Featured Post

338. Tulu calendar begins with Pagu month

Even though now in routine most us follow the Western or Gregorian calendar that consist of twelve months commencing with January and en...

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

361.ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತೊಡು


ತುಳುಟು ಒಂಜಿ ಪಾತೆರ ಉಂಡು: “ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತೊಂದು ಪೊಪೆ.” ಇಂದೆನು ಶಬ್ದ-ಶಬ್ದ  ಅರ್ಥ ಮಾಳ್ಪನಗ: “(ಆಯಿ ಕಂಡ) ದತ್ತೊಂದುಪ್ಪನಗನೆ ಬೀಜಲಾ ಬಿತ್ತಿಯೆ” ಇಂದುದು ಆಪುನು. ಉಂದು ರೈತೆರ್ನ ಬಳಕೆದ ಪಾತೆರ.  ಇಂದೊಂಜಿ ಒಗಟು ಪಾತೆರ. ನೆತ್ತ ಉತ್ತರ: ಬರೆಪಿನಿ.  ಇಂಚಿತ್ತಿನ ಏತೊ ಗಾದೆನುಲಾ, ಒಗಟು ಪಾತೆರಲಾ ತುಳು ನಿಘಂಟುಡು, ಶಬ್ದ ಪ್ರಯೋಗದ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆ ಕೊರುನಗ ಆಯಾಯ ಶಬ್ದದ ಅಡಿಟ್ ಸೇರ್ಸಾದೆರು.
ಬರೆಪಿನಿ ಪನ್ಪಿನ ಉತ್ತರೊಗು ರೈತೆರ್ನ ದಪ್ಪುನ ಕೆಲಸದ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆ ದಾಯೆಗು ಕೊರ್ತೆರು?  ಇಂದೆತ ಪಿರವುದ  ಮಲ್ಲ ಕಾರಣ ದಾನೆ? ನೆಲನು ಮೆದು ಮಾಳ್ಪೆರಾದು ದಪ್ಪುವೆರು, ಪನ್ನಗ ನಾಯೆರ್ಡು ಗೀರು ಪಾಡುವೆರು. ಅದಗ ನೀರು ಬೊಕ್ಕ ಗಾಳಿ ನೆಲತ ಉಳಾಯಿ ಪೋವರೆ ಸುಲಭ ಆಪುನು.  ದತ್ತಿ ಬೊಕ್ಕ ದಿಂಜ ದಿನ ಬುಡುಂಡ ನೆಲ ಗಟ್ಟಿ ಆಪುನು, ಪಜೀರು ಬುಳುವೆನು. ನಡ್ತಿನನೇಜಿ ಸರಿಯಾದು ಬೇರ್ ಪತ್ತಂದು.  ರಡ್ಡ್ ಸರ್ತಿ ದಪ್ಪುನ ಕೆಲಸಲಾ  ಕಷ್ಟದ ಕೆಲಸ.
ನಮ್ಮ ಬೊಂಡು (ಮೆದುಳು) ಕಂಡ ಆಂಡ, ಅವೆನು ದಪ್ಪುನು, ಹದ  ಮಾಳ್ಪುಣು ನಮ ಕಲ್ತಿನ ಬರವು-ಸರವು, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ವಿಚಾರ ಶಕ್ತಿ.  ನಮ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲಾ ಜೀವನೊಡು  ಒಂಜಿ ಉದ್ದೇಶ ದೀವೊಂದುಲ್ಲಾ.  ಈ ಲೋಕೊಡು, ನಮ ನೆನೆತಿನ ಪೂರ್ಣ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿ ವಿಕಸನನೇ ನಮ್ಮ ಬದುಕು.  ದಾಯೆಗು ಬದುಕುವ ಪನ್ಪಿನ ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗುಲಾ ಉತ್ತರ.
ಈ ಉದಾರ್ಣೆನು  ನಮ ಓದುನೆಕ್ಕುಲಾ ಜೋಡಿಸರಾಪುನು.  ಓದಿನಂಚನೆ ಬರೆದು ದೇತ್ತೋನ್ಡ ನಮಕು ಮದತ್ ಪೋಪುಜಿ.  ಓದುದು ಗೊತ್ತಾಯಿನ ಇಸಯೊಡು ಬೇತ ಬರಾವುಲಾ ಬರೆವೊಲಿ.  ಆಯಕಾತ್ರ, ಶಾಲೆಗು ಪೊಪಿನ ಜೋಕುಲೆಗುಲಾ ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಬರೆಪಿನ  ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ  ಮಾಳ್ಪವೊಡು.  ಅಪಗ ಕಲ್ತಿನ ಪೂರಾ ಮದತು ಪೋವಂದು. 
ಇಂಚೊಡು, ನಮ ಒಂಜ ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್ಡು ಘೋಷ ವಾಕ್ಯೊನ್ ಕೇಣೊದುಲ್ಲಾ. “ಇನ್ಫಾರ್ಮ್ (ತೆರಿ), ಪರ್ಫೊರ್ಮ್ (ಮಾಳ್ಪು), ಅನ್ದ್ (ಬೊಕ್ಕ) ಟ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ಫೊರ್ಮ್ (ಪರಿವರ್ತನೆ ಮಾಳ್ಪು).  ನಮಕು ನಮನೆ ತೆರಿಪಾವೊಣುಡು. ಆಯಿಕ್ ಓದುಡು, ಬೇತೆ ಜನಕುಳೆಡ ಬೆರೆವೊಡು, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ತೆರಿಯೊಡು. ತೆರಿನಂಚನೆ ಅವೆನು ಕಾರ್ಯರೂಪೊಗು ತರೋಡು, ತೋಜಪಾವೊಡು,ಬೊಕ್ಕ ನಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಂತ ಜೀವನೊಡು ಅತ್ತಾವಂದೆ ಸಮಾಜೋಡುಲ ಬದಲಾವಣೆನು ಕನೋಡು.
ಬೂಕುಲೆನ್ ಓದುನೆಟ್ಟು ನಾನಲ ಒಂಜಿ ಎಡ್ಡ ಉಂಡು. ಓದನಗ ತಿಕ್ಕುನ ಒವ್ವೊ ಒಂಜಿ ಸಬುದ ಯಾ ಒಂಜಿ ವಿಷಯ ನಮ್ಮ ಮನಸ್ಗು ತಟ್ಟುನು.  ಆ ಪದ ವಾ ವಿಷಯ ನಮ್ಮ ಚಿಂತನೆಗ್ ಚಾಲನೆ ಕೊರ್ಪುನು.  ಆ ಭಾವ ಸ್ಪಂದನೊಡು ಉಂಡಾಯಿನ ಭಾವನೆನು ಅಪಗಪಗನೆ ಬರೆದು ದೀಂಡ, ಕಾಲ ಕೂಡ್ಡು ಬನ್ನಗ ನಮಲಾ ಒಂಜಿ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಪ್ರಕಾರದ ಬುಲೆ ಮಲ್ಪೆರ ಸಾಧ್ಯ ಆವು.
ಇತ್ತೆತ್ತ, ಮೂಲ್ಕಿ ಬಪ್ಪನಾಡು ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನದ ಎದುರು ಬಯಲಿಡು ರಡ್ಡ್ ದಿನತ ತುಳು ಸಮ್ಮೇಳನ ಮುಗಿದಿನು (ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ 13 ಬೊಕ್ಕ 14).  ತುಳುಟು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯದ ಬುಲೆ ದಿಂಜ ಆತಿಜಿ ಪನ್ಪಿ ಕಾರಣ ಕೇಂದ್ರ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಆಕೆಡೆಮಿದಕುಳ್ ತೋಜಾವೆರು. ಅಂಚಾದು ತುಳು ಶಾಸ್ಟ್ರೀಯಭಾಷಾ ವರ್ಗ 8ನೆಡು (ಕ್ಲಾಸಿಕಲ್ ಲ್ಯಾನ್ಗ್ವೇಜಸ್ ಷೆಡ್ಯೂಲ್ 8) ಸೇರ್ಪಡೆ ಆತಿಜಿ.  ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ ಪದಿನೇಳೆಡ್ ಬೊಕ್ಕ  ತುಳು ಪ್ರತಿನಿಧಿ ಮಂಡಳಿನು ನನ್ನೊಂಜಿ ಸರ್ತಿ ದೆಹಲಿಗು ಕಡಪುರ್ನ ಪಾತೆರ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಥಳ ಧರ್ಮಾಧಿಕಾರಿ ಡಾಕ್ಟರ್ ವೀರೇಂದ್ರ ಹೆಗ್ಗೆಡೇರು ಆರೆನ ಭಾಷಣೆಡ್ ಪಣ್ತೇರ್. ತುಳು ಬರವುಡು ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯಿಕ  ಬುಳೆಚ್ಚಿಲು ಬುಳೆವೊಡಿಂದು ನಮ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲಾ ದತ್ತಿ ಲೆಕ್ಕೊನೆ ಬಿತ್ತುಗುನ!
ತುಳುವೆರೆಗಾತ್ರ:
ಬರೆತಿನಾರ್: ಹೊಸಬೆಟ್ಟು ವಿಶ್ವನಾಥ್, ಪುಣೆ.

