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363. Deciphering Tulu-nadu place names

The readers would observe that many of the Tulu Place names may not convey, on the face of it, any specific meaning or apparent meanings...

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

327. Ira, Irde, Iruvattur villages

The primitive words, employed by various tribes, were carried to different regions during the course of human migrations in the face of growing civilization in the world. The evidences  in support of this statement have been preserved even today like fossils in the form of  similar sounding primitive place names found all over the world.
Ira, Irde, Iruvail and Iruavttur are some of the place names based on the prefix Ira in Karavali Tulunadu. Most of us have no idea regarding the origin or meaning of these place names even though  a few may venture that ‘Iruvattur’ means twenty villages by analogy with ‘Irva’ for the number twenty in Tulu language. (In that case, if it was allusion to the cluster of twenty villages, the place name should have been Iruva-oor   instead of Irvattur.)
Tribes named after Ira like Irula probably were distributed all over India once upon a time. Presently, the Irula tribes (they speak Irula language) are found distributed in parts of Tamilnadu and Kerala. They are well versed in the art of catching poisonous snakes and collecting venoms from the snakes. Some people think that the name Irula is derived from the Dravidian word Irul for darkness. We shall also discuss other possibilities of the origin of the word in this post.
Wild mushrooms in Iravattur Village near Karkala.

The interesting and mysterious fact is that the Ira place names are not exclusive to Tulunadu but are found all over India and other parts of the world.

Ira and Iruva
Ira was the sky Goddess among Polynesian tribes. Similarly Iruva was the Sun God among the African tribes. Analogy between Ira (Sky Goddess) and Iruva (Sun God) are evident, even though now it is difficult to say who borrowed the concept from whom. However based on the cults, we can conclude that the primitive word Ira represented God/Goddess of the sky or the Sun God in primitive ancient cultures.
Also we can see that names of Iran and Iraq are based on this string Ira. Similarly, the name of the River Irrawaddy (also known formerly as Irāvati or simply Rāvi) in Myanmar (Burma) is also based on this string Ira. Myanmar has recently changed the name.
The term Ira also exists as a personal name among Munda tribal people of Orissa, Bihar and Chattisgarh region.

Ira place names in India
There are numerous places in different parts of India named after the ancient Sun God Ira.
Andhra Pradesh: Iruvada, Iravada , Iravennu, Irapadu, Iragai, Iradapalli,Iragavaram, Irgampalli, Irasalagundam, Irangal, Iranbanda, Iridi, Irvendi,  etc.
Bihar: Irki, Iruri etc.
Chattisgarh: Irai, Iraf, Iraikhurd, Iraikalen, Iragaon, Iraguda,Iradali, Irakadand, Irakbutta, Irakbatti, Irpanar,  Irpa etc.
Gujarath: Irana etc
Jammu & Kashmir: Irazi Samba, Irkamoo etc.
Jharkhand: Irawal, Irki, Irkia etc.
Karnataka: Ira, Iruvattur, Iruvail, Irde, Iranatti, Iragodu, Iraksandra,Iragasandra,  Iranghatta, Irangalu, Iravalli, Irankarhalli, Iralevalamudi, Iragapalli, Irakarahalli, Iragamuttanahlli, Iragabanhalli, Iragareddihalli, Iragapalli, Iruvakki etc
Kerala: Iravan, Irapuram, Irikkur, Iriveri, Iroopara, etc
Maharastra: Irri, Irala, Irla, Irle, Irapur, Irali, Iropara, Irpundi, Irpanpalli, Irpanar, Irapur, Iralad, Irlad, Irachivadi, Irur, Irgaon, Irle, Irlevadi, ruha, Irthal etc.
Orissa: Irapikote, Iralgonda,Irda, IRibina, Iripiguda, Irpiguda, Irpisaru, Irpikota, Iriputa, Iralgonda, etc.
Punjab: Irak etc
Rajasthan: Irniya, Iraniyan, Iras, Irniya, Irli, etc.
Tamilnadu: Iravancheri, Iravadanallur, Iruvappapuram Iranda(n)kattalai, Iraiyanur, Irangur, Iravimangalam, Irandayiravilagam, Iravancheri, Irungur, Iravinivayal,Irur, Irupp, Iravadnallur, Irichi, Iriniyam, Iraipuvari Irulancheri, Irumbedu, Irumbuli,  Iranyasidhi, Irukkur, Irungalur, Iruveli,  Irunjirai, Irulapatti, etc
Tripura: Irani, etc
Uttar Pradesh: radatpur, Iradat nagar, Iradatganj, Iran Gokulpur, etc.
Uttarkhand: Irak, Irani, Irawal gaon, Irailli, Irakst, Irha etc.
West Bengal: Irda, Irkha, etc.

Cult of Sun God
The ancient cult of Sun worship can be traced to primitive days of civilization all over the world. It is interesting that some of these primitive words have been distributed in different parts of the world thanks to the migration of ancient tribes in search of better pastures. Even though presently the ancient word Ira has lost significance in our culture as a consequence of evolution of   languages, it seems the string Ira evolved into Ravi in later years of the history. One of the rivers of Punjab is known as Rāvi. Similarly, the Myanmar (Burma) River Irrawaddy /Irāvati   is also sometimes known as Rāvi.


         327. Ira, Irde, Iruvattur villages.


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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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