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363. Deciphering Tulu-nadu place names

The readers would observe that many of the Tulu Place names may not convey, on the face of it, any specific meaning or apparent meanings...

Monday, June 16, 2008

119. Kadaba to Kalavar

The Karavali Tulunadu belt has numerous place names that are vestiges of ancient tribes that inhabited in the region. These tribal groups are known for migrations along and across the peninsular India during the historical space and time. In the process many of the tribes have undergone evolutionary changes in terms of their culture language and identity.

Kadaba
Kadaba is a town in Puttur taluk that retains the vestigial name of a tribal group. The Gadaba tribes are a part of the Munda tribes now predominantly distributed around the Chotanagapur region. The Kadaba tribes are not presently traceable in Tulunadu as they have been assimilated with the native population with passage of time. However, vestiges can be traced. The KaDamba is a surname among Jains of Tulunadu. The Kadamba kings of Banavasi in Sahyadri are said to be derived from a tribal group. Many of the Munda tribes were traditionally known to worship the Kaim/Kadamba tree which became insignia for the Kadamba dynasty. The Kadam surname can be traced further north in Maharastra.

Kadava
Shambaa Joshi traces journey of an ancient tribe of Karnataka known as Kadava(ru).They were physically strong, rustic tribes. Some of them migrated to Tamil areas where they were called Kalavar. Possibly, some of these tribes were involved in stealing that imparted the name Kalavar.
The Kalavar were a dynamic and enterprising group in Tamilnadu. With time they founded a dynasty known as Kalabhra. The Kalabhra were known in the history for introducing Aryan cultural elements in Tamilnadu. Similar Aryanization works were done by Kadamba in Karnataka.

Kalavar
The Kalavar tribes were also wandering in southern India. Some of them migrated to Karavali region and settled in places between Surathkal and Bajpe in Mangalore taluk. The Kalavara is now a village near MRPL petroleum complex on the Bajpe road. There is also another Kaalavara in Kundapur taluk.

The story of Gadaba /Kadaba- Kadamba-Kadam and Kadaba-Kadava- Kalavar- Kalabhra tribal successions might be a representative string that helps us to visualize the multiple layers of socio-cultural evolution in time and space in India.
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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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