16.08.2016

Saturday, August 13, 2016

360. Origin of words: Bari and Kepulo

Ancient words in any language are like fossils and can be useful in understanding the mysteries of antiquity. Ancient words in Tulu language similarly provide us useful hints that enlighten factors relating to the origin and evolution.
Linguists have traced dual features of south central and southern Dravidian trends of evolution in Tulu language ( ref:) though there has not been clear explanation of this duality. Earlier posts in this blog have identified and explored explicit evidences of an Austro-Asiatic base of Munda group of language under the Dravidian linguistic heritage in the evolution of Tulu language.
Ancient words like paggu (=first month in Tulu calendar), tude (=river), tāri (=toddy palm), urdu(=black gram)……. etc apart from numerous place names in Tulunadu that still carry  a prefix of Munda- or manki or related words –are all suggestive of an explicit undercurrent of an older layer of Adi-Dravida or pre-Dravida traditions in this land, before the onset of  Dravidian phase of socio-cultural and linguistic evolution.
Relicts of ancient Austro-Asiatic Munda culture and language still exist in Eastern and North eastern India. Bengalis and Odiyas sport such ancient words as Desi in their languages.
Let us discuss two of such ancient desi words, surviving in Bengali language, struck me because of their significance in the evolution of Tulu language and culture here below:
Bari
Bari is a very common word in Tulu language representing genetic lineage of person. It was used traditionally to identify a person and distinguish him or her from persons of other lineages especially in matrimonial proposals.  Persons from the same bari were considered traditionally to be blood relatives among whom marriage was a taboo. Bari is alternately known as bali, gotra, bedagu or illam in other socio-cultural groups. The origin of bari or gotra system predates the introduction of caste based communities as we discussed in an older post.
The analogy between the words bari (Tulu) and bali (Kannada) earlier led us to suggest that bari was an alternate form of the word bali (balli) which usually meant a plant creeper. The Tulu word bari at present means a side or margin. The meaning was adopted by some since it approximately conveys the connotation of a lineage.
However, the understanding that bari is a desi word of Austro-Asiatic origin existing in Bengali suggests fresh dimension of origin and meaning to the Tulu word bari.  The word bari of Austro-Asiatic origin means home in Bengali.
 Thus it is possible that the heritage word bari in existing in Tulu language means the name of the home or the original house of person. In ancient cultures a person was identified by the name of his home. In this way it appears synonymous with the term illam (=home) used by Malayalis or gotra (name of cowshed) used by cowherds in northern India during the ancient history   for lineage.
Pulo
In the same vein we can see that the word pulo means a flower in Bengali. We can compare pulo with phool in Hindi.
Kepulo
A red colored wild flower (usually occurring as a bunch of flowers or inflorescence) commonly seen in rural settings is known as kepulo or kepula.  We can understand the origin of the name of this wild red flower as it is ke+pulo,  where ke represents red and pulo means  flower.
We also may understand that with passage of time, the original pulo has been reduced to poo (= flower) and the original ke has become kempu (=red).


Significance

Tulu language has absorbed words from Austro-Asiatic and other pre-existing   languages during the prolonged course of evolution.  Many of these words are pre-Dravidian in nature, and the presence of such ancient words in contemporary Tulu suggests partial or selective socio-cultural assimilation of ancient tribes with Dravidians during the history. This explains the basic reason for the exposition of dual South-central and Southern Dravidian   linguistic trends in the evolution of Tulu language.

