussion of Tulu philology and grammar. But let me introduce another interesting facet of this word.
The commonplace Tulu word “mariyāla “(mare+yāla; =rainy season) is of Koraga language origin. The word mare for rain still exists in Koraga language. It either could be a Koraga exclusive word or a period word borrowed or adapted from any of the contemporaneous language of the period. The base word “mare” (=rain)   still exists in Koraga, whereas the Tulu has forgotten that word and the meaning because of disuse. Instead the Tulu language has adopted and perpetuated the word “barsa” (=rain) of Prakrit origin as a commonplace word for rain,  even though “mariyāla” still finds place in daily Tulu. Note that the old word “mare” still exists in Tulu as a substitute for the latex liquid oozing from plants, but not for rain!

Histrorical context
At this point, we can consider certain aspects of historical context with regard to words like, mariyāla as an example.  
The Prakrit language was the regal /administrative language in Karnataka region (including the coastal tract) approximately between the period ca. 400 BC to ca 400 CE (as we can gather from the known King Ashokas rock records and various period literary reseraches). Thus the Tulu language appear to have adopted the “barsa” of Prakrit origin   in place of preexisting “mare” during this Prakrit domination period in the West Coast.  Note that our neighbouring Kannada adapted “maLe”(=rain) as a regional version of the same antique word “mare”.
In any case, the age of Koraga period words in Tulu language shall be taken back beyond (ie older than) say ca. 400 BC.
It may be further noted that while Tulu language adopted the Prakrit version of barsa as its own, the Koraga retained its “mare” and has not preferred   the Prakrit word!
However, it also should be recorded that the Koraga has not remained totally closed to temporal changes. It has also absorbed exotic Arab/Urdu words like “lāyak” (= nice or appropriate) like the ambient Tulu language.

Budhananda K. Shivalli (1980, 2004) .Tulu Patero: A   philology and grammar of Tulu Language. Mangalore,  (first printing: 2004),   .317. p. ( in Tulu language).  
Shankar Bhat, DN. (1971). The Koraga Language. Linguistic  Survey of India.  Deccan College, Poona, 130 p

Pangala Babu Koraga (2016). Korrena base polabu: Koragara bhashe parichaya. Mangaluru,    52.p


Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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