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380. Antiquity of iDli

The Idli being a steam cooked dish made of ground and fermented paste of rice and black gram can be considered as one of the healthiest ...

Friday, January 31, 2014

330. Manki: Village names in India

There is a place known as ‘Manki stand’ near Mangaladevi Temple in Mangalore. The place acquired the epithet of ‘stand’ since it was used as station for ‘Jataka’ (Horse carriage) during the British administration period in Mangalore. I used to think that the name was Monkey till I found that place names like Manki exist in other places for example near Honnavar in Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka. Similarly there is a village known as Permanki near Gurupur and Ulaibettu.

Manki is a term connected with Munda tribes of Austro-Asiatic origin who were spread in diverse parts of India in the pre-Dravidian antiquity but presently restricted to parts of Bihar, Chattisgad, Orissa and Bengal. The term Manki represents a village or a habitation.
Thus the village name Permanki means a large village since pera means large in Dravidian languages also.

Manki Villages in India
Bihar: Manki, Mankidih, Mankiman
Chattisgarh: Manki
Jharkhand: Mankidih, Manki Bazar,
Karnataka:  Manki, Permanki,
Madhya Pradesh: Manki, Manki Salaiya, Mankiyai, Mankisar,Manki Ryt
Maharastra; Manki, Mankivalli
Meghalaya: Mankingiri
Orissa: Mankiria,Mankididihi, Mankidia, Mankidi
Punjab: Manki, Mankinvalli,
Rajastan: Manki, Mankiyas
Uttar Pradesh: Manki, Mankikhurd, Mankikalan, Mankiari.

Austro-Asiatic Munda tribes
The wide distribution of place names containing the term Manki and other place names containing Munda as prefix or suffix suggest that  habitations of Munda tribes were distributed all over India once upon a time probably before the advent and dominance of Dravidians in Southern India .

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Books for Reference

  • A Comparative Study of Tulu Dialects By Dr. Padmanabha Kekunnaya. Govinda Pai Reserach Centre, UDupi. 1994
  • Koti Chennaya: Janapadiya Adhyayana. By Dr. Vamana Nandavar. Hemanshu Prakashana ,Mangalore.2001.
  • Male kudiyaru. Dr B. A.Viveka Rai and D.Yadupathi Gowda, Mangalore University,1996.
  • Mogaveera Samskriti By Venkataraja Punimchattaya. Karnataka Sahitya Academy.1993.
  • Mugeraru:Jananga Janapada Adhyayana. By Dr Abhaya Kumar Kaukradi.Kannada & Culture Directorate,Bangalore & Karnataka Tulu Academy, Mangalore,1997.
  • Puttubalakeya Pad-danagalu. Ed: Dr B.A.Viveka Rai,Yadupati Gowda and Rajashri, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheswara Tulu Peeta. Mangalore University.2004
  • Se'erige. Ed:Dr K.Chinnapa Gowda.Madipu Prakashana,Mangalagangotri,2000.
  • Studies in Tuluva History and Culture.by Dr P Gururaja Bhat (1975).Milagres College,Kallinapur,Udupi.
  • Taulava Sanskriti by Dr.B.A.Viveka Rai, Sahyadri Prakashana,Mysore 1977
  • TuLu naaDu-nuDi By Dr.PalthaDi Ramakrishna Achar, Puttur.
  • TuLu NighanTu. (Editor in Chief: Dr U.P.Upadhyaya, Govinda Pai Research Centre,Udupi. Six volumes. 1988 to 1997
  • Tulu Patero-A Philology & Grammar of Tulu Language by Budhananda Shivalli.2004.Mandira Prakashana Mangalore. p.317. (The book is in Tulu Language using Kannada script)
  • TuLunadina ShasanagaLa Sanskritika Adhyayana. By Shaila T. Verma (2002) Jnanodaya Prakashana,Bangalore, p.304.(Kannada)
  • Tuluvala Baliyendre. Compiled by N.A.Sheenappa Hegde,Polali,Sri Devi Prakashana,Parkala,1929/1999

A Coastal estuary

A Coastal estuary
Holegadde near Honavar,Uttara Kannada dist, Karnataka

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