R

Sunday, May 1, 2016

359. Āyana, Nema & Kola – II


The pattern of different rituals offered for different Divine Spirits as a part of Spirit worship (Daivaradhane) are distinct from one deity to another. The essential differences are  brought out below.
We summarized the general comments, made by Narayana A. Bangera (NAB) during our conversations on our Post-350: Kāle & Kāle Kola, in our Post-352/31.10.2015: Kola & Nema: The Distinction.
Subsequently, we received a brief Note in Kannada in November. Though this writer wanted bringing it to the knowledge of our readers, he lost himself in a stupor on being engrossed on subject of ‘Dhoomavati’. We now give a gist of the written note of NAB as a dilation of the earlier Post-352.
Manifested God-forms
Annual celebrations of God- manifestations are called as Jaatre or Aayana.  They are performed on specific days as pre-fixed.  Designated performers are from Parava caste. 
Aayana Highlights: Flag hoisting (kodi mara eruni). Pulling of cart (bandi)  with deity on board. No circumambulation with ‘badikara (an earthen pot containing auspicious things) and ‘bolgode/bolkode’ (white umbrella). There was a custom of circumambulating of the deity in a palanquin, on āne (elephant) or Nandi (bullock) around temple.

Wearing:  Spades of   arecanut to legs, girders for the waist, crown or head-dress to head.
Wearing not included: Gaggara (Jingling anklets). Siri (coconut palm fronds) and muga (mask).
Offerings: No animal sacrifice. Sacrificial food is vegetarian in the form of broiled or puffed up paddy/rice with jaggery, along with tender coconuts.  This offering is accepted by impersonator of the divine spirit. So these things are the ‘Barne’ (food for eating) for the impersonators as a token of offering to respective deities.

·       Ullaya:  He is the manifestation of Lord Eeshwara.  Fixed days are: Beshada (May-June) Sankranti (Vrishabha Sankramana).  It falls on either 14th or 15th of May.  This year it falls on 14th May.  (See our Post-292/30.12.2011: Fishing Rituals at Kandevu).
·       Nalkaitaya: Manifestation of Vishnu.  Annual celebration is on Mayida Punname (Full moon day of  Feb-March).
·       Bermer:  Manifestation of Brahma.  Annual celebration is on ‘Bontyoluda pattu popinani’, i.e. on 10th day of Tulu month of ‘Bontyolu’ (Oct.-Nov).   The Brahma temple at Palli, near Udupi, Karnataka is very famous.  It was renovated and consecrated on 14th May, 2009.
Nemas for Rajan Daivas
Nemas are performed on specific days, prefixed. It may be noted that divine spirit impersonators are from ‘Pambada’ class of dancers. Annual celebration is with all customary rituals, siri shringara, wearing gaggara, and Muga/Moga (= mask of the deity). ‘Badikara’ and ‘Bolgode’ Balis (= circumambulations) are very much part of the celebration. Animal sacrifice is allowed.
1. Jarandaya & Kodamandaya: They are deified souls of  Jain Kings. Eru Kodi (Flag-hoisting) and ‘Oipu Bandi’ (Circumambulation on carts pulled by devotees) are highlights of the Annual Nema.
2. Jimaadi: She manifested herself as a boon bestowed upon Jaabaali Rishi on his rigorous penance.NAB says that ‘Jumaadi’ and ‘Dhoomavati’ are wrong nomenclatures. It should be ‘Jimaadi’, a shortened version of Jeeva (rashi’s) Aadi, i.e. the Supreme Soul of Divine Mother and the lord of individual (egoistic) souls of all creatures of this world (supposed to be 84 lacs Jivikotis of various categories or classes).  She has a male’s face with woman’s body.  She is known by different names after her famous devotees.  She is known as ‘Sarala Jimaadi’ in the household of Saralantaya, Kanteri Jimaadi in Kantu Rai’s House and Maarla Jimaadi at Aithu Maarla.
Sometimes, Kola celebration is performed at Gadupadu or Gaduvadu places on fixing a day with all rituals (of wearing deity’s mask, siri shringra, gaggara, etc)but without Kodi (Flag-hoisting) and Bandi (Cart-circumambulating) rituals.
Note: As a popular belief, Jimaadi or Dhoomavati is equated to Parvati.  Our preconception was that She is ‘Ardhanarishwara’.  We may come out with a new Post on Dhoomavati after further study.
3. Babbarya
It is not ‘Bobbarya’.  The correct name is ‘Babbarya (Bappa+Aarya). Supposed to be the reincarnation of Ayyappa Shastara, he comes to the rescue of women under distress as Vishwadeva Shastara protected Sachi, the Spouse of Lord Indra, from the cluches of Ajamukhi, sister of Mahishasura. He is not Byari (Muslim) as is believed in Kasaragod side (For better understanding readers may read NAB’s article ‘Babbana Babbarya’, published in Mogaveera Monthly, Mumbai, of January to March 2009). Non-vegetarian food is not offered to the Deity. Vegetarian food is made of rice flour, sweetened by jaggery, and baked on-the-spot on cinders at the place of worship.  Offering is called as ‘Dāne’ or ‘Dhanya’ (Read our Post-198/11.07.2009: Bridge on mud-crack). 
Please note: ‘Nema’ is observed on pre-fixed days at the Babbarya Temple (= Gunda, a round-shaped rock structure).  No flag-hoisting, no circumambulation on a ‘bandi’ (wooden cart).  The divine spirit impersonator does not wear ‘Siri’ (Split coconut leaf fronds).  He wears silken cloth around loin but does not wear muga/moga (mask) nor   ‘sirimudi (= head gear).
4.Other Divine Spirits
There is no pre-decided day for celebration in the form of Kola to other divine spirits, including Panjurli (NAB opines that, ‘Panjirli’ is the correct version), Kalkude, Kordabbu, Gulle, Raavu, Koragajja, Mayandal, etc.  There is no Kodi or Bandi.  The stages of invocation, like Siri ecchi,  gaggarada ecchi, etc. are there.

Glossary
Bārane leppuni (ಬಾರನೆ ಲೆಪ್ಪುನಿ) = Seeking permission to accept food offered. It is a ritual of addressing the organizers of the Bhūta festival and blessing them by Bhūta impersonator before accepting the food offered.
For other related words, please see our Posts:
No.250/20.08.2010: From Ola Savari, Olasari to Varasari.
No.233/20.03.2010: Panjurli
No.306/13.12.2012: Mayandal and other Posts on Divine Spirits

Acknowledgement:
This post is based on the information provided by Vidwan Shri. Narayana  A. Bangera, for which  we are immensely thankful.
*****

Narayana A Bangera:  A profile
A Commerce Graduate and retired as Manager in Air-India, NAB is a prolific writer, poet, kirtankar, discourser on Shani Mahatmya, Shri Satya Narayana Vrita Katha, and Puranas. Besides, he was a teacher in Night High Schools, Kannada Professor in College and is a well-known celebrity   in Mumbai.  On completion of 75 years of his fruitful life, he was felicitated by a group of admirers and Associations of Tulu-Kannada diaspora of Mumbai on 2nd April, 2016 at Karnataka Sangha’s Dr. Vishwesharayya Smaraka Sabhagriha, Matunga (West), Mumbai-400016. To mark the occasion, an Abhinandana Grantha entitled “Krishnarpana”.has been brought out. 


-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

Saturday, April 2, 2016

358. Sayer or Sayir– a lingual relic of commerce of yore


Words travel with people and reach different shores and often strangely enter into world lexicons, as a result of their common usage in daily activities by concerned class of people.  Travelogues and trade communications spread their usage.  A layman may fail to understand their meaning and importance.  Sometimes, their meanings – once traceable in their origins – are mixed up to such an extent that they are far moved away from their source.  Confusion leads to a lot of discussions for finding out what that expression really means.

Sayer(a) or Sayir(a)
We have discussed some antiquarian words, say Al, Amara, Bhandashale or Bankshal (in European corrupted parlance), Bankarakatte, Chakan, Gadang, Jambal, Jangar or Jangal, Kāle, etc.
Sayer(a) or Sayir(a) is one more addition to the array of such antiquarian words. It was a word, pestering Europeans in land and marine trade during pre-colonial and colonial era. Advent of this word in European languages created confusion to young European officers serving in India on their new postings. It has been found to be a common surname world over with highest incidence in Turkey.

Etymology
Note the situation, described in Para one: it is aptly applicable to the word: ‘Sayer’ (ಸಾಯರ್), Sayira (ಸಾಯಿರ) or syre (ಸೈರ್).  It is supposed to have originated from the Arabic word saa’ir : but it has the primary meaning of ‘remainder’ in Arabic.  By and large, we have reason to believe that it is an Indian word since it was widely used in India during ancient marine trade as well as inland trade. We infer that the word has bearing on the origin of related words like savari, sarthavaha, sanchara, pravasa; saraku, saramjambu and sarabarayi.
This was a commercial term, known in the trade world of yore.  It means a tax or customs imposed on imports and exports by competent authority at territorial borders.

Saysira & Sayira in Tulu:
The phrase ‘Aruve Saysira’ during the history used to mean marine department and sea customs.  ‘Aruve Sayira Katte’ stands for ‘Customs House’ (Tulu Lexicon, p.162;  Post-334: Secret of Ambagilu). In Tulu, it is also known as ‘Sunkada Katte’. Katte is a place at regional borders or market area to collect passage tax or toll (sunka= seema shulka, akin to present day ‘octroi duty’) for goods and services.   ‘Sukka’ means Customs in Pali/Prakrit. We presume, Place names ‘Saukuru’ near Basrur in Kundapura (Udupi District) and Sukkur in Sindh (now in Pakistan) suggest existence of custom houses there in ancient time.
We know, ‘ira’ means ‘water or river’. Naturally, such tax collection centres are found at river estuaries or sea ports (pattanas), hinter-land cities (Nagire>Nagara and Puras).  Mark the word element ‘Naga’, which means both boat and ornaments of precious metals and gems, besides ‘high place like mountain’.
Mark the behavioral pattern (barring exceptions) of yester year-tax/duty collectors! There is a wise saying in Tulu about such Kattes. ಸುಂಕದಾಯ ಕೈತಲ್ ಸುಖ-ದುಃಖದಾನೆ? (Sunkadaaya kaital sukha dukkha daane?.  It means:  What is the use of discussing about our weal or woe before a tax collector?).  He goes by the rules and may not bend it after hearing the plight of goods-carrier or passenger.  Forget not, this saying was coined when people were generally truthful and faithful!

Sair (सैर) in Hindi:
It means: Outing, trip or pleasure trip, excursion, tour, jaunt, spin, run, ramble, sortie.   So ‘Sair Karna’ (सैर करना) means visiting. (Source: Pustak.org or dict.hinkhoj).
Sairandhri (सैरंध्रि) = Visiting Maid servant.
It also means voyager or traveler.  Sairgaha(सैरगहा) means a resort.

Sarthavaha
It has many shades of meaning, viz.: (1) A group of pilgrims on pilgrimages. (2) A group of merchants or traders moving together with their valuable produce or goods (Sarth) to deal in far-away markets.  The journey is undertaken with protection of a leader or conductor, who is called as ‘Sarthavaha’, being himself a merchant in a particular trade or profession. He is assisted by well-coordinated team of specialists, as described elsewhere in this article.

Meanings in European Vocabulary
Quoting several sources, Hobson-Jobson Dictionary offers explanations. The word Sayer/Syre, is used for taxation and imposts except land revenue on several items of taxation.  It is a Hindi word derived from Arabic word saa’ir.  With the help of Sir H. Waterfield of India Office, the authors tried to find out ‘transitions’ of meaning in Arabic words. They say, “The obscurity attached to the word ‘sayer’ in this sense was especially great.”
It quotes again Wislon s.v.: “In its original purport the word signifies moving, waking, or the whole, the remainder; from the latter it came to denote the remaining, or all other, sources of revenue accruing to the Government in addition to the land-tax”.
Sir C. Trevelyan says in one passage of his book (not reproduced by us) that the Arabic word has “the same meaning as ‘miscellaneous’.  During rule of East India Company, this was an Accounting Head, signifying revenue collection by means of duties, license fees, services, etc. other than Excise, Land Revenue.
Both the explanations for ‘remainder’ and ‘miscellaneous’ were not considered correct by the compilers. 
The term Sayer in the 18th Century was applied to a variety of inland imposts, but especially to local and arbitrary charges levied by zamindars and other individuals, with a show of authority, on all goods passing through their estates by land or water, or sold at markets (Bazar, haut, gunge) established by them, charges which formed in the aggregate an enormous burden upon the trade of the country.
The Dictionary brings home the fact that in “saa’ir two old semitic terms have coalesced in sound though coming from different roots, viz. (in Arabic) sair, producing sa’ir, walking, current’, and saa’r, producing saa’ir, ‘remainder’, the latter being a form of the same word that we have in the Biblical Shear-jashub, ‘the remnant shall remain’ (Isaiah, vii.3).  The authors conceived that the true sense of the Indian term was ‘current or customary charges’; an idea that lies at the root of sundry terms of the same kind in various languages, including our own (British) customs, as well as the ‘dustoory’ which is so familiar in India”. 
The Indian Vocabulary (1788) describes: Sairjat as “All kinds of taxation besides the land-rent” and Sair as “any place or office appointed for the collection of duties or customs.” Such Sayer or Sayir centres were functioning in Presidencies of Bengal, Madras and Bombay under the British before superseding the East India Company by Queen of England Victoria. After the 1857 rising of Indian natives, India came under the yoke of British Empire and present day custom houses came into being.

Trading History
Marine trade in India has a hoary past, say from Sindhu Civilization or earlier, in which Sarthavahas played an important part. There is some mention of it in Vedas. Later on, we find mention of it in Jain and Buddhist literature. Examples of contacts with Western and Eastern coasts are available in Indian Classics. Researched materials are documented in modern books on subjects like social, geographical, political, religious and trade and travel. Foreign travelers and geographers’ books also throw light on contacts with continents. We have proof of earliest explorers and travelers as cited in Bible and Rigveda.  King Soloman (c. 900 BC) got built boats with the help of his friend Hiran, King of Phoenix, who loaned his seamen to run the fleet of Soloman.  There were marine trades between Red Sea Ports and Port at Mediterranean.  He also traded with Tharsish (South Eastern Spain) and Ophr at western coast of Africa.  Carthage was a sea power in the Western mediterrean upto its downfall after the disastrous war with Rome.
Pharoah Necho II of Egypt (around c. 700 BC) was the initiator of cutting a navigable canal from Nile to Red Sea, which was intended to facilitate trade between Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.  He stopped work on the fear of attack from Babylonians and other nations around Mediterranean sea.
Navigable rivers helped international trade. Internal trade was by road and through rivers. Nau or yanapatra (boat/ship) patha (route) is known  as nadi patha (river route), kulya patha (artificial waterway or canal route) and vari patha (sea route).   Sea route, in turn, is known as coastal route (kula patha) and overseas route (samyana patha).
Nishkas (necklace of coins, not necessarily a numistic money), hiranya pindas (buttons of gold, i.e. bullion beaten, roundish) and manas were considered weight and value but not gold coins.  Panis were boat people, hated by Vedic people for their miserliness. They used to steal cattle of Aryans.  Cattle or cattle horn were considered as wealth (dhan). It was a means of exchange on a barter system of that age when symbol of money, i.e. currency coin (Roopa), was not in vogue.
The Rigveda mentions ninety navigable rivers.  Important routes are: (1) Ganges-Mahodhadhi (Bay of Bengal), (2) Brahmaputra-Bay of Bengal), (3) Mahanadi-Bay of Bengal, (4) Godavari-Bay of Bengal, (5) Krishnā-Bay of Bengal, (6) Kaveri-Bay of Bengal, (7) Indus (Sindhu)-Ratnakara (Arabian Sea), (8) Narmada-Ratnakara (Arabian Sea), (9) Euphrates-Persian Gulf river route, (10) Nile-Mediterrean river route, and (11) Huang Ho-Pacific Ocean route.  River and sea routes provided facilities to people of Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and other important commercial cities of the region in circa 3000 BC.
Traditional routes paved way to well-laid out roads, connecting Uttarapatha (Northern India) to Dakshinapatha (Southern India) and Poorvanta (Eastern end) to Aparanta (Western end) and came to be known as silk route.  These roads have lanes catering to pedestrians, bullock carts, horse, camel or elephant riders and horse-driven cars (Raths).

System of Sarthavahas:
Caravan of merchants or the leader of caravan traders, is guided by a sthalaniyamaka (land guide/pilot). Head merchant or transit corporation head (Sarthavaha) has had to provide for food supplies required more than sufficient for the long journey.  He engages ‘Bharavahas’, i.e. menial labourers for manual loading and unloading and traffic section staff. These labourers, mostly slaves as is vogue in those days, settled down at various places with their masters.     Head traffic staff is called ‘Odariya’. They work under the supervision of Sthalaniyamaka, who lies on mattress on the open wagon on the vanguard of the caravan and keeps watchful eye on the direction, without batting his eyelids.  If he sleeps and if animals turn back, the journey would take longer time before correcting course, resulting in depletion of food supplies (Such eventualities were narrated in Jataka stories).  Next, he is assisted by vehicle engineering staff, headed by a ‘Bhandi (Nayak)’, who is the supervisor-in-charge of carts and wagons, pack of animals, litters, horses, elephants, buffaloes, bullocks, etc. Security branch of Sartha had a roadways engineering department which ensured road safety by sending engineering staff in advance to checkup road conditions and to have knowledge of other dangers from men and beast while crossing the forest areas.
Shreni’ is the general term for guild of traders.  It is customary to form guilds for each professionalized trades in those days. Epigraphic-evidence shows that guilds not only minted and issued coins and seals but also maintained their own militia, which was known as ‘Shrenibala’ according to Kalachurya inscription.
Indus valley civilization (of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa people) was ruled by cosmopolitan merchant class of Meluha – both Avaidik and Vaidik. They had trade with Mesopotamia, Egypt, Byzantine/Rome empire, Persia, Africa, China, etc.
Scripts in Indus seals and tablets have remained a challenge to Indologists to decipher.  Though many have professed decoding them, it is not fully deciphered satisfactorily still.  In Post-316 (: Jangal…Jangad) we have quoted Dr. S. Kalyanaraman of Saraswati Centre on Indus script corpora & business transactions. German Indologist Egbert Richter Ushanas claimed to have decoded 1000-odd seals ( Indian Express, 16th February, 2007).  His path-breaking decoding is based on the Sumerian and Brahmi script. He quotes Sanskrit from Rigveda. Similar claims were made by a several other scholars.
Custom laws and procedure were crystallized during the Mauryan rule and hence the system prevailed then is considered as the basis for the present day customs.  Arthashastra of Kautilya (c. 300 BC) imposed strict adherence of rules and regulations. It recommended harsh punishments for false declaration of goods, quantity, weight, etc.  General rate was 20% for all goods except sea customs and land customs.  Foreign traders were treated well.  Gupta rule was considered as golden era with their encouragement for international marine trade.  Besides land rent, they imposed duty on agricultural produce and other services. Vijayanagara Empire held sway over ports on western and eastern coasts, then followed by Ikkeri Nayaks and Mysore Sultans. Moguls followed the same rule.
Prior to colonization, sayer or sunkadakattes (collection chowkeys) collected transit duties.  Incoming and outgoing goods used to bear seal of authorities for ensuring legitimacy and preventing threat from pilferage or substitution.  Modern type of custom houses established at Fort Williams during the rule of Nawaz of Bengal.  Military and Naval force from Madras was requisitioned by him against the threat of Burdwan landlord.  After Battle of Plassey, Robbert Clive,Governor of Fort Williams, built a new Fort in 1781.  British established themselves in Bengal, Madras, Delhi, Mumbai, Mysore and slowly whole of India, barring some pockets of Dutch, French and Portuguese trading posts.
Guilds were at liberty to act in whatever manner but at times kings could interfere, as we see during the era of Gupta Empire. A mention of this is made in Kautilya’s Arthashastra too. There was no fixed price and measurement and hence varied from place to place, even during Gupta period when marine trade was in its peak. 
We have come across persons with surname ‘Shreni’   in Mangalore-Kasaragod region of Tulu Nadu (For example, Gopala Krishna Shreni was a well-known Yakshagana artist).  This indicates how erstwhile Tulu Nadu was well-entrenched in sea and inland trade.
It would be interesting to note that Shetties were addressed at Nemas (annual festivals) of Divine Spirits as ‘Bāle or Bāler’ by Bootha impersonators at some places of Tulu Nadu.  From this, it could be concluded that those Shrenibalas, accompanying the Sarthavahas, settled down in Tulu Nadu. 
Note the saying, “Bele daanti achari baleda pukuli or pinkanu kettiye” (Idling carpenter, without work, chiseled the buttock of a child).  Artisans, like carpenters (Acharis), were part of the caravans.  Here ‘bāle’ has more than one meaning: child, keel of a boat or a Shetty. As against the popular meaning as said above, the correct meaning of the saying, most probably, is “The jobless carpenter passed his time by chiseling the keel of a boat, thereby putting lives and properties of voyagers at risk of drowning”.

Important Ports
Tamralipta was an important port at Bengal Delta. Karachapa (Karachi) in Sindh, Bharuch (during Mauryan era), and small and big river estuaries were important sea ports along the West coast. Basrur (near Kundapura), Bhatkal, Barkur and Kalyanpura (at the estuary of Seeta and Suvarna rivers) Pangara(>Hangara) Katte (port with boat building facilities), Udyavara, Mulki, Mangaluru, Manjeshwara, Bekal and Kasaragod were important sea ports of yester year Tulu Nadu.
Goods traded: Rice, coconuts, sugarcane, spices, tamarind, timber, betel leaves, silk, cotton, wool, sea products (pearls, cowries, conches (shank), sea shells, fish, etc.),precious gems, like lapis lazuli, gold and silver ornaments, base metals, camphor, pottery and so on.

Trade Terminology
Apanika: shop-keeper, retailer
Naigama: A trader belonging to a professional body of merchants.
Pānis were important merchant class when cattle were traded or they are treated as units of money in barter trade system.  Mark the evolution of Panis: Panis>Panikas>Vanikas>Vaishyas. Later on Vaishyas were considered as third rung of society in class system.
Panya:  General commodities
Shreshti/Setti/Chetti: Immensely rich merchant, often as financier and investor in business and usurer.
Vaidehakas: Petty traders, mostly peddlers.
Hatta:  Market place (Mark the place name ‘Hattiangadi’ in Tulu Nadu).
Large market centres: Pura, Pattana and Nagara/Nakhara (Nakre) and Velakula (port). It should be understood that they are riverine places.
Amil : Land revenue.  (Amaldar used to mean assistant revenue collector or Assistant Commissioner).  Amil is also a popular surname in Gujarat   and among Muslim.
Amaram: Territory allocated to the military chiefs .  

Banjara:  Banjara merchant, specializing in carrying (caravan) trade, particularly in grains, salt, cattle . (The surnames Banjan, Bunnu or Bunnan among Billavas might be a reflection of 'Banjara')

Place Names
Mark the evolution of Pan to Ban, Van, Banija>Vanija.  Settlement of marine traders were known by place names in Tulu Nadu, such as Pangarakatte > Hangarakatte, Padu Panambur (Near Haleyangadi), Panambur (on the northern bank of River Phalguni, Pandeshwar in Mangalore and Kundapur.  

Gods of Ocean
Presence of Lord Pashupati (Mahadeva) and Lord Krishna as Protectors is legendary in western coastline.  We can also visualize overlord-ship of Bhrigu and his clan, known as Bhargavas.  Legend of Bhargava Rama, i.e Lord Parashurama, is still remembered in Dwaraka-Konkan-Canara-Malabar Coast.  He is worshipped in temples in Gujarat, Tulu Nadu and Kerala. 
“Ocean, from whom the Gods are sprung”.  This is a quotation from the ‘Iliad’ by Homer, an 8th Century BC Greek Epic Poet.  It is story of war between Spartan and Trojans in Mediterrean region.  The Sparta was a powerful military city in ancient Greece.  The king having a formidable marine power is considered as a God of the Sea.  Such Titles were assumed by Indian Kings of yore, Eg. Skanda Gupta, Samudra Gupta, etc. of Gupta Dynasty.  Darious-I [Daayav(h)us in old Persian], the Great, was the 3rd King of Persian Achaemenid Empire (c.550-486 BCE.  During his rule, the empire included much of West Asia, the Caucasus, parts of Balkan.  Dominance over sea, as we notice, played a great role in marine navigation and trade in ancient world.
 Turkish Ottoman Empire (Post-348: Rumi),  ruled the sea trade for 600 years, controlling South East Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa and Horn of Africa, and  the major land and marine trade routes  between Europe and Asia were controlled by the Turks  till the middle of 20th Century.

Conclusion
 We presume that our penchant for unraveling the original meanings of certain words (as opposed to the meanings understood in course of time) may be of certain interest to curious readers in search of obscure trails in our history.
Sayer, syre or sair is a duty or tax for goods in transit.  It means a customary charge or duty imposed on imports and exports at destinations.  Marine trade made people wealthy and brought riches to kings then and now to Governments – democratic or dictatorial.
In Tulunadu when a person sits gloomily with face downcast, relatives and friends used ask him rather comically: “Daane ninna kappal murkuduna? (=Why you are sitting disappointed?  Whether your ship sunk?)
Old generation people, still living, may remember the jingling bells of bullocks moving in a line, traversing dusty roads from highlands to ports of Tulu Nadu.  Those were the bullock caravan with produce from hinterland.  They can even hear singing by and see jovial faces of cart drivers.
-Hosabettu Vishwanath, Pune

REFERENCES
( along with suggested readings)
 
Post Nos. in this blog: 158: Pandyas & Cargo boats, 296/01.03.2012: Ancient Port of Basarur, 297: Weavers of civilization, 316: Jangal, Jangar or Jangad- A classic usage in Trade and Travel, 334: Secret of Ambagilu, 348/29.07.2015: Rumi, etc
Hobson-Jobson Dictionary, pp.798-801
Tulu Nadavaru (Kannada) by: B. Sachchidanada Hegde, pp. 238-242
Pages in the internet:
Ancient Navigators
Indian History, Krishna Reddy, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.
Foreign Trade & Commerce in Ancient India, Prakash Charan Prasad

A Social History of Early India, Brajadulal Chattopadhya

Friday, March 18, 2016

357. Tigalāri -Tulu Script.


 The evolution of human beings in the world proceeded with evolution of spoken languages to begin with and subsequently of written forms of expression and communication. Written tablets preserved from the period of Sumerian civilization bloomed in parts of northern Africa and Mediterranean region dating back to some 6000 years suggest the antiquity of script forms. 
Since migration of human beings across the continents for the sake of exploration or better opportunities was a common feature, as is today, it can be argued that educated people in other continents were aware of the writing scripts. In the Indian subcontinent, recovery of pictorial symbols in seals confirmed the existence of scripts in Harappa and Mohenjodaro representing the Sindhu/Indus civilization that dated back to a period of about 2000-3000 BC, even though we are yet unable to understand what those pictograms precisely represented.
The preservation of  composed hymns of Rigveda followed by other Vedas, though commonly attributed to the tradition of mouth to ear transmission across generations, do not  discount the possibility of awareness and existence of  documentable contemporaneous scripts during the Vedic period, estimated to be ensuing from about 1700 BC. The early class of composers of hymns considered their compositions as mystic mantras endowed with occult powers that needed to be kept secretively away from the common populace. Apparently the natives used Prakrit and other allied forms of languages like Munda and early forms of (proto) Dravida before the introduction of Sanskrit in the land.
The Vedic form of Sanskrit evolved substantially with passage of time with generous contribution and involvement of the natives.  Panini around 500 BC was able to codify norms of grammar for the evolved classical form of Sanskrit of the period. By then, at least several common people had access to education especially written forms of language as evidenced by the composition of two all time great epics namely Ramayana and Mahabharata by bards who hailed from rustic backgrounds like Vālmiki (an ex- hunter) and Veda-Vyāsa (son of a fisher woman) respectively. It appears that these bards compiled the epics based on the popular anecdotes oral literature that prevailed in the folklore at that time. Thus obviously, during the evolution of languages in India, Sanskrit and Prakrit mutually influenced each other.

300 BC:  Brāhmi Script
King Asoka  as a part of good governance decided that his message should reach his subjects in the popular and well known common language of the people namely, the Prakrit, even though Sanskrit prevailed as language of the elite at the time. He employed learned sculptors versed in writing chiseling script and ordered that his message should be scripted in hard rocks in the nook and corners of his kingdom. Brāhmi was the script used in most of the edicts, while Kharoshti script was used in Gāndhara, the northwestern segment of the Indian subcontinent.
 The Brāhmi script, popularized by King Asoka through his famous rock edicts distributed in different parts of India representing key points of his kingdom, was the mother script for various Indian scripts evolved during the next two millennia. The individual styles of the sculptors, the hardness or softness of the rock slab and implements used for scripting determined the progressive evolution of various Indian scripts during the last two millennia. From a single original script of Brāhmi script, scores of astonishing and dissimilar looking Indian scripts have evolved over the period.
Devara Konda Reddy (2002) has provided a lucid summary of evolution of south Indian scripts from the Brāhmi script.
 
The Brahmi script
Evolution of Kannada script
The Kannada script evolved from the original Brāhmi script introduced by Asoka, sequentially in stages through the royal patronage of Sātavāhana, Kadamba, Ganga, Chalukya, Rashtrakoota and Vijayanagara kings, through the ages of 1st to 13th century CE. The individualistic styles adopted by the designated sculptors through the ages and the hardness of the stone/metal material used by them decided the shape of the letters. With the result at the end of 13th Century we have a set of Kannada alphabets astonishingly different from the original Brāhmi alphabets popularized by King Ashoka.
Evolution of Kannada script through the ages (after Devara Konda Reddy,2002)


Ancient Tamil literature
A voluminous set of poetry known as Sangam literature was composed by ancient poets under the patronage of Pallava, Chola and Chera Kings estimated to be mainly between the period of  3rd Century BC and 3rd century CE. (The Tamil word Sangam has been variously pronounced as Shangam, Chankam etc. The Sangam refers to Sangha, a religious association of Buddhist monks and bards)
Shettar (2007) has conducted interesting analysis of the Sangam poetry data in order to understand the nature of socio-political and lingual conditions in adjacent Kannada and Tulu regions during the period. The Tamil poets referred to Kannada, Tulu and Telugu neighbors in general as Vaduga (=northern people). The northern rulers of the time included   Katumba (Kadamba), Konga (Ganga), Punnata and others.

In Tamilnadu, three variants of scripts, derived from the Brahmi script, were known to have prevailed in the history, namely: (1) Vatteluttu (2) Grantha lipi and (3) Tamil script. The modern (current) Tamil is written in Tamil script.
 
The Vatteluttu script
Vattelettu
The term Vattelettu ( Vatte <Vada/Bada=northern) script (=eluttu) suggests that it was a script of northern origin implying derivation from the Brāhmi script. The Vatteluttu originated as early as 4th Century CE and was in usage subsequently in southern India consisting of present Tamilnadu, Kerala and parts of Karnataka.
The Grantha script


Grantha Script
A evolved and modified form of Brāhmi known as the grantha (=book; scripture) lipi (=script) was used by educated class (mainly Brahmins) of South India since 7th Century CE  for writing down Sanskrit compositions, especially in the Pallava regime. The Grantha script was preferred to express the expansive word structures of the Sanskrit instead of the simplistic Vatteluttu script with limited alphabets.
After 11th Century Chola kings who dominated political history of the medieval Tamilnadu encouraged the use of Grantha script and abandoned the Vatteluttu.

The fusion of Vatteluttu and Grantha scripts during 8th century CE led to the development of Tamil script in the Pallava regime which evolved further during 10 and 11th centuries under the Chola rule. The Tamil script was ultimately adapted to the Tamil pattern and style of words and pronunciation.

Arya-eluttu
The Vatteluttu continued to flourish in parts of Kerala even after it was abandoned in Tamil country. However, the increasing number of Sanskrit words in routine usage of local languages necessitated the adoption of a variant of Grantha script known as “Arya eluttu” (=script of the elite).

Further during the history, when Hoysala and Vijayanagaar kings conquered parts of Tamil areas the Nagari script was used for epigraphs and the utility of Grantha script was limited for writing down in the palmyra manuscripts.

Saraju Rath (2012) recognized five stages of evolution in Grantha script in South India.


Grantha script/language
Origin-Time period
1
Grantha with Telugu/ Kannada
4th to 7th Century CE
2
Grantha with Vatteluttu
6th Century CE
3
Grantha with Tamil
7th Century CE
4
Grantha with Malayalam (Arya-eluttu)
11th C-14th C
5
Grantha with Tulu Malayalam(Koleluttu)
10th -14th C.


Tigalari script

A form of Western Grantha script used  especially in southern India around Pallava Tamil regimes was known as Tigulāri (or Tigalāri) script. The script was in vogue in Kerala, Western Karnataka and parts of Maharashtra. The usage Tigula referred to Tamil people. (However, presently there is also a community known as Tigulas). The Tigula-Arya script was known as Tigulāri script.
The Tigalari script was employed by literate Brahmins of Sahyādri (Malenādu) and Karāvali region to write down Sanskrit mantras (apart from Tulu and Malayalam). The Tigalāri script contains all the 50 characters found in Devanagari/Sanskrit alphabet hence was used to write Sanskrit works conveniently.
 Devara Konda Reddy (2002) notes that Tigalāri is quite similar to the Tulu script. The Tigalāri script was found convenient and hence adopted by Tulu Brahmins to record Sanskrit slokas while they were serving in the temples of Kerala. Possibly they found it convenient since Tigalari was akin to the scripts (Arya-elettu, Koleluttu) already in usage in Kerala.

 
The Tulu-Tigalari script
Tulu script
About three generations of Brahmin priests from Tulunadu and Uttara Kannada were serving in the temples of Kerala during the history. Priests from Shivalli and Kokkada were serving in Tiruvanthapura Padmanābha temple under the titles of ‘ikkardeshi’ and ‘akkardeshi’ respectively. These priests employed variants of Grantha script such as Arya-elettu, Koleluttu and Tigalari  which were in vogue in Kerala for routinely recording Sanskrit slokas.   During 13th Century another batch of  Brahmin priests from the villages Idugunji, Balkuru , Gunavanthe (Uttara Kannada) and Shivalli (Udupi) were invited to perform in the temples of Kerala. (Venkataraja Punimchattaya, 2007).  It is said that Madhvacharya of Udupi (12th Century) used to employ the Tulu Tigalari script for compiling his woks. It is reported that Madhvacharya used to sign in Tulu script.
The Tigalari script was also popular among the Brahmins of Uttar Kannada.
Ramesh (2007) reported a historical Tulu inscription from Ananthadi in Kasaragodu district. Recently, it has been reported that Prof Murugesh unraveled a Tulu –Kannada inscription from the premises of Kota temple in Udupi district.

”Shri Bhagavato” attributed to poet Vishnu Tunga has been considered as the first available independent creative work in Tulu language, composed ca.1630 CE and recopied around ca.1670.   
Devara Konda Reddy (2002) suggests that the script used in this work (Shri Bhagavato) though popularized as Tulu script is actually is a variant of Arya-eluttu, a type of Grantha script. The Arya-eluttu script was in use in Tamilnadu and Kerala since 14th century CE onwards.

Devara Konda Reddy also suggests that what is popularized as Tulu script now is a variant of Tigalāri script. There are very little differences between the Tigalāri and the Tulu script. He notes that Tigalāri is more roundish than Tulu script. The numeral system in Tigalāri is borrowed from Kannada script. Similarly, the shakatarefa (rha- lha) adopted in Tulu script has been borrowed from the Kannada script.

A standard or widely accepted script may look slightly dissimilar visually in different documents because of the individualistic handwriting style adopted by the writers of the manuscript.


 Modern scripts
The modern printing technologies have favored and facilitated standardization of various Indian scripts. However in the process some of the less known/less used scripts like Tulu- Tigalari have receded to the backdrop or even to anonymity.
Modern Tamil printing script was set up in 1712 by Tranquebar (Tarangambadi) for publishing Christian evangelical literature in Tamil. To counter the religious propaganda Kalvi Vilakkam in 1834 published Hindu religious literature in modern Tamil script. Thus utility of Grantha script for Tamil declined completely thereafter. Benjamin Baileys CMS Press (1821) introduced modern Malayalam printing script derived from Malayanm script. 
Samuel Hebich of Basel Mission Press in Mangaluru standardized the modern Kannada script from the then existing Halegannada script in the year 1841.  Basel Mission Press utilized the modern Kannada script for printing Tulu and Kodava languages also, leading unknowingly to the suppression of Tulu-Tigalari script.
Vavila Sastrilu of Adi Saraswati Nilayam (1854) finalized modern Telugu script for print form from the Eastern Halegannada script existing at that time. Modern Devanagari script was adapted for mass printing of Sanskrit books by printers and publishers like Gita Press of Gorakpur.


REFERENCES
Devara konda Reddi,  Dr  (2002,2009) Lipiya Huttu mattu belavanige.(Origin and evolution of script).Kannada Pustaka Pradhikara. 348+xii.p. (Kannada).
Prabhu, Govindaraya, S and Pai, Nithyananda, M. (2006)The Alupa coins: Coinage and History. Sanoor, Karkala, 200p.
Ramesh, K.V. (2007) Anantapurada Tulu shasana. In: In: “Tulu Sahitya Charitre”, .(Kannada). Chief  Editor Dr B. A. Vivek Rai. Kannada University,  Hampi. pp.105-106.
Saraju Rath, Dr. (2012) (Editor). Aspects of  manuscript culture in South India. Indian Institute for Asian Studies, Leiden,Nethrlands.(summary in Google books).
Shettar, S, Dr. (2007) Shangam Tamilgam and Kannada Naadu, NuDi. Arambha kaalada dravida sambhandada chintane (Kannada). Abhinava Bengaluru, 2010, 320 p.
Venkataraja Punimchattaya (2007) Tulu lipiya moola mattu vikaasa.” In: “Tulu Sahitya Charitre”, .(Kannada). Chief  Editor Dr B. A. Vivek Rai. Kannada University,  Hampi. pp.160-162



Blog Archive

Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

Copy right - but kindly acknowledge!

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

This is " tulu-research.blogspot." !

This is " tulu-research.blogspot." !
Have a nice